Edna Lewis

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Edna Lewis (April 13, 1916 – February 13, 2006) was a renowned African-American chef, teacher, and author who helped refine the American view of Southern cooking. She championed the use of fresh, in season ingredients and characterized Southern food as fried chicken (pan, not deep-fried), pork, and fresh vegetables - most especially greens. She wrote and co-wrote four books which covered Southern cooking and life in a small community of freed slaves and their descendants. [1]

Early life and career[edit]

Lewis was born in the small farming settlement of Freetown, Orange County, Virginia,[2] the granddaughter of an emancipated slave who helped start the community. She was one of eight children. Lewis' father passed away in 1928 when she was 12, and at 16 she left Freetown on her own and joined the Great Migration north. When Lewis left Freetown she moved to Washington DC and eventually to New York City in her early 30s.[3][4] While in D.C. Lewis worked for Franklin D. Roosevelt's 2nd presidential campaign in 1936.[5] At some point, between DC and NYC, Edna Lewis married Steven Kingston, a retired Merchant Marine cook and fellow communist.[5] When she arrived in New York, an acquaintance found her a job in a Brooklyn laundry, where she was assigned to an ironing board. She had never ironed and lasted three hours before she was dismissed. She had experience in sewing and soon found work as a seamstress. As a seamstress she copied Christian Dior dresses for Dorcas Avedon, then the wife of Richard Avedon, amongst others (including a dress for Marilyn Monroe); she also created African-inspired dresses - for which she was well-known.[6] While in New York, she also worked for the communist newspaper The Daily Worker and was involved in political demonstrations.[3]

Café Nicholson and cookbook fame[edit]

While in New York City, Lewis began throwing dinner parties for her friends and acquaintances - John Nicholson, an antiques dealer - was one of those friends.[5] In 1948 on 58th Street, in East Side Manhattan, Nicholson opened Café Nicholson with Lewis as cook, which became an instant success among bohemians and artists. The restaurant was frequented by William Faulkner, Marlon Brando, Tennessee Williams, Truman Capote, Richard Avedon, Gloria Vanderbilt, Marlene Dietrich, Eleanor Roosevelt, and Diana Vreeland.[6] At the Café, Lewis served a neat menu of simple, Southern inspired dishes, including a chocolate soufflé, for which she was known. [7] In the mid 1950s, Lewis left Café Nicholson and from there spent time as a Pheasant farmer in New Jersey until the entire flock died on evening from disease. She opened and closed her own restaurant, catered for friends and acquaintances, taught cooking lessons, and even became a docent in the Hall of African Peoples in the American Museum of Natural History. [6] In the late 1960s, she broke her leg and was temporarily forced to stop cooking professionally. With encouragement from Judith Jones, the cookbook editor at Knopf who also edited Julia Child, Evangeline Peterson and Lewis worked together to write The Edna Lewis Cookbook (1972). However, Jones found the cookbook "fashionable but tasteless" and in turn worked with Lewis on her own to complete The Taste of Country Cooking in 1976.[6] The book is considered a classic study of Southern cooking. In 1979, Craig Claiborne of The New York Times said the book "may well be the most entertaining regional cookbook in America".[6] In 2017, nearly forty years after its publication,The Taste of Country Cooking saw an abrupt and newsworthy spike in US sales, ranking #5 overall and #3 in the cookbook category on Amazon's bestseller list - this spike followed its thematic inclusion in an episode of the cooking competition show Top Chef.[8]

Early career at Cafe Nicholson[edit]

In 1949 Cafe Nicholson was located at ground level of a narrow brownstone building on the downtown side of 52nd Street between 2nd Avenue and 3rd Avenue. One entered on the right, directly into a passageway separated from the kitchen by a screenwall of dark wood with openings above shoulder height that gave a view of the narrow kitchen, roughly 12 feet by 16 feet, having two windows facing 52nd street, and not much wall space to arrange cooking facilities. Most frequently Edna Lewis would be there to look up with greetings, dressed in something dark, and often with an Indian Paisley wrapped round her shoulders.[citation needed]

At the end of the short passageway was the Dining Room, roughly 18 feet by 35 feet. On the right was a dark wood buffet topped with white marble, stacked high with white china plates, glassware, flatware and napery interspersed with wire baskets loaded with lemons and other comestibles and a tub or two of highstanding palms. To the left were the small bare marble-topped cafe tables and bentwood or wire-framed chairs. A fine meal might begin with Mussels and herbed rice presented in their blue-black shells on a white plate; then a perfectly roasted chicken, a simple salad of Boston Lettuce with a coating of lemon garlic dressing, and completed with a dark brown puff of chocolate soufflé, containers of whipped cream and molten chocolate offered at the side.[citation needed]

At the back of the dining room was a door leading out to the garden, a space of about 20 feet by 50 feet, furnished with more small tables and chairs similar to those seen inside. A famous photograph by Karl Bissinger shows the back of the brownstone with a group of young New Yorkers becoming world-famous in their separate careers. The photograph includes Gore Vidal, Tennessee Williams, Buffie Johnson and Tanaquil LeClercq.

Subsequently, Cafe Nicholson moved to the studio located to the right of the on-ramp of the Queensboro Bridge on East 58th Street. For a time it was later located on the uptown side of 57th Street between Lexington Avenue and 3rd Avenue.

She was the first African American celebrity chef.[citation needed]

Later career[edit]

In a 1989 interview with The New York Times, Lewis said: "As a child in Virginia, I thought all food tasted delicious. After growing up, I didn't think food tasted the same, so it has been my lifelong effort to try and recapture those good flavors of the past."[6]

After The Taste of Country Cooking was published, Lewis returned to restaurants, most notably to Gage and Tollner in Brooklyn. She worked there for five years before retiring in the mid-1990s. She co-founded the Society for the Revival and Preservation of Southern Food, a precursor to the Southern Foodways Alliance (SFA).[9][10]

Lewis also lived and worked in Chapel Hill, North Carolina and Charleston, South Carolina. For example, from 1983 to 1984 she served as guest chef of The Fearrington House Restaurant located in Pittsboro, just outside Chapel Hill.

She introduced the chocolate soufflé[11] dessert to the menu, and it has remained on the menu to this day. The dessert appeared on the cover of Gourmet magazine in April 1984 and helped launch the Restaurant, then three years old. [1]

Awards and honors[edit]

  • 1986 — Named Who’s Who in American Cooking by Cook’s Magazine
  • 1990 — Lifetime Achievement Award, International Association of Culinary Professionals
  • 1995 — James Beard Living Legend Award (their first such award.)
  • 1999 — Named Grande Dame by Les Dames d’Escoffier, an international organization of female culinary professionals.
  • 1999 — Lifetime Achievement Award from Southern Foodways Alliance (SFA) (their first such award.)
  • 2002 — Barbara Tropp President's Award, Women Chefs & Restaurateurs
  • 2003 — Inducted into the KitchenAid Cookbook Hall of Fame (James Beard)
  • 2004 — The Gift of Southern Cooking nominated for James Beard Award and IACP Award
  • 2009 — African American Trailblazers in Virginia honoree at the Library of Virginia (in Richmond)
  • 2014 — Honored by creation of United States postal stamp with her image[12]

Published works[edit]

  • The Edna Lewis Cookbook (1972)
  • The Taste of Country Cooking (1976)
  • In Pursuit of Flavor (1988)
  • The Gift of Southern Cooking (2003), co-authored with Scott Peacock


  1. ^ "LEWIS, EDNA (1916-2006) | Encyclopedia of American Food and Drink - Credo Reference". search.credoreference.com. Retrieved 2018-09-21. 
  2. ^ The Library of Virginia, African American Trailblazers
  3. ^ a b Gourmet Food biography
  4. ^ Lam, Francis (28 October 2015). "Edna Lewis and the Black Roots of American Cooking". New York Times. Retrieved 29 October 2015. 
  5. ^ a b c "Edna Lewis". The Independent. Retrieved 2018-09-21. 
  6. ^ a b c d e f New York Times 14 February 2006
  7. ^ Lam, Francis. "Edna Lewis and the Black Roots of American Cooking". Retrieved 2018-09-21. 
  8. ^ Judkis, Maura; Judkis, Maura (2017-01-06). "Edna Lewis' classic cookbook zooms up the charts after 'Top Chef' tribute". The Washington Post. ISSN 0190-8286. Retrieved 2017-03-01. 
  9. ^ "SFA History". Southern Foodways Alliance. Archived from the original on 2 March 2013. Retrieved 15 March 2013. 
  10. ^ Salasky, Prue (13 June 1996). "Famed Cook Trying To Revive Southern Food". Daily Press. Retrieved 15 March 2013. 
  11. ^ Taylor, J. (2013). Food: Edna Lewis - A classic cookbook and chef review.
  12. ^ https://about.usps.com/news/national-releases/2014/pr14_050.htm

External links[edit]