Edmonia Lewis

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Edmonia Lewis
Motto edmonia lewis original.jpg
Born Edmonia Lewis
c. (1844-07-04)July 4, 1844
Greenbush, New York, United States
Died September 17, 1907(1907-09-17) (aged 63)
London, England, United Kingdom
Nationality American
Education Oberlin College
Known for Sculpture
Movement Neoclassicism
Patron(s) Ulysses S. Grant

Mary Edmonia Lewis (c. July 4, 1844 – September 17, 1907) was an American sculptor who worked for most of her career in Rome, Italy. She was the first woman of African-American and Native American heritage to achieve international fame and recognition as a sculptor in the fine arts world. Her work is known for incorporating themes relating to black people and indigenous peoples of the Americas into Neoclassical-style sculpture. She began to gain prominence during the American Civil War; at the end of the 19th century, she remained the only black woman who had participated in and been recognized to any degree by the American artistic mainstream.[1] In 2002, the scholar Molefi Kete Asante listed Edmonia Lewis on his list of 100 Greatest African Americans.[2]

Biography[edit]

Early life[edit]

Edmonia Lewis's birth date has been listed as July 4, 1844. She was born in Greenbush, New York, which is now the city of Rensselaer.[3] Her father was an Afro-Haitian, while her mother was of Mississauga Ojibwe and African-American descent.[4] Lewis's mother was known as an excellent weaver and craftswoman, while her father was a gentleman's servant.[5][6] Her family background inspired Lewis in her later work.

By the time Lewis reached the age of nine, both of her parents had died. Her father died in 1847.[7] Her two maternal aunts adopted her and her older half-brother Samuel. Samuel was born in 1835 to Lewis's father and his first wife in Haiti. The family came to the United States when Samuel was a young child.[7] Samuel became a barber at age 12 when his father died.[7]

The children remained with their aunts near Niagara Falls for about four years. Lewis and her aunts sold Ojibwe baskets and other souvenirs, such as moccasins and blouses, to tourists visiting Niagara Falls, Toronto, and Buffalo. During this time, Lewis went by her Native American name, Wildfire, while her brother was called Sunshine.[8] In 1852, Samuel left for San Francisco, California, leaving Lewis in the care of a Captain S. R. Mills. Samuel provided for her board and education.

In 1856, Lewis enrolled at New-York Central College, McGrawville, a Baptist abolitionist school.[8] During her summer term there in 1858, Lewis took classes in the Primary Department in preparation for college. In a later interview, Lewis said that she left the school after three years, having been "declared to be wild."[9]

Until I was twelve years old I led this wandering life, fishing and swimming… and making moccasins. I was then sent to school for three years in [McGrawville], but was declared to be wild,—they could do nothing with me.

— Edmonia Lewis[10]

Education[edit]

In 1859, when Edmonia Lewis was about 15 years old, her brother Samuel and abolitionists sent her to Oberlin College, one of the first U.S. higher-learning institutions to admit women and people of differing ethnicities.[11] She changed her name to Mary Edmonia Lewis[6][9] and began to study art.[12] Lewis boarded with Reverend John Keep and his wife from 1859 until she left the college in 1863. Reverend Keep was white, a member of the board of trustees, an avid abolitionist, and a spokesperson for coeducation.[9] During the 1859-60 school year, Lewis enrolled in the Young Ladies' Preparatory Department, which was designed "to give Young Ladies facilities for the thorough mental discipline, and the special training which will qualify them for teaching and other duties of their sphere."[13]

During winter of 1862, several months after the start of the Civil War, Edmonia Lewis was attending Oberlin when an incident occurred between her and two classmates, Maria Miles and Christina Ennes. The three women, all boarding in Keep's home, planned to go sleigh riding with some young men later that day. Before the sleighing, Lewis served her friends a drink of spiced wine. Shortly after, Miles and Ennes fell severely ill. Doctors examined them and concluded that the two women had some sort of poison in their system, apparently cantharides, a reputed aphrodisiac. For a time it was not certain that they would survive. Days later, it became apparent that the two women would recover from the incident, and, because of their recovery, the authorities initially took no action. There is no evidence that Lewis actually poisoned the two students, or that doctors actually found any traces of poison in the bodies of Miles and Ennes.

News of the controversial incident rapidly spread throughout the town of Oberlin, whose populace did not generally hold the same progressive views purported by the college, and through Ohio. While she was walking home alone one night, she was dragged into an open field by unknown assailants, badly beaten, and left for dead. [14][15] After the attack, local authorities arrested Lewis, charging her with poisoning her friends. John Mercer Langston, an Oberlin College alumnus, and the only practicing African-American lawyer in Oberlin, represented Lewis during her trial. Although most witnesses spoke against her and she did not testify, the jury acquitted her of the charges.[14]

The remainder of Lewis' time at Oberlin was marked with isolation and prejudice. Also, about a year after the trial, Lewis was accused of stealing artists' materials from the college. She was acquitted due to lack of evidence, but not fully cleared. She was forbidden from registering for her last term by the principal of the Young Ladies' Course, Marianne Dascomb, which prevented Lewis from graduating.[16]

Art career[edit]

Boston[edit]

Minnehaha, marble, 1868, collection of the Newark Museum

After college, Lewis moved to Boston in early 1864, where she began to pursue her career as a sculptor. The Keeps wrote a letter of introduction on Lewis' behalf to William Lloyd Garrison in Boston, and he was able to introduce her to already established sculptors in the area, as well as writers who then publicized Lewis in the abolitionist press.[17] Finding an instructor, however, was not easy for Lewis. Three male sculptors refused to instruct her before she was introduced to the moderately successful sculptor Edward A. Brackett (1818–1908),[18] who specialized in marble portrait busts.[19][20] His clients were some of the most important abolitionists of the day including Henry Wadsworth Longfellow, William Lloyd Garrison, Charles Sumner, and John Brown.[19] To instruct her, he lent her fragments of sculptures to copy in clay, which he then critiqued.[20] Under his tutelage, she crafted her own sculpting tools and sold her first piece, a sculpture of a woman’s hand, for $8.[21] Anne Whitney, a fellow sculptor and friend of Lewis', wrote in an 1864 letter to her sister that her relationship with her instructor did not end amicably. The reason for the split, however, was never mentioned.[19] Lewis opened her studio to the public in her first solo exhibition in 1864.[22]

Lewis was inspired by the lives of abolitionists and Civil War heroes. Her subjects in 1863 and 1864 included some of the most famous abolitionists of her day: John Brown and Colonel Robert Gould Shaw.[23] When she met Union Colonel Robert Gould Shaw, the commander of an African American Civil War regiment from Massachusetts, she was inspired to create a bust of his likeness, which impressed the Shaw family, who purchased her homage.[24] Lewis then made plaster cast reproductions of the bust; she sold one hundred at 15 dollars apiece.[25] This was the most famous work to date and the money she earned from the busts allowed her to eventually move to Rome. [26]Anna Quincy Waterston, a poet, then wrote a poem about both Lewis and Shaw.[27]

From 1864 to 1871, Lewis was written about or interviewed by Lydia Maria Child, Elizabeth Peabody, Anna Quincy Waterston, and Laura Curtis Bullard. These were all important women in Boston and New York abolitionist circles.[19] Because of these women, articles about Lewis appeared in important abolitionist journals including Broken Fetter, the Christian Register, and the Independent, as well as many others.[23] Lewis was perceptive to her reception in Boston. She was not opposed to the coverage she received in the abolitionist press, and she was not known to deny monetary aid, but she could not tolerate the false praise. She knew that some did not really appreciate her art, but saw her as an opportunity to express and show their support for human rights.[28]

Early works that proved highly popular included medallion portraits of the abolitionists John Brown and William Lloyd Garrison. Lewis also drew inspiration from Henry Wadsworth Longfellow and his work, particularly his epic poem The Song of Hiawatha. She made several busts of its leading characters, which he drew from Ojibwe legend.

Rome[edit]

While in Rome, Lewis adopted the neoclassical style of sculpture, as seen in Bust of Dr. Dio Lewis (1868).[29]

The success and popularity of these works in Boston allowed Lewis to bear the cost of a trip to Rome in 1866.[30] On her 1865 passport is written, "M. Edmonia Lewis is a Black girl sent by subscription to Italy having displayed great talents as a sculptor".[3] The established sculptor Hiram Powers gave her space to work in his studio.[31] She entered a circle of expatriate artists and established her own space within the former studio of 18th-century Italian sculptor Antonio Canova.[32] She received professional support from both Charlotte Cushman, a Boston actress and a pivotal figure for expatriate sculptors in Rome, and Maria Weston Chapman, a dedicated worker for the anti-slavery cause.[33]

Rome was where Lewis spent most of her adult career. Italy’s less pronounced racism allowed increased opportunity to a black artist.[1] She began sculpting in marble, working within the neoclassical manner, but focusing on naturalism within themes and images relating to black and American Indian people.[34] The surroundings of the classical world greatly inspired her and influenced her work, in which she recreated the classical art style. For instance, she presented people in her sculptures as draped in robes rather than in contemporary clothing.[35]

Lewis was unique in the way she approached sculpting abroad. She insisted on enlarging her clay and wax models in marble herself, rather than hire native Italian sculptors to do it for her, which was the common practice. Male sculptors were largely skeptical of the talent of female sculptors, and often accused them of not doing their own work.[36] Harriet Hosmer, a fellow sculptor and expatriate, also did this. Lewis also was known to make sculptures before receiving commissions for them, or sent unsolicited works to Boston patrons requesting that they raise funds for materials and shipping.[34]

While in Rome, Lewis continued to express her African-American and Native American heritage. One of her more famous works, "Forever Free", depicted a powerful image of an African American man and women emerging from the bonds of slavery. Another sculpture Lewis created was called "The Arrow Maker", which showed a Native American father teaching is daughter how to make an arrow.[37]

Her work sold for large sums of money. In 1873 an article in the New Orleans Picayune stated: "Edmonia Lewis had snared two 50,000-dollar commissions." Her new-found popularity made her studio a tourist destination.[38] Lewis had many major exhibitions during her rise to fame, including one in Chicago, Illinois, in 1870, and in Rome in 1871.[12]

Later career[edit]

The Death of Cleopatra, marble, 1876, collection of the Smithsonian American Art Museum

A major coup in her career was participating in the 1876 Centennial Exposition in Philadelphia.[39] For this, she created a monumental 3,015-pound marble sculpture, The Death of Cleopatra, which portrayed the queen in the throes of death.[40] Of the piece, J. S. Ingraham wrote that Cleopatra was "the most remarkable piece of sculpture in the American section" of the Exposition.[41] Much of the viewing public was shocked by Lewis’s frank portrayal of death, but the statue drew thousands of viewers.[42] Cleopatra was considered a woman of both sensuous beauty and demonic power.[43] Her self-annihilation has been portrayed numerously in art as well as literature and cinema. In Death of Cleopatra, Edmonia Lewis added an innovative flair by portraying the Egyptian queen in a disheveled, inelegant manner, a departure from the Victorian approach of representing death.[44] Although her white contemporaries were also sculpting Cleopatra and other comparable subject matter (such as Harriet Hosmer’s Zenobia), Lewis was more prone to scrutiny on the premise of race and gender due to the fact that she, like Cleopatra, was female:

"The associations between Cleopatra and a black Africa were so profound that… any depiction of the ancient Egyptian queen had to contend with the issue of her race and the potential expectation of her blackness. Lewis’ white queen gained the aura of historical accuracy through primary research without sacrificing its symbolic links to abolitionism, black Africa, or black diaspora. But what it refused to facilitate was the racial objectification of the artist’s body. Lewis could not so readily become the subject of her own representation if her subject was corporeally white." [45]

After being placed in storage, the statue was moved to the 1878 Chicago Interstate Exposition where it remained unsold. The sculpture was acquired by a gambler by the name of "Blind John" Condon who purchased it from a saloon on Clark street to mark the grave of a Racehorse named "Cleopatra".[46] The grave was in front of the grandstand of his Harlem race track in the Chicago suburb of Forest Park, where the sculpture remained until it was moved to a construction storage yard in Cicero. While at the storage yard, The Death of Cleopatra sustained extensive damage at the hands of well-meaning Boy Scouts who painted and caused other damage to the sculpture. Dr. James Orland, a dentist in Forest Park, and member of the Forest Park Historical Society acquired the sculpture and held it in private storage at the Forest Park Mall.

Later, Marilyn Richardson, an independent curator and scholar of African-American art who was working on a biography of Lewis, went searching for The Death of Cleopatra. Richardson was directed to the Forest Park Historical Society and Dr. Orland by the Metropolitan Museum of Art who had earlier been contacted by the historical society regarding the sculpture. Richardson, after confirming the sculpture's location, contacted African-American bibliographer Dorothy Porter Wesley and the two gained the attention of NMAA's George Gurney.[47] According to Gurney, Curator Emeritus at the Smithsonian American Art Museum,[48] the sculpture was in a race track in Forest Park, Illinois, during World War II. Finally, the sculpture came under the purview of the Forest Park Historical Society, who donated it to Smithsonian American Art Museum in 1994.[49] Chicago-based Andrezej Dajnowski, in conjunction with the Smithsonian, restored it to its near-original state after repairing the nose, sandals, hands, chin, and extensive "sugaring" (disintegration) at a cost of around $30,000.[47]

A testament to Lewis's renown as an artist came in 1877, when former US President Ulysses S. Grant commissioned her to do his portrait. He sat for her as a model and was pleased with her finished piece.[50] She also contributed a bust of Charles Sumner to the 1895 Atlanta Exposition.[51]

In the late 1880s, neoclassicism declined in popularity, as did the popularity of Lewis's artwork. She continued sculpting in marble, increasingly creating altarpieces and other works for Roman Catholic patrons. In the art world, she became eclipsed by history and lost fame. By 1901 she had moved to London.[52] The events of her later years are not known.[12]


"There is nothing so beautiful as the free forest. To catch a fish when you are hungry, cut the boughs of a tree, make a fire to roast it, and eat it in the open air, is the greatest of all luxuries. I would not stay a week pent up in cities, if it were not for my passion for art." — Edmonia Lewis

Reception[edit]

As a black artist, Edmonia Lewis had to be conscious of her stylistic choices because her largely white audience often gravely misread her work as self-portraiture. In order to avoid this, her female figures typically possess European features.[1] Lewis had to balance her own personal identity with her artistic, social, and national identity, a tiring activity that affected her art.[53]

In her 2007 work, Charmain Nelson wrote of Lewis:

It is hard to overstate the visual incongruity of the black-Native female body, let alone that identity in a sculptor, within the Roman colony. As the first black-Native sculptor of either sex to achieve international recognition within a western sculptural tradition, Lewis was a symbolic and social anomaly within a dominantly white bourgeois and aristocratic community.[1]

Family[edit]

Lewis never married and had no known children.[54] Her half-brother Samuel became a barber in San Francisco, eventually moving to mining camps in Idaho and Montana. In 1868, he settled in the city of Bozeman, Montana, where he set up a barber shop on Main Street. He prospered, eventually investing in commercial real estate, and subsequently built his own home which still stands at 308 South Bozeman Avenue. In 1999 the Samuel Lewis House was placed on the National Register of Historic Places. In 1884, he married Mrs. Melissa Railey Bruce, a widow with six children. The couple had one son, Samuel E. Lewis (1886–1914), who married but died childless. The elder Lewis died after "a short illness" in 1896 and is buried in Sunset Hills Cemetery in Bozeman.[7]

Death[edit]

Lewis's grave in St. Mary's Roman Catholic Cemetery, London

She lived in the Hammersmith area of London, England, before her death on September 17, 1907, in the Hammersmith Borough Infirmary.[55] According to her death certificate, the cause of her death was chronic Bright's disease.[56] She is buried in St. Mary's Roman Catholic Cemetery, in London.[57]

There were earlier theories that Lewis died in Rome in 1907 or, alternatively, that she had died in Marin County, California, and was buried in an unmarked grave in San Francisco.[58]

Works[edit]

Descriptions of most popular works[edit]

Hiawatha, marble, 1868, Newark Museum

Forever Free (1867)[edit]

This white marble sculpture represents a man standing, staring up, and raising his left arm into the air. Wrapped around his left wrist is a chain; however, this chain is not restraining him. To his right is a woman kneeling with her hands held in a prayer position. The man’s right hand is gently placed on her right shoulder. Forever Free represents the emancipation of African-American slaves after the Civil War, a celebration of black liberation, salvation, and redemption. Lewis attempted to break stereotypes of African-American women with this sculpture. For example, she portrayed the woman as completely dressed while the man was partially dressed. This drew attention away from the notion of African-American women being sexual figures. This sculpture also symbolizes the end of the Civil War. While African Americans were legally free, they continued to be restrained, shown by the fact that the couple had chains wrapped around their bodies. The representation of race and gender has been critiqued by modern scholars, particularly the Eurocentric features of the female figure. This piece is held by Howard University Gallery of Art in Washington, D.C.[59]

Hagar (1868)[edit]

Inspired by a character from the Old Testament, this was made of white marble. It shows Hagar with her hands in prayer and staring slightly up but not straight across. Hagar was the handmaid or slave of Abraham's wife Sarah. Being unable to conceive a child, Sarah gave Hagar to Abraham so that he could have a son by her. Hagar gave birth to Abraham's firstborn son Ishmael. After Sarah gave birth to her own son Isaac, she resented Hagar and made Abraham "cast Hagar into the wilderness". Lewis uses Hagar to symbolize the African mother in the United States. She represented the abuse of African women. Lewis had a tendency to sculpt historically strong women, as demonstrated not just in Hagar but also in Lewis's Cleopatra piece. Lewis also depicted regular women in great situations, emphasizing their strength.[54]

Old Arrow-Maker and his Daughter (1866)[edit]

This sculpture was inspired by Lewis's Native American heritage. An arrow-maker and his daughter sit on a round base. They are dressed in traditional Native American clothes and the male figure has recognizable Native American facial features. Lewis chose to "whitewash" the facial features of her female figures, removing all facial features associated with "colored" races.[60] Lewis pushed the limits with the accuracy of her sculptures. She wanted to be as realistic as possible.[54]

List of major works[edit]

  • John Brown medallions, 1864–65
  • Colonel Robert Gould Shaw (plaster), 1864
  • Anne Quincy Waterston, 1866
  • A Freed Woman and Her Child, 1866
  • The Old Arrow-Maker and His Daughter, 1866
  • The Marriage of Hiawatha, 1866–67
  • Forever Free, 1867
  • Colonel Robert Gould Shaw (marble), 1867–68
  • Hagar in the Wilderness, 1868
  • Madonna Holding the Christ Child, 1869
  • Hiawatha, collection of the Newark Museum, 1868[61]
  • Minnehaha, collection of the Newark Museum, 1868[61]
  • Indian Combat, Carrara marble, 30" high, collection of the Cleveland Museum of Art, 1868[62]
  • Henry Wadsworth Longfellow, 1869–71
  • Bust of Abraham Lincoln, 1870 [63]
  • Asleep, 1872 [63]
  • Awake, 1872 [63]
  • Poor Cupid, 1873
  • Moses, 1873
  • Bust of James Peck Thomas, 1874, collection of the Allen Memorial Art Museum, her only known portrait of a freed slave[64]
  • Hygieia, 1874[65]
  • Hagar, 1875
  • The Death of Cleopatra, marble, 1876, collection of Smithsonian American Art Museum
  • John Brown, 1876, Rome, plaster bust
  • Henry Wadsworth Longfellow, 1876, Rome, plaster bust
  • General Ulysses S. Grant, 1877–78
  • Veiled Bride of Spring, 1878
  • John Brown, 1878–79
  • The Adoration of the Magi, 1883[66]
  • Charles Sumner, 1895

Posthumous exhibitions[edit]

  • Art of the American Negro Exhibition, Chicago, 1940
  • Howard University, Washington D.C., 1967
  • Vassar College, New York, 1972
  • Michael Rosenfeld Gallery, New York, 2008
  • Smithsonian American Art Museum, Washington D.C., June 7, 1996 – April 14, 1997

Recognition[edit]

  • Namesake of the Edmonia Lewis Center for Women and Transgender People at Oberlin College.[67]
  • Honored with a Google Doodle on February 1, 2017[68]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d Nelson, Charmaine (2007). The Color of Stone: Sculpting the Black Female Subject in Nineteenth-Century America. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press. 
  2. ^ Asante, Molefi Kete (2002). 100 Greatest African Americans: A Biographical Encyclopedia. Amherst, New York: Prometheus Books II. ISBN 1-57392-963-8.
  3. ^ a b Passport application 21933, accessed on Ancestry.com on November 1, 2011.
  4. ^ Wolfe 12.
  5. ^ Wolfe 15.
  6. ^ a b Hartigan, Lynda Roscoe (1985). Sharing Traditions: Five Black Artists in Nineteenth-Century America : From the Collections of the National Museum of American Art. Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution Press. OCLC 11398839. 
  7. ^ a b c d Pickett, Mary (March 1, 2002). "Samuel W. Lewis: Orphan leaves mark on Bozeman". Billings Gazette. Retrieved February 1, 2017. 
  8. ^ a b Buick, Kirsten Pai (2010). Child of the Fire: Mary Edmonia Lewis and the Problem of Art History's Black and Indian Subject. Durham, North Carolina: Duke University Press. p. 4. 
  9. ^ a b c Buick (2010). Child of the Fire. p. 5. 
  10. ^ Buick (2010). Child of the Fire. p. 111.
  11. ^ "History - About Oberlin - Oberlin College". Oberlin College. Oberlin College. Retrieved 2 February 2017. 
  12. ^ a b c Plowden, Martha W. "Edmonia Lewis-Sculptor", Famous Firsts of Black Women. Gretna: Pelican Company, 1994.
  13. ^ Buick, Kirsten (2010). Child of the Fire: Mary Edmonia Lewis and the Problem of Art History's Black and Indian Subject. Durham, NC: Duke University Press. p. 7. 
  14. ^ a b Katz, William L., and Paula A. Franklin. "Edmonia Lewis: Sculptor," Proudly Red and Black. New York: Maxwell Macmillan, 1993.
  15. ^ Woods, Naurice F. "Mary Edmonia Lewis," Insuperable Obstacles, Cincinnati: Union Institute Graduate School, 1993.
  16. ^ Buick (2010). Child of the Fire. p. 10. 
  17. ^ Buick (2010). Child of the Fire. p. 11. 
  18. ^ "Edward Augustus Brackett" at Oxford Reference.
  19. ^ a b c d Buick, Kirsten (2010). Child of the Fire: Mary Edmonia Lewis and the Problem of Art History's Black and Indian Subject. Durham, NC: Duke University Press. p. 12. 
  20. ^ a b Chadwick, Whitney (2012). Women, Art, and Society (Fifth ed.). New York, NY: Thames and Hudson. p. 223. 
  21. ^ Wolfe 43.
  22. ^ Wolfe 44.
  23. ^ a b Buick (2010). Child of the Fire. p. 13. 
  24. ^ Wolfe 46–49.
  25. ^ Buick (2010). Child of the Fire. p. 14. 
  26. ^ http://www.biography.com/people/edmonia-lewis-9381053#early-years
  27. ^ Wolfe 49.
  28. ^ Buick (2010). Child of the Fire. p. 16. 
  29. ^ "Bust of Dr Dio Lewis". The Walters Art Museum. 
  30. ^ Chadwick (2012). Women, Art, and Society (Fifth ed.). p. 224. 
  31. ^ Wolfe 53.
  32. ^ Wolfe 55.
  33. ^ Chadwick (2012). Women, Art, and Society (Fifth ed.). p. 225. 
  34. ^ a b Chadwick (2012). Women, Art, and Society (Fifth ed.). p. 30. 
  35. ^ Lewis, Samella. "The Diverse Quests for Professional Statues" in African American Art and Artists. Berkeley: University of California Press, 2003.
  36. ^ Buick (2010). Child of the Fire. 
  37. ^ http://www.biography.com/people/edmonia-lewis-9381053#life-in-rome
  38. ^ Tufts, Eleanor. "The Nineteenth Century", Our Hidden Heritage. New York: Paddington Press, 1974.
  39. ^ Wolfe 93.
  40. ^ Wolfe 97, 102.
  41. ^ Wolfe 97–99.
  42. ^ Wolfe 100.
  43. ^ Patton, Sharon F. (1998). African-American Art. New York: Oxford University Press. p. 97. 
  44. ^ Nelson 168.
  45. ^ Nelson, 178.
  46. ^ "Edmonia Lewis". Encyclopedia of World Biology. Retrieved March 7, 2015. 
  47. ^ a b May, Stephen (September 1996). "The Object at Hand". Smithsonian: 20. 
  48. ^ Kaplan, Howard, "Sculpting a Career with Curator George Gurney", Eye Level Blog, Smithsonian American Art Museum, September 29, 2011, accessed December 7, 2012.
  49. ^ Museum catalog record for The Death of Cleopatra on the Smithsonian American Art Museum website, accessed December 7, 2012.
  50. ^ Wolfe 108–109.
  51. ^ Now the New Negro Repository (Canton, Ohio). Thursday, July 25, 1895, p. 2.
  52. ^ The 1901 British census lists her as lodging at 37 Store Street, Holborn, supported by "own means". She gives her age as 59, her occupation as "Artist (modeller)", and her birthplace as "India".
  53. ^ Kleeblatt, Norman L. (1998). Master Narratives Minority Artists. 
  54. ^ a b c Perry, Regenia A. (1992). Edmonia Lewis. Free Within Ourselves. Washington D.C.: National Museum of American Art. ISBN 978-1566400725. 
  55. ^ "Sculptor's Death Unearthed: Edmonia Lewis Died in London in 1907", Cowan's Auctions: News (retrieved March 14, 2011).
  56. ^ Henderson, Harry and Henderson, Albert: The Indomitable Spirit of Edmonia Lewis, 2012.
  57. ^ "The Life and Death of Edmonia Lewis, Spinster and Sculptor". The Toast. Retrieved March 18, 2016. 
  58. ^ Wolfe 110.
  59. ^ Collins, Lisa G. "Female Body in Art." The Art of History. New Jersey: Rutgers University Press, 2002.
  60. ^ Buick (2010). Child of the Fire. p. 66. 
  61. ^ a b According to the Newark Museum; 1869–71, according to Wolfe, 120.
  62. ^ "Newly Discovered Indian Combat by Edmonia Lewis acquired by the Cleveland Museum of Art", Art Daily. November 19, 2011 (retrieved November 19, 2011).
  63. ^ a b c The original sculpture is housed in the California Room of San José Public Library. The statues Awake (1872), Asleep (1872), and Bust of Abraham Lincoln (1870) were purchased in 1873 by the San Jose Library Association (forerunner to the San Jose Public Library) and transferred to the San Jose Public Library. SJPL: Edmonia Lewis Sculptures.
  64. ^ "eMuseum". Retrieved 1 February 2017. 
  65. ^ Photo of Hygieia sculpture at Dr. Harriet Kezia Hunt's memorial. at Find a Grave
  66. ^ Wolfe 120.
  67. ^ [1]
  68. ^ Celebrating Edmonia Lewis, Google, January 31, 2017

Bibliography[edit]

Further reading[edit]

  • Henderson, Harry and Henderson, Albert. The Indomitable Spirit of Edmonia Lewis, ISBN 978-1-58863-451-1 (PDF Electronic book, 2012).
  • Richardson, Marilyn. "Vita: Edmonia Lewis." Harvard Magazine, 1986.
  • Richardson, Marilyn, "Edmonia Lewis." American National Biography, National Council of Learned Societies, 1999.
  • Richardson, Marilyn, "Edmonia Lewis." Encyclopedia of African American Culture and History. Columbia University, 1996.
  • Buick, Kirsten Pai, Child of Fire: Mary Edmonia Lewis and the Problem of Art History's Black and Indian Subject, Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 2010.
  • Farrington, Lisa E. Creating Their Own Images: The History of African-American Women Artists, New York: Oxford University Press, 2005
  • Kleeblat, Norman L. "Master Narratives/Minority Artists", Art Journal, No. N7 3 (1998).
  • Nelson, Charmaine A. The Color of Stone: Sculpting the Black Female Subject in Nineteenth-Century America, Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 2007.
  • Richardson, Marilyn. "Edmonia Lewis and the Boston of Italy".

External links[edit]