Edna Clarke Hall

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to navigation Jump to search

Edna Clarke Hall
Edna Clarke Hall.jpg
Self portrait, c.1910s.
Edna Waugh

(1879-06-29)29 June 1879
Shipbourne, Kent, England
Died16 November 1979(1979-11-16) (aged 100)
Deal, Kent, England
EducationSlade School of Art
Known fordrawing, painting, etching, lithography, poetry

Edna Clarke Hall (1879–1979) was a watercolour artist, etcher, lithographer and draughtsman who is mainly known for her many illustrations to Wuthering Heights by Emily Brontë.[1][2][3]

Early life and education[edit]

Born Edna Waugh in Shipbourne, she was the tenth child of the philanthropist Benjamin Waugh, who, with William Clarke Hall (1866–1932), founded the National Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Children (NSPCC).[2][4] In 1881, the Waughs moved to Southgate, and in 1889, after her father resigned the ministry to dedicate himself to the NSPCC, the family settled in St Albans, Hertfordshire.[2]

The young Edna Waugh showed an early talent for drawing. When she was fourteen, Clarke Hall arranged for her to enter the Slade School of Art.[2] Whilst there, Edna was taught by Henry Tonks, "the most renowned and formidable teacher of his generation".[5] She studied alongside Gwen and Augustus John, Ida Nettleship, Ambrose McEvoy and Albert Rutherston, and made many drawings and etchings of her new friends.[2] She won many prizes and certificates for her drawings and in 1897 was awarded a Slade scholarship.[1][2] Although a couple of oil paintings, painted under Gwen John's guidance, exist, Edna's favoured medium as a painter was watercolour.[6][7][8]


Early 'Wuthering Heights' drawing showing Catherine Earnshaw on a wall, 1900–05
Later 'Wuthering Heights' drawing showing Heathcliff supporting the dying Catherine, 1924

The 19-year-old Edna married Clarke Hall on 22 December 1898.[2] Although he had previously encouraged and supported his wife's studies, there were tensions between Edna's artistic ambitions and her husband's expectation that she conform to a traditional wifely role.[2][8] For the next two decades, Edna Clarke Hall's art became a very personal activity only shared with close friends and occasionally shown in group exhibitions.[2] Shortly after their marriage, the Clarke Halls rented a sixteenth-century house called 'Great Tomkins' on Upminster Common.[2][9] This house reminded Edna of Wuthering Heights by Emily Brontë, inspiring the first of the many illustrations of scenes from the novel that she would create.[9] For the rest of her artistic life Clarke Hall added to the Wuthering Heights drawings and etchings during periods of emotional crisis.[2] They portrayed scenes such as the distraught Catherine crying for the absent Heathcliff[10] and Heathcliff supporting the dying Catherine.[11] One of her drawings of the latter scene was inscribed with the quote ‘Let me alone! If I've done wrong, I'm dying for it'.[11]

Apart from Wuthering Heights, Edna's sons, Justin (b. 1905) and Denis (1910–2006) were key subjects for her art. She frequently painted them whilst they were otherwise absorbed in their own pursuits, creating tender yet unsentimental portraits, typically in watercolour.[2]

In 1914, Henry Tonks persuaded his former pupil to hold a one-woman show at the Chenil Galleries in London. This show was a critical success, with one review describing her as a ‘sensitive and expressive draughtswoman who reaches a masterly plane’ and admiring her ‘individual and instinctive’ use of colour.[12]

Breakdown and artistic identity[edit]

Edna Clarke Hall suffered a nervous breakdown in 1919. Through the assistance of Tonks and the psychologist Henry Head she addressed some of the problems with her marriage and was able to reassert her artistic identity.[2] In 1922 her husband set up a studio in South Square, Gray's Inn, where she could work.[2][8] Between 1924 and 1941 she exhibited regularly at the Redfern Gallery in London. Her 1926 show led to The Times's art critic declaring her 'the most imaginative artist in England'.[13]

Edna Clarke Hall wrote and published two volumes of poetry, Poems (1926) and Facets (1930).[1] Three of her 'Poem Pictures', which merged illustration and text in a manner reminiscent of William Blake, appear as lithographs in Facets.[2]

William Clarke Hall was knighted in 1932 for his work towards reforming child law, at which point his wife became Lady Clarke Hall, but he died later that year.[8][14] A Trust was formed by Mrs F. Samuel, Mrs. E. Bishop, and Michel H. Salaman, who were mutual friends of the Clarke Halls, to enable Edna to retain her studio and continue working.[8][11]

In 1939 a retrospective of her drawings was held at Manchester.[1] In 1941, Clarke Hall's London studio was destroyed, along with much of her work, by enemy action during the Blitz.[8]

Later life and death[edit]

The loss of her studio was a devastating blow. Clarke Hall gradually painted less and less until ceasing completely in the early 1950s.[2] She lived out the rest of her life with her niece and companion, Mary Fearnley Sander, until her death, aged 100, on 16 November 1979.[2]


  1. ^ a b c d Biography of Lady Edna Clarke Hall, Tate Online, accessed 3 Feb 2012
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q Alison Thomas, ‘Hall, Edna Clarke , Lady Clarke Hall (1879–1979)’, Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, Oxford University Press, 2004 accessed 3 Feb 2012
  3. ^ Frances Spalding (1990). 20th Century Painters and Sculptors. Antique Collectors' Club. ISBN 1 85149 106 6.
  4. ^ Elain Harwood, Obituary of Denis Clarke Hall, The Independent, Tuesday 8 August 2006. Accessed 3 February 2012
  5. ^ "Tonks, Henry" The Oxford Dictionary of Art. Ed. Ian Chilvers. Oxford University Press, 2004.
  6. ^ Still Life of a Basket on a Chair, 1900, collection of the Tate Gallery. Accessed 3 February 2012
  7. ^ Benjamin Waugh c.1904, Painted by Edna Clarke Hall, accessed 3 February 2012
  8. ^ a b c d e f "Chronology and works of Edna Clarke Hall". Archived from the original on 20 July 2010. Retrieved 20 July 2010.. Accessed 23 May 2012.
  9. ^ a b Catherine Earnshaw and Heathcliff at Wuthering Heights c.1910–11 , pen and ink sketch. Tate Gallery, London, accessed 3 February 2012
  10. ^ Catherine leaning on a wall, 1900–05, pen and blue wash. Tate Gallery, London, accessed 8 February 2012
  11. ^ a b c Heathcliffe (sic) supporting Catherine, pen, ink and watercolour. Tate Gallery, London, accessed 8 February 2012
  12. ^ J. H. Collins Baker for The Saturday Review, 14 April 1914. Quoted by Alison Thomas, ‘Hall, Edna Clarke , Lady Clarke Hall (1879–1979)’, Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, Oxford University Press, 2004 accessed 3 Feb 2012
  13. ^ The Times, 9 February 1926. Quoted by Alison Thomas, ‘Hall, Edna Clarke , Lady Clarke Hall (1879–1979)’, Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, Oxford University Press, 2004 accessed 3 Feb 2012
  14. ^ The letters of Ernest Dowson, page 164, Fairleigh Dickinson Univ Press, 1 Jun 1968. ISBN 0-8386-6747-3

Further reading[edit]

Thomas, Alison, Portraits of Women: Gwen John and Her Forgotten Contemporaries, Wiley-Blackwell, 1996. ISBN 978-0-7456-1828-9

External links[edit]