Edo language

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Edo
Ẹ̀dó
Native to Nigeria
Region Edo State
Native speakers
1 million (1999)[1]
Niger–Congo
Latin script
Language codes
ISO 639-2 bin
ISO 639-3 bin
Glottolog bini1246[2]
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Edo (/ˈɛd/)[3] (with diacritics, Ẹ̀dó; also called Bini (Benin)) is a Volta–Niger language spoken primarily in Edo State, Nigeria. It is the primary language of the Edo people and was the primary language spoken in the Benin Empire and its predecessor, Igodomigodo.

Phonology[edit]

Vowels[edit]

There are seven vowels, /i e ɛ a ɔ o u/, all of which may be long or nasal, and three tones.

Consonants[edit]

Edo has a rather average consonant inventory for an Edoid language. It maintains only a single phonemic nasal, /m/, but has 13 oral consonants, /ɺ, l, ʋ, j, w/ and the 8 stops, which have nasal allophones such as [n, ɲ, ŋʷ] before nasal vowels.

Labial Labiodental Alveolar Palatal Velar Labio-velar Glottal
Nasal m
Plosive p  b
[pm bm]
t  d
[tn dn]
k  ɡ
[kŋ ɡŋ]
k͡p  ɡ͡b
[k͡pŋ͡m ɡ͡bŋ͡m]
Fricative f  v s  z x  ɣ h
Close approximant ɹ̝̊  ɹ̝
Open approximant ʋ
[ʋ̃]
l  ɹ
[n  ɾ̃]
j
[ɲ]
w
[ŋʷ]

The three rhotics have been described as voiced and voiceless trills plus a lax English-type approximant. However, Ladefoged[4] found all three to be approximants, with the voiced–voiceless pair being raised (without being fricatives) and perhaps at a slightly different place of articulation compared to the third, but not trills.

Phonotactics[edit]

Syllable structure is simple, being maximally CVV, where VV is either a long vowel or /i, u/ plus a different oral or nasal vowel.

Orthography[edit]

The Edo alphabet has separate letters for the nasalised allophones of /ʋ/ and /l/, mw and n:

A B D E F G Gb Gh H I K Kh Kp L M Mw N O P R Rh Rr S T U V Vb W Y Z
/a/ /b/ /d/ /e/ /ɛ/ /f/ /ɡ/ /ɡb/ /ɣ/ /h/ /i/ /k/ /x/ /kp/ /l/ /m/ /ʋ/ /l/ /o/ /ɔ/ /p/ /ɹ/ /ɹ̝̊/ /ɹ̝/ /s/ /t/ /u/ /v/ /ʋ/ /w/ /j/ /z/

Long vowels are written by doubling the letter. Nasal vowels may be written with a final -n or with an initial nasal consonant. Tone may be written with acute accent, grave accent, and unmarked, or with a final -h (-nh with a nasal vowel).

Edo Wikipedia[edit]

Wikipedia currently does not have an Edo language version. An Edo Wikipedia site is currently in process of preconception ("incubation") (see https://incubator.wikimedia.org/wiki/Wp/bin for details). Edo speakers can assist in the creation of the Edo Wikipedia (see how on https://incubator.wikimedia.org/wiki/Wp/bin).

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Edo at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015)
  2. ^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Bini". Glottolog 3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History. 
  3. ^ Laurie Bauer, 2007, The Linguistics Student's Handbook, Edinburgh
  4. ^ Ladefoged, Peter; Maddieson, Ian (1996). The Sounds of the World's Languages. Oxford: Blackwell. ISBN 0-631-19814-8. 

External links[edit]