Edmund Percival Hillary
20 July 1919
Auckland, New Zealand
|Died||11 January 2008 (aged 88)|
Auckland, New Zealand
|Known for||With Tenzing Norgay, first to reach summit of Mount Everest|
Louise Mary Rose
(m. 1953; died 1975)
|Children||3, including Peter|
|Service/||Royal New Zealand Air Force|
|Years of service||1943–1945|
|Battles/wars||World War II|
Sir Edmund Percival Hillary mountaineer, explorer, and philanthropist. On 29 May 1953, Hillary and Sherpa mountaineer Tenzing Norgay became the first climbers confirmed to have reached the summit of Mount Everest. They were part of the ninth British expedition to Everest, led by John Hunt. From 1985 to 1988 he served as New Zealand's High Commissioner to India and Bangladesh and concurrently as Ambassador to Nepal.(20 July 1919 – 11 January 2008) was a New Zealand
Hillary became interested in mountaineering while in secondary school. He made his first major climb in 1939, reaching the summit of Mount Ollivier. He served in the Royal New Zealand Air Force as a navigator during World War II and was wounded in an accident. Prior to the Everest expedition, Hillary had been part of the British reconnaissance expedition to the mountain in 1951 as well as an unsuccessful attempt to climb Cho Oyu in 1952.
As part of the Commonwealth Trans-Antarctic Expedition he reached the South Pole overland in 1958. He subsequently reached the North Pole, making him the first person to reach both poles and summit Everest. Time named him one of the 100 most influential people of the 20th century.
Beginning in 1960, Hillary devoted himself to assisting the Sherpa people of Nepal through the Himalayan Trust, which he established. His efforts are credited with the construction of many schools and hospitals in Nepal. Hillary had numerous honours conferred upon him, including the Order of the Garter in 1995. Upon his death in 2008, he was given a state funeral in New Zealand.
Hillary was born to Percival Augustus (1885–1965) and Gertrude (née Clark) (1892–1965) Hillary in Auckland, New Zealand, on 20 July 1919. His father Percy had served at Gallipoli with the 15th (North Auckland) Regiment, and was discharged "medically unfit" from the Army in 1916; he had married Gertrude after his return to New Zealand. His grandfather Edmund Raymond Hillary (b. 1836) from Lancashire, England was a watchmaker, who immigrated to northern Wairoa in the mid-19th century. He married Annie "Ida" Fleming from Ireland having four children. His maternal great-grandparents, the Clarks, were both from Yorkshire.
His family moved to Tuakau, south of Auckland, in 1920, after Percy was allocated eight acres (3.2 ha) of land there as a returned soldier. Percy had been a journalist prewar, and soon became founding editor of the weekly Tuakau District News as well as an apiarist (beekeeper). Ed had a sister June (born 1917) and a brother Rex (born 1920).
Hillary was educated at Tuakau Primary School and then Auckland Grammar School. He finished primary school aged 11 or two years early, and at "Grammar" achieved average marks. His mother wanted him to go to a "good school" and he commuted by train, cycling to Tuakau station before 7 am and returning after 6 pm for 3+1⁄2 years (a one-hour and 40 minutes journey each way) until the family moved to Remuera, Auckland in 1935, his last of four years at "Grammar".
He was initially smaller than his peers and shy, and did not enjoy "Grammar", where commuting barred him from after-school activities. He grew to be 6 feet 2 inches (188 cm) and gained confidence after taking up boxing.
He became interested in climbing when he was 16 following a 1935 school trip to Mount Ruapehu, after which he showed more interest in tramping than in studying and said he "wanted to see the world". He then attended Auckland University College, and joined the Tramping Club there. But in 1938, "after two notably unsuccessful years studying mathematics and science" he gave up on formal education.
He then became an apiarist with his father and brother Rex; with 1600 hives to attend, thousands of 90 lb (41 kg) boxes of honey comb to handle, and 12 to 100 bee-stings daily. He kept bees in summer, and concentrated on climbing in winter. His father also edited the journal "The N.Z. Honeybee" and his mother Gertrude was famous for breeding and selling queen bees.
In 1938, he went to hear Herbert Sutcliffe, the proponent of a life philosophy called "Radiant Living", with his family. The family all became foundation members, and his mother became its secretary in 1939. He went to Gisborne as Sutcliff's assistant, and in 1941 sat examinations to become a teacher of Radiant Living, getting a 100% pass mark. His test lecture was on "Inferiority – cause and cure". He said of his five-year association with the movement that "I learned to speak confidently from the platform; to think more freely on important topics; to mix more readily with a wide variety of people". Tenets included healthy eating (the salads that June took to university for lunch) and pacificism. He joined the Radiant Living Tramping Club, and further developed his love of the outdoors in the Waitākere Ranges.
In 1939, he completed his first major climb, reaching the summit of Mount Ollivier, near Aoraki / Mount Cook in the Southern Alps. Climbing brought new friends; Harry Ayres and George Lowe became "the first real friends I'd ever had".
World War II
At the outbreak of World War II, Hillary applied to join the Royal New Zealand Air Force (RNZAF) but quickly withdrew the application, later writing that he was "harassed by [his] religious conscience". In 1943, with the Japanese threat in the Pacific and the arrival of conscription, he joined the RNZAF as a navigator in No. 6 Squadron RNZAF and later No. 5 Squadron RNZAF on Catalina flying boats. In 1945, he was sent to Fiji and to the Solomon Islands, where he was badly burnt in an accident.
In January 1948, Hillary and others ascended the south ridge of Aoraki / Mount Cook, New Zealand's highest peak. He took part in an arduous rescue on La Perouse in 1948, befriending fellow climber Norman Hardie.
In 1951 he was part of a British reconnaissance expedition to Everest led by Eric Shipton,[a] before joining the successful British attempt of 1953. In 1952, Hillary and George Lowe were part of the British team led by Shipton, that attempted Cho Oyu. After that attempt failed due to the lack of a route from the Nepal side, Hillary and Lowe crossed the Nup La pass into Tibet and reached the old Camp II, on the northern side, where all the previous expeditions had camped.
1953 Everest expedition
In 1949, the long-standing climbing route to the summit of Everest was closed by Chinese-controlled Tibet. For the next several years, Nepal allowed only one or two expeditions per year. A Swiss expedition (in which Tenzing took part) attempted to reach the summit in 1952, but was forced back by bad weather and problems with oxygen sets 800 feet (240 m) below the summit.
|Sir Edmund Hillary Scales the Heights of Literary Society, 1954, Hillary speaks 5:00–18:57, WNYC|
In 1952, Hillary learned that he and Lowe had been invited by the Joint Himalayan Committee for the 1953 British attempt and immediately accepted. Shipton had been named as leader but was replaced by Hunt. Hillary objected but was immediately impressed by Hunt's energy and determination. Hunt asked Charles Evans and Hillary to form with him a small three-man planning group on the expedition. Hunt wrote that:
Hillary's testing in the Himalayas had shown that he would be a very strong contender, not only for Everest, but for an eventual summit party. When I met Shipton last autumn I well remember his prophesying this – and how right he was. Quite exceptionally strong and abounding in a restless energy, possessed of a thrusting mind which swept away all unproven obstacles, Ed Hillary's personality had made an imprint on my mind, through his Cho Oyu and Reconnaissance friends and through his letters to me.
Hillary had hoped to climb with Lowe, but Hunt named two teams for the ascent: Tom Bourdillon and Charles Evans; and Hillary and Tenzing. Hillary, therefore, made a concerted effort to forge a working friendship with Tenzing. Hillary wrote, "Tenzing had substantially greater personal ambition than any Sherpa I had met."
The Hunt expedition totalled over 400 people, including 362 porters, 20 Sherpa guides, and 10,000 pounds (4,500 kg) of baggage. Lowe supervised the preparation of the Lhotse Face, a huge and steep ice face, for climbing. Hillary forged a route through the treacherous Khumbu Icefall.
a skeleton as tall as I was ... a hatchet-thin face, and seemed tied together with steel ... I had just got a rubber torch to pieces and couldn't get it together again. This human machine took charge. 'Let's give it a go' he said, using an expression we came to know so well in the following months. It may have meant that he would try to fix it, but did not. Actually it meant he would fix it, a subtle but important difference so far as Ed and his fellow countryman George Lowe, were concerned.
The expedition set up base camp in March 1953 and, working slowly, set up its final camp at the South Col at 25,900 feet (7,890 m). On 26 May, Bourdillon and Evans attempted the climb but turned back when Evans's oxygen system failed. The pair had reached the South Summit, coming within 300 vertical feet (91 m) of the summit. Hunt then directed Hillary and Tenzing to attempt the summit.
Snow and wind delayed them at the South Col for two days. They set out on 28 May with the support of Lowe, Alfred Gregory, and Ang Nyima. The two pitched a tent at 27,900 feet (8,500 m) on 28 May, while their support group returned down the mountain. On the following morning Hillary discovered that his boots had frozen solid outside the tent. He spent two hours warming them over a stove before he and Tenzing, wearing 30-pound (14 kg) packs, attempted the final ascent. The final obstacle was the 40-foot (12 m) rock face later called "Hillary Step"; Hillary later wrote:
I noticed a crack between the rock and the snow sticking to the East Face. I crawled inside and wriggled and jammed my way to the top ... Tenzing slowly joined me and we moved on. I chopped steps over bump after bump, wondering a little desperately where the top could be. Then I saw the ridge ahead dropped away to the north and above me on the right was a rounded snow dome. A few more whacks with my ice-axe and Tenzing and I stood on top of Everest.
Tenzing in his 1955 autobiography wrote that Hillary took the first step onto the summit and he followed. They reached Everest's 29,028 ft (8,848 m) summit – the highest point on earth – at 11:30 am.
They spent about 15 minutes at the summit. Hillary took a photo of Tenzing posing with his ice-axe, but there is no photo of Hillary; Tenzing's autobiography says that Hillary simply declined to have his picture taken. They also took photos looking down the mountain.
Tenzing left chocolates at the summit as an offering, and Hillary left a cross given to him by John Hunt. Their descent was complicated by drifting snow that had covered their tracks. The first person they met was Lowe; Hillary said, "Well, George, we knocked the bastard off."
They returned to Kathmandu a few days later and learned that Hillary had already been appointed a Knight Commander of the Order of the British Empire and Hunt a Knight Bachelor. News reached Britain on the day of Queen Elizabeth II's coronation, and the press called it a coronation gift. The 37 members of the party later received the Queen Elizabeth II Coronation Medal with mount everest expedition engraved along the rim. In addition to the knighting of Hillary and Hunt, Tenzing – ineligible for knighthood as a Nepalese citizen – received the George Medal. Tenzing also received the Star of Nepal from King Tribhuvan.
Hillary climbed ten other peaks in the Himalayas on further visits in 1956, 1960–1961, and 1963–1965. He also reached the South Pole as part of the Commonwealth Trans-Antarctic Expedition, for which he led the New Zealand section, on 4 January 1958. His party was the first to reach the Pole overland since Amundsen in 1911 and Scott in 1912, and the first ever to do so using motor vehicles.
In 1960, Hillary organised the 1960–61 Silver Hut expedition, with Griffith Pugh; and Pugh showed that Mount Everest could be climbed without oxygen, with a long period of acclimatisation by living at 20,000 feet (6,100 m) for six months. An assault on Makalu, the world's fifth-highest mountain, was unsuccessful. Hillary was with the expedition for five months, although it lasted for ten.
The expedition also searched for the fabled abominable snowman. No evidence of Yetis was found, instead footprints and tracks were proven to be from other causes. During the expedition, Hillary travelled to remote temples which contained "Yeti scalps"; however after bringing back three relics, two were shown to be from bears and one from a goat antelope. Hillary said after the expedition: "The yeti is not a strange, superhuman creature as has been imagined. We have found rational explanations for most yeti phenomena".
In 1962, he was a guest on the television game show What's My Line?; he stumped the panel, comprising Dorothy Kilgallen, Arlene Francis, Bennett Cerf, and Merv Griffin. In 1977, he led a jetboat expedition, titled "Ocean to Sky", from the mouth of the Ganges River to its source. From 1977 to 1979 he commentated aboard Antarctic sightseeing flights operated by Air New Zealand, and was scheduled to act as the guide for the fatal Flight 901, but had to cancel owing to other commitments. In 1985, he accompanied Neil Armstrong in a small twin-engined ski plane over the Arctic Ocean and landed at the North Pole. Hillary thus became the first man to stand at both poles and on the summit of Everest. This accomplishment inspired generations of explorers to compete over what later was defined as Three Poles Challenge. In January 2007, Hillary travelled to Antarctica as part of a delegation commemorating the 50th anniversary of the founding of Scott Base.
On 6 June 1953, Hillary was appointed Knight Commander of the Order of the British Empire, and he received the Queen Elizabeth II Coronation Medal the same year. On 6 February 1987, he was the fourth appointee to the Order of New Zealand. He was also awarded the Polar Medal in 1958 for his part in the Commonwealth Trans-Antarctic Expedition, the class of commander of the Order of Sports Merit of France in about 1960, the Order of Gorkha Dakshina Bahu, 1st Class of the Kingdom of Nepal in 1953 and the Coronation Medal in 1975. On 22 April 1995, Hillary was appointed Knight Companion of The Most Noble Order of the Garter. On 17 June 2004, Hillary was awarded the Commander's Cross of the Order of Merit of the Republic of Poland. The Government of India conferred on him its second highest civilian award, the Padma Vibhushan, posthumously, in 2008.
To mark the 50th anniversary of the first successful ascent of Everest, the Nepalese government conferred honorary citizenship upon Hillary at a special Golden Jubilee celebration in Kathmandu, Nepal. He was the first foreign national to receive that honour.
Since 1992, New Zealand's $5 note has featured Hillary's portrait, making him the only living person not a current head of state ever to appear on a New Zealand banknote. In giving his permission, Hillary insisted that Aoraki / Mount Cook rather than Mount Everest be used as the backdrop.
Hillary's favoured New Zealand charity was the Sir Edmund Hillary Outdoor Pursuits Centre, of which he was patron for 35 years. He was particularly keen on how this organisation introduced young New Zealanders to the outdoors in a very similar way to his first experience of a school trip to Mt Ruapehu at the age of 16. A 2.3-metre (7.5 ft) bronze statue of Hillary was erected outside The Hermitage Hotel at Mount Cook Village; it was unveiled by Hillary himself in 2003. Various streets, institutions and organisations around New Zealand and abroad are named after him – for example, the Sir Edmund Hillary Collegiate in Otara, which was established by Hillary in 2001.
Two Antarctic features are named after Hillary. The Hillary Coast is a section of coastline south of Ross Island and north of the Shackleton Coast. The Hillary Canyon, an undersea feature in the Ross Sea, appears on the General Bathymetric Chart of the Oceans, published by the International Hydrographic Organization.
Hillary married Louise Mary Rose (1930–1975) on 3 September 1953, soon after the ascent of Everest; he admitted he was terrified of proposing to her and relied on her mother to propose on his behalf. They had three children: Peter (born 1954), Sarah (born 1956) and Belinda (1959–1975). On 31 March 1975, while en route to join Hillary in the village of Phaphlu, where he was helping to build a hospital, Louise and Belinda were killed in a plane crash  (1975 Royal Nepal Airlines Pilatus PC-6 Porter crash) near Kathmandu airport shortly after take-off. In 1989 he married June Mulgrew, the widow of his close friend Peter Mulgrew, who died on Air New Zealand Flight 901 in 1979.
His son Peter Hillary also became a climber, summiting Everest in 1990. In May 2002 Peter climbed Everest as part of a 50th anniversary celebration; Jamling Tenzing Norgay (son of Tenzing who had died in 1986) was also part of the expedition.
Hillary's home for most of his life was a property on Remuera Road in Auckland City, where he enjoyed reading adventure and science fiction novels in his retirement. He also built a bach at Whites Beach, one of Auckland's west coast beaches in West Auckland, between Anawhata and North Piha. A friend called it Hillary's place of solace, where he could escape media attention.
The Hillary family has had a connection with the west coast of Auckland since 1925, when Louise's father built a bach at Anawhata. The family donated land at Whites Beach that is now crossed by trampers on the Hillary Trail, named for Edmund. Hillary said of the area: "That is the thing that international travel brings home to me – it's always good to be going home. This is the only place I want to live in; this is the place I want to see out my days."
Following his ascent of Everest he devoted himself to assisting the Sherpa people of Nepal through the Himalayan Trust, which he established in 1960 and led until his death in 2008. His efforts are credited with the construction of many schools and hospitals in this remote region of the Himalayas. He was the Honorary President of the American Himalayan Foundation, a United States non-profit body that helps improve the ecology and living conditions in the Himalayas. He was also the Honorary President of Mountain Wilderness, an international NGO dedicated to the worldwide protection of mountains.
Hillary supported the Labour Party in the 1975 New Zealand general election, as a member of the "Citizens for Rowling" campaign. His involvement in this campaign was seen as precluding his nomination as governor-general; the position was offered to Keith Holyoake in 1977. In 1985, Hillary was appointed New Zealand High Commissioner to India (concurrently High Commissioner to Bangladesh and Ambassador to Nepal) and spent four and a half years based in New Delhi.
In 1975, Hillary served as a vice president for the Abortion Law Reform Association of New Zealand, a national pro-choice advocacy group. He was also a patron of REPEAL, an organization seeking repeal of the restrictive Contraception, Sterilisation, and Abortion Act 1977.
On 22 April 2007, while on a trip to Kathmandu, Hillary suffered a fall, and was hospitalised after returning to New Zealand.
On 11 January 2008, he died of heart failure at Auckland City Hospital. Flags were lowered to half-mast on New Zealand public buildings and at Scott Base in Antarctica, and the Prime Minister, Helen Clark, called Hillary's death a "profound loss to New Zealand".
On 21 January, Hillary's casket was taken into Holy Trinity Cathedral, Auckland, to lie in state. A state funeral was held on 22 January 2008, after which his body was cremated. On 29 February 2008, most of his ashes were scattered in Auckland's Hauraki Gulf per his desire. The remainder went to a Nepalese monastery near Everest; a plan to scatter them on the summit was cancelled in 2010.
In January 2008, Lukla Airport, in Lukla, Nepal, was renamed to Tenzing–Hillary Airport in recognition of their promotion of its construction. On 2 April 2008, a service of thanksgiving in Hillary's honour at St George's Chapel at Windsor Castle was attended by Queen Elizabeth II, New Zealand dignitaries including Prime Minister Helen Clark, and members of Hillary's and Norgay's families; Gurkha soldiers from Nepal stood guard outside the ceremony. In October 2008, it was announced that future rugby test matches between England and New Zealand would be played for the Hillary Shield. In 2009 the Duke of Edinburgh's Award in New Zealand – formerly the Young New Zealanders' Challenge – was renamed "The Duke of Edinburgh's Hillary Award". On 5 November 2008, a commemorative set of five stamps was issued by New Zealand Post.
There have been many calls for lasting tributes to Hillary. The first major public tribute has been by way of the "Summits for Ed" tribute tour organised by the Sir Edmund Hillary Foundation. This tribute tour went from Bluff at the bottom of the South Island to Cape Reinga at the tip of the North Island, visiting 39 towns and cities along the way. In each venue, school children and members of the public were invited to join to climb a significant hill or site in their area to show their respect for Hillary. The public were also invited to bring small rocks or pebbles that had special significance to them, that would be included in a memorial to Hillary at the base of Mt Ruapehu, in the grounds of the Sir Edmund Hillary Outdoor Pursuits Centre. Funds donated during the tour are used by the foundation to sponsor young New Zealanders on outdoor courses. Over 8,000 persons attended these "Summit" climbs between March and May 2008.
The tribute song "Hillary 88", by the New Zealand duo The Kiwis, is the official world memorial song for Hillary, with the endorsement of Lady Hillary.
A four-day track in the Waitākere Ranges, along Auckland's west coast, is named the Hillary Trail, in honour of Hillary. Hillary's father-in-law, Jim Rose, who had built a bach at Anawhata in 1925, wrote in his 1982 history of Anawhata Beach, "My family look forward to the time when we will be able to walk from Huia to Muriwai on public walking tracks like the old-time Maori could do". Hillary loved the area, and had his own bach near Anawhata. The track was opened on 11 January 2010, the second anniversary of Hillary's death. Rose Track, descending from Anawhata Road to Whites Beach, is named after the Rose family.
The South Ridge of Aoraki / Mount Cook, New Zealand's highest mountain, was renamed Hillary Ridge on 18 August 2011. Hillary and three other climbers were the first party to successfully climb the ridge in 1948. In September 2013 the Government of Nepal proposed naming a 7,681 metres (25,200 ft) mountain in Nepal Hillary Peak in his honour. After the New Horizons mission discovered a mountain range on Pluto on 14 July 2015, it was officially named Hillary Montes (Hillary Mountains) by International Astronomical Union. The Sir Edmund Hillary Mountain Legacy Medal, awarded by the Nepalese NGO Mountain Legacy "for remarkable service in the conservation of culture and nature in mountainous regions" was inaugurated in 2003, with the approval of Sir Edmund Hillary. A bronze bust of Hillary (circa 1953) by Ophelia Gordon Bell is in the Te Papa museum in Wellington, New Zealand. The Sir Edmund Hillary Archive was added to the UNESCO Memory of the world archive in 2013, it is currently held by Auckland War Memorial Museum.
From 2016 to 2020, a pilot immigration programme to New Zealand awarded Edmund Hillary Fellowships, the benefits of which included a 3-year Global Impact Visa to create, support, and incubate ventures and models that result in positive global impact, from New Zealand. After 3 years, migrants could qualify for permanent residency. The Edmund Hillary Foundation, which operated the pilot, claims that more than 250 of the allocated 400 visas were awarded before the pilot closed.
|High Adventure[b]||1955||Hodder & Stoughton[c]||ISBN 1-932302-02-6[d]||n/a|||
|East of Everest – An Account of the New Zealand Alpine Club Himalayan Expedition to the Barun Valley in 1954||1956||E. P. Dutton||ASIN B000EW84UM||George Lowe|||
|No Latitude for Error||1961||Hodder & Stoughton.||ASIN B000H6UVP6||n/a|||
|The New Zealand Antarctic Expedition||1959||R.W. Stiles, printers.||ASIN B0007K6D72||n/a|
|The Crossing of Antarctica: The Commonwealth Transantarctic Expedition, 1955–1958||1958||Cassell||ASIN B000HJGZ08||Vivian Fuchs|||
|High in the Thin Cold Air[e]||1962||Doubleday||ASIN B00005W121||Desmond Doig|||
|Schoolhouse in the Clouds||1965||Hodder & Stoughton||ASIN B00005WRBB||n/a|||
|Nothing Venture, Nothing Win||1975||Hodder & Stoughton||ISBN 0-340-21296-9||n/a|||
|From the Ocean to the Sky: Jet Boating Up the Ganges||1979||Viking||ISBN 0-7089-0587-0||n/a|||
|Two Generations[f]||1984||Hodder & Stoughton||ISBN 0-340-35420-8||Peter Hillary||[g]|
|View from the Summit: The Remarkable Memoir by the First Person to Conquer Everest||2000||ISBN 0-7434-0067-4||n/a|
- Shipton had met Dan Bryant on the 1935 British Mount Everest reconnaissance expedition and had formed a positive view of New Zealand climbers
- Also High Adventure: The True Story of the First Ascent of Everest
- (reprinted Oxford University Press) (paperback)
- and ISBN 0-19-516734-1
- the story of the Himalayan Expedition, led by Sir Edmund Hillary, sponsored by World Book Encyclopedia
- reissued as Ascent: Two Lives Explored: The Autobiographies of Sir Edmund and Peter Hillary
- (1992) Paragon House Publishers ISBN 1-55778-408-6.
- "Edmund Percival Hillary". Online Cenotaph. Auckland War Memorial Museum. Retrieved 3 February 2022.
- "Sir Edmund Hillary Biography and Interview". www.achievement.org. American Academy of Achievement.
- "Time 100 Persons of the Century". Time. 6 June 1999. Retrieved 31 May 2017.
- "Famous New Zealanders". Christchurch City Libraries. Retrieved 23 January 2007.
- "Edmund Hillary". New Zealand History. Wellington, New Zealand: Research and Publishing Group of the New Zealand Ministry for Culture and Heritage. Retrieved 15 February 2018.
- Gill, Michael (2019). Edmund Hillary – A Biography: The Extraordinary Life of the Beekeeper Who Climbed Everest. ISBN 9781911342977. Retrieved 22 September 2020.
- Tyler, Heather (8 October 2005). "Authorised Hillary biography reveals private touches". The New Zealand Herald. NZPA. Retrieved 29 September 2011.
- Johnston & Larsen 2005, p. 16.
- Robinson, Simon (10 January 2008). "Sir Edmund Hillary: Top of the World". Time. Archived from the original on 11 January 2008. Retrieved 14 January 2008.
- Johnston & Larsen 2005, pp. 20, 22, 23.
- "We knocked the bastard off". The Guardian. 13 March 2003. Retrieved 1 July 2018.
- Hillary 1955, p. 1.
- Johnston & Larsen 2005, p. 25.
- Sullivan, Robert (12 September 2003). "The Greatest Adventures of All Time: Sir Edmund Hillary: A visit with the world's greatest living adventurer". Time. Archived from the original on 21 September 2003.
- National Geographic, "Everest: 50 Years and Counting". Retrieved 22 January 2007.
- Johnston & Larsen 2005, p. 23.
- Hillary, Sir Edmund (Percival). (2017). In Encyclopaedia Britannica, Britannica Concise Encyclopedia. Chicago, IL: Britannica Digital Learning. Retrieved from https://search.credoreference.com/content/entry/ebconcise/hillary_sir_edmund_percival/0?institutionId=292
- "Sir Edmund Hillary". Britannica Academic, Encyclopædia Britannica, 5 September 2012. academic-eb-com/levels/collegiate/article/Sir-Edmund-Hillary/40469. Accessed 14 March 2018.
- Johnston & Larsen 2005, pp. 25–29.
- Barnett, Shaun (30 October 2012). "Hillary, Edmund Percival – Early mountaineering". Te Ara: The Encyclopedia of New Zealand. Ministry for Culture and Heritage. Retrieved 30 May 2013.
- Johnston & Larsen 2005, pp. 26–29.
- Calder, Peter (11 January 2008). "Sir Edmund Hillary's life". The New Zealand Herald. APN Holdings NZ Limited. Retrieved 11 January 2008.
- Langton, Graham (22 June 2007). "Ayres, Horace Henry 1912–1987". Dictionary of New Zealand Biography. Ministry for Culture and Heritage. Retrieved 2 December 2009.
- Isserman, Maurice; Weaver, Stewart (2008). Fallen Giants : A History of Himalayan Mountaineering from the Age of Empire to the Age of Extremes. New Haven: Yale University Press. p. 278. ISBN 9780300115017.
- Barnett, Shaun (7 December 2010). "Cho Oyu expedition team, 1952". Te Ara: The Encyclopedia of New Zealand.
- Gordon, Harry (12 January 2008). "Hillary, deity of the high country", The Australian. Retrieved 19 June 2010.
- Isserman, Maurice; Weaver, Stewart (2008). Fallen Giants : A History of Himalayan Mountaineering from the Age of Empire to the Age of Extremes. New Haven: Yale University Press. p. 437. ISBN 9780300115017.
- Hillary 1955, pp. 48, 235.
- "Sir Edmund Hillary scales the heights of literary society". WNYC. Retrieved 31 October 2016.
- Hillary 1955, p. 117.
- Hillary 1955, p. 119.
- Gill 2017, p. 185.
- Hunt 1953, pp. 107, 121, 134, 138.
- Hunt 1953, p. 28.
- Isserman, Maurice; Weaver, Stewart (2008). Fallen Giants: A History of Himalayan Mountaineering from the Age of Empire to the Age of Extremes. New Haven: Yale University Press. pp. 284–286. ISBN 9780300115017.
- Hunt 1953, pp. 138, 139.
- Gill 2017, p. 188.
- "Hillary of New Zealand and Tenzing reach the top", Reuter (in The Guardian, 2 June 1953)
- Reaching The Top Archived 16 February 2008 at the Wayback Machine Royal Geographical Society. Retrieved 13 January 2008.
- Hillary 1955, p. 151.
- Elish 2007, p. 30.
- Gill 2017, pp. 188, 189.
- The New Zealand Edge, "Sir Edmund Hillary—King Of The World" Archived 27 November 2004 at the Wayback Machine. Retrieved 22 January 2007.
- Hillary 1955, p. 197.
- Isserman, Maurice; Weaver, Stewart (2008). Fallen Giants: A History of Himalayan Mountaineering from the Age of Empire to the Age of Extremes. New Haven: Yale University Press. p. 288. ISBN 9780300115017.
- Hillary 1955, p. 213.
- Two Generations. pp. 27–28.
- "Everest not as tall as thought". Agence France-Presse (on abc.net.au), 10 October 2005
- Joanna Wright (2003). "The Photographs", in Everest, Summit of Achievement, by the Royal Geographical Society. Simon & Schuster, New York. ISBN 0-7432-4386-2. Retrieved 11 January 2008. Archived 5 September 2015 at the Wayback Machine
- "Obituary: Sir Edmund Hillary". BBC News. 11 January 2008. Retrieved 1 June 2021.
- Hillary 1955, p. 229.
- Editorial Staff (12 June 1953). "(announcements)". The London Gazette. p. 3273. Retrieved 12 March 2018.
- Reuters (2 June 1953), "2 of British Team Conquer Everest", The New York Times, p. 1, retrieved 18 December 2009
|last=has generic name (help)
- Johnston & Larsen 2005, p. 76.
- "George Medal for Tensing – Award Approved by the Queen" in The Times (London), issue 52663 dated Thursday 2 July 1953, p. 6
- Hansen, Peter H. (2004). "Tenzing Norgay [Sherpa Tenzing] (1914–1986)" ((subscription required)). Oxford Dictionary of National Biography (online ed.). Oxford University Press. doi:10.1093/ref:odnb/50064. Retrieved 18 January 2008. (Subscription or UK public library membership required.)
- Vallely, Paul (10 May 1986). "Man of the mountains Tenzing dies". The Times. UK.
- McFadden, Robert D. (10 January 2008). "Edmund Hillary, First on Everest, Dies at 88". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 27 October 2017.
- Ministry for Culture and Heritage (22 July 2014). "Edmund Hillary in Antarctica". New Zealand History online – Nga korero aipurangi o Aotearoa. Wellington, New Zealand. Retrieved 18 November 2016.
- Gill 2017, pp. 328–369.
- "Sir Edmund Hillary, a Life in Pictures". news.nationalgeographic.com. Retrieved 14 March 2018.
- Hillary, Sir Edmund Percival. (2017). In P. Lagasse, & Columbia University, The Columbia encyclopedia (7th ed.). New York, NY: Columbia University Press. Retrieved from https://search.credoreference.com/content/entry/columency/hillary_sir_edmund_percival/0?institutionId=292
- "The Yeti: Asia's Abominable Snowman". Live Science. 28 November 2017. Retrieved 14 March 2018.
- "Objects of Intrigue: Yeti Scalp". Atlas Obscura. 30 May 2013. Retrieved 14 March 2018.
- "'Yeti scalp' fails to convince Hillary". Stars and Stripes. Retrieved 14 March 2018.
- "What's My Line? – Sir Edmund Hillary; Diahann Carroll; Merv Griffin [panel] (May 20, 1962)". YouTube. Archived from the original on 30 October 2021. Retrieved 11 March 2018.
- Ministry for Culture and Heritage (13 January 2016). "The end of the 'big mountain days' – Ed Hillary"". New Zealand History online – Nga korero aipurangi o Aotearoa. Wellington, New Zealand. Retrieved 18 November 2016.
- "The Antarctic experience – Erebus disaster" New Zealand History online; retrieved 13 January 2008.
- Attwooll, Jolyon (4 February 2016). "Sixty fascinating Everest facts". The Telegraph. Archived from the original on 11 January 2022. Retrieved 22 July 2016.
- March 2003 interview with Hillary in The Guardian
- "Video: Interview on HardTalk". BBC News. 11 January 2008. Retrieved 13 March 2010.
- NDTV, "Sir Edmund Hillary revisits Antarctica", 20 January 2007.[dead link]
- Harvey, Claire (21 January 2007). "Claire Harvey on Ice: Mt Erebus sends chills of horror". The New Zealand Herald. Retrieved 29 September 2011.
- Radio Network, "PM and Sir Edmund Hillary off to Scott Base", 15 January 2007. Retrieved 20 January 2007. Archived 26 January 2009 at the Wayback Machine
- "No. 39886". The London Gazette. 12 June 1953. p. 3273.
- "The Order of New Zealand" (12 February 1987) 20 New Zealand Gazette 705 at 709.
- "No. 41384". The London Gazette. 13 May 1958. p. 2997.
- "medal, award". Auckland War Memorial Museum. Retrieved 16 November 2015.
- "Commander of the Order of Sports Merit (descriptive name) Sir Edmund Hillary (associated name)". Auckland War Memorial Museum. Retrieved 29 January 2021.
- O'Shea, Phillip. "The orders, decorations and medals of Sir Edmund Hillary, KG, ON Z, KBE (1919–2008)" (PDF). Reserve Bank Museum. Archived from the original (PDF) on 28 November 2010. Retrieved 7 November 2010.
- Editorial Staff (25 April 1995). "State Intelligence". the London Gazette. p. 6023. Retrieved 12 March 2018.
- "The Most Noble Order of the Garter-K.G." (4 May 1995) 42 1071 at 1088.
- "Zmarł Edmund Hillary, pierwszy zdobywca Mt Everest". Gazeta.pl Wiadomości (in Polish). Agora S.A. 10 January 2008. Archived from the original on 20 July 2014. Retrieved 15 November 2013.
- "Pranab, Tendulkar, Asha Bhosle receive Padma Vibhushan". The Hindu. Chennai, India. 6 May 2008. Archived from the original on 9 May 2008.
- Mountaineering Great Edmund Hillary passes away 12 January 2008 The Rising Nepal Archived 4 March 2008 at the Wayback Machine
- "Sir Edmund Hillary – Commemorative $5 Bank Note". www.siredmundhillary.com. Archived from the original on 26 March 2018. Retrieved 14 December 2017.
- "Banknotes in circulation". Reserve Bank of New Zealand. Archived from the original on 28 January 2018. Retrieved 16 March 2018.
- Explaining Currency Archived 12 July 2013 at the Wayback Machine NZ Government
- "Sir Ed tops NZ's most trusted list". Television New Zealand. 30 June 2005. Retrieved 12 June 2010.
- Rowan, Juliet (29 May 2007). "Parents trust firefighters, but want kids to be high-earning lawyers". The New Zealand Herald. Retrieved 12 June 2010.
- "Our Uniqueness". Hillary Outdoors Education Centres|OPC. Archived from the original on 2 February 2017. Retrieved 2 February 2017.
- "Sir Edmund Hillary at The Hermitage July 2003". www.rootsweb.ancestry.com. Retrieved 17 November 2016.
- "Collegiate Story". sehc.school.nz. Sir Edmund Hillary Collegiate. Retrieved 10 December 2017.
- "Hillary Coast". Geographic Names Information System. United States Geological Survey. Retrieved 10 December 2017.
- Booker, Jarrod (16 January 2008). "Hillary's first mountain could take name". The New Zealand Herald. Archived from the original on 7 September 2012. Retrieved 26 August 2008.
- Famous New Zealanders. Retrieved 22 January 2007.
- Ministry for Culture and Heritage (20 December 2012). "From Everest to the South Pole". Retrieved 17 May 2020.
- Gill, Michael (24 September 2014). "'Dishevelled' pilot who caused Hillary tragedy should have been barred". Stuff. Retrieved 30 May 2020.
- Sailing Source, "Sir Edmund Hillary to Start Rolex Sydney-Hobart Race" Archived 3 January 2007 at the Wayback Machine. Retrieved 22 January 2007.
- National Geographic 50th Anniversary Everest Expedition Reaches Summit Archived 30 September 2013 at the Wayback Machine, National Geographic News, 25 May 2002. Retrieved 5 May 2011.
- Sarney, Estelle (28 February 2009). "Sir Ed's haven on the market". The New Zealand Herald. Retrieved 29 September 2011.
- "Sir Ed's bach a place of solace". Nor-west News. Huapai, New Zealand: Fairfax New Zealand. January 2008. OCLC 276732793. Retrieved 29 June 2012.
- "Hillary Trail: The Hillary connection". Parks: Things to do. Auckland, New Zealand: Auckland Regional Council. Archived from the original on 24 June 2012. Retrieved 29 June 2012.
- "Multi-day Waitakere trail named after Sir Edmund Hillary" (Press release). Auckland Regional Council. 29 September 2009. Retrieved 29 June 2012.
- Dye, Stuart (14 January 2008). "Lonely site legend's special place". The New Zealand Herald. Auckland, New Zealand: Wilson and Horton. ISSN 1170-0777. OCLC 55942740. Retrieved 30 June 2012.
- "About us". himalayantrust.org. Himalayan Trust New Zealand. Retrieved 14 December 2017.
- "Historical faces". Mountain Wilderness. 31 December 2010. Retrieved 17 November 2016.
- Rowling: The Man and the Myth by John Henderson, Australia New Zealand Press, 1980.
- "Sir Edmund Hillary: Mountaineer who conquered Everest and devoted his". The Independent. 12 January 2008. Retrieved 17 November 2016.
- "Obituaries". ALRANZ Newsletter. November 2008. Archived from the original on 5 June 2015. Retrieved 5 June 2015.
- "Our History". ALRANZ.org. Archived from the original on 13 January 2015. Retrieved 5 June 2015.
- Dye, Stuart (24 April 2007). "Clark sends goodwill message to Sir Edmund". The New Zealand Herald. Retrieved 29 September 2011.
- McKenzie-Minifie, Martha (11 January 2008). "State funeral for Sir Edmund Hillary". The New Zealand Herald. Retrieved 29 September 2011.
- "Flag flies at half-mast over a sad Scott Base". Stuff.co.nz. Archived from the original on 26 May 2012. Retrieved 29 September 2011.
- "Clark statement on Hillary death". CNN.com. Retrieved 11 January 2008.
- "Sir Edmund Hillary lies in state". Fairfax Media. 21 January 2008. Archived from the original on 13 September 2012. Retrieved 21 February 2008.
- "State funeral for Sir Ed". Stuff.co.nz. Archived from the original on 11 January 2008. Retrieved 29 September 2011.
- "Sir Edmund Hillary takes final voyage, ashes scattered at sea". The New Zealand Herald. 29 February 2008. Retrieved 29 September 2011.
- "Sherpas cancel plan to spread Hillary ashes on Everest". BBC News. 9 April 2010. Retrieved 10 April 2010.
- "Nepal to name Everest airport after Edmund Hillary and Tenzing Norgay". International Herald Tribune. 15 January 2008. Archived from the original on 12 February 2008. Retrieved 27 April 2010.
- Sharma, Gopal (11 February 2008). "Nepal airport, route named after Everest heroes". Reuters. Retrieved 10 December 2017.
- "Sir Edmund Hillary service of thanksgiving". BBC News. 2 April 2008. Retrieved 13 March 2010.
- "Third night in hospital for duke". BBC News. 5 April 2008. Retrieved 13 March 2010.
- Gray, Wynne (1 December 2008). "All Blacks: Henry's men reach summit". The New Zealand Herald. Retrieved 2 December 2008.
- "The Duke of Edinburgh's Hillary Award". Retrieved 1 September 2009.
- "Sir Edmund Hillary Stamps". New Zealand Post. Retrieved 13 March 2016.
- "Honouring Edmund Hillary". NZ History. Retrieved 13 March 2018.
- Summits for Ed tribute tour Archived 13 May 2010 at the Wayback Machine, Sir Edmund Hillary Foundation and Outdoor Pursuits Centre.
- "Summits for Ed Tribute Tour". Archived from the original on 13 May 2010. Retrieved 4 January 2010.
- "Horowhenua Musicians Perform Sir Edmund Hillary's Official World Memorial Song". Horowhenua District Council. Archived from the original on 30 May 2009.
- "Regional parks: Home > Parks and facilities > Hillary Trail". Auckland Council. Retrieved 13 March 2016.
- Wade, Pamela (13 January 2010). "Waitakere: Backyard adventure". The New Zealand Herald. Auckland, New Zealand: Wilson and Horton. ISSN 1170-0777. OCLC 55942740. Retrieved 29 June 2012.
- "Hillary Trail". Parks: Things to do. Auckland, New Zealand: Auckland Regional Council. Archived from the original on 8 July 2012. Retrieved 29 June 2012.
- "Hillary Trail Waitakere Ranges Regional Park" (PDF). Auckland Regional Council (arc). Retrieved 13 March 2016.
- Levy, Danya (10 August 2011). "Aoraki/Mt Cook ridge named after Hillary". Stuff.co.nz. Retrieved 13 November 2011.
- "Mount Everest: Hillary and Tenzing to have peaks named after them". The Guardian. 6 September 2013.
- "First Official Pluto Feature Names". NASA. Retrieved 30 May 2023.
- "Object: Sir Edmund :)Hillary". Collections Online. Museum of New Zealand Te Papa Tongarewa. Retrieved 18 August 2015.
- "Sir Edmund Hillary Archive". www.unescomow.org.nz. Archived from the original on 8 October 2015. Retrieved 22 November 2015.
- "Sir Edmund Hillary – Personal papers". Auckland War Memorial Museum. Retrieved 22 November 2015.
- "Escape to New Zealand With Its New Visa Program (If You Don't Mind a Week in a Yurt)". Bloomberg.com. 28 May 2019. Retrieved 20 August 2022.
- "The Global Impact Visa pilot". Edmund Hillary Foundation. Retrieved 20 August 2022.[permanent dead link]
- Shame and Honor: A Vulgar History of the Order of the Garter, p. 264, at Google Books
- "Sir Edmund Hillary: Knight of the Garter". Te Ara – The Encyclopedia of New Zealand.
- Hillary, Sir Edmund Percival. (2011). In L. Rodger, & J. Bakewell, Chambers Biographical Dictionary (9th ed.). London, UK: Chambers Harrap. Retrieved from https://search.credoreference.com/content/entry/chambbd/hillary_sir_edmund_percival/1?institutionId=292
- Hunt, John (1953). The Ascent of Everest. London: Hodder & Stoughton. (The Summit (Chapter 16, pp 197–209) is by Hillary)
- Booth, Pat (1993). Edmund Hillary: The Life of a Legend. Auckland: Moa Beckett.
- Elish, Dan (2007). Edmund Hillary: First to the Top. Marshall Cavendish. ISBN 978-0-761-42224-2.
- Gill, Michael (2017). Edmund Hillary : a biography. Potton & Burton. ISBN 9780947503383.
- Hillary, Edmund (1955). High Adventure. Hodder & Stoughton. ISBN 1-932302-02-6.
- Johnston, Alexa; Larsen, David (2005). Reaching the Summit: Sir Edmund Hillary's Life of Adventure. DK Publishing. ISBN 978-0-756-61527-7.
- Johnston, Alexa (2013). Sir Edmund Hillary: An Extraordinary Life. Penguin Random House New Zealand Limited. ISBN 978-0143006466.
- Little, Paul (2012). After Everest: Inside the private world of Edmund Hillary. Sydney, Australia: Allen & Unwin. ISBN 978-1-877505-20-1.
- McKinnon, Lyn (2016). Only Two for Everest. Dunedin: Otago University Press. ISBN 978-1-972322-40-6.
- Tuckey, Harriet (2013). Everest: The First Ascent — How a Champion of Science Helped to Conquer the Mountain. Lyons Press. p. 424. ISBN 978-0-762-79192-7.
- Edmund Hillary biography from the Dictionary of New Zealand Biography
- Edmund Hillary at the New Zealand Sports Hall of Fame
- On top of the world: Ed Hillary at nzhistory.net.nz
- Videos (10) at the New Zealand National Film Unit
- Obituary of Edmund Hillary at tributes.com
- "Interview with Sir Edmund Hillary: Mountain Climbing" at Smithsonian Folkways
- Edmund Hillary on BBC Radio 4's Desert Island Discs, 17 April 1979
- Edmund Hillary's collection at Auckland War Memorial Museum Tāmaki Paenga Hira
- Edmund Hillary addressing The New York Herald Tribune Book and Author Luncheon, February 10, 1954 broadcast by WNYC
- "Obituary: Sir Edmund Hillary". The Telegraph. 11 January 2008. Archived from the original on 11 January 2022. Retrieved 19 October 2018.
- Works by or about Edmund Hillary at Internet Archive