Edo (state)

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Edo State
Nickname(s): Heart Beat of Nigeria
Location of Edo State in Nigeria
Location of Edo State in Nigeria
Coordinates: 6°30′N 6°00′E / 6.500°N 6.000°E / 6.500; 6.000Coordinates: 6°30′N 6°00′E / 6.500°N 6.000°E / 6.500; 6.000
Country  Nigeria
Date created 27 August 1991
Capital Benin City
 • Governor
Adams Oshiomhole (APC)
 • Total 17,802 km2 (6,873 sq mi)
Area rank 22nd of 36
Population (1991 census)
 • Total 2,159,848
 • Estimate (2005) 3,497,502
 • Rank 27th of 36
 • Density 120/km2 (310/sq mi)
Demonym(s) Edolite
 • Year 2007
 • Total $11.89 billion[1]
 • Per capita $3,623[1]
Time zone WAT (UTC+01)
ISO 3166 code NG-ED

Edo is an inland state in western Nigeria. Its capital is Benin City. It is bounded in the north and east by Kogi State, in the south by Delta State and in the west by Ondo State.


The land now known as Edo state, with Benin City as it capital, has a long history of civilisation. Historians and researchers trace its existence to as far back as prehistoric times. As a well-organized unified community. Under a very formidable monarchial authority called Ogiso. With a verbal government machinery representing legislative, executive and judiciary, with some form of checks and balances more or democratic in form. With the people called Igodomigodo {Benins} {Edo} as it inhabitants.

As prince E. Eweka put it, "No one is really certain about the origin of the Edo people whose origin appears to have been lost in myths and legends of the distant past" What is very certain is that Edo Civilization is well over 6000 years according to scientific evidence and before the first ancient inhabitant of Edo land was unified under a monarchial authority of ogiso. The Igodomigodos {Edos} {Binis} govern themselves through the ancient system of seIf governance called Owere {community elders}. The oldest male person in the community who is also the senior among Owere is automatically installed as Odionwere {senior among the community elders}. Odionwere and Owere manage the day-to-day affair of their various communities. This system is still practice in Edo-land to this day.

Benin City was seat of government of the ancient Benin Empire one of the most powerful African empires during 15th and 16th centuries. Its authority and influence spreading to the coast of Benin republic, the Niger delta, the north west of Niger river and to Onisha in the east. When Benin City was invaded and eventually fell to British force in 1897, Edo land was place under the jurisdiction of the southern protectorate.

The fall of Benin Empire was an event the British colonial power has always hoped for; it gave them the opportunity to stretch their Empire into West Africa hinterland. With Benin Empire out of their way, a country called Nigeria was born with the amalgamation of southern protectorate and the Northern protectorate in 1914.

When Nigeria gained its independence in 1960, three regions were in excitant the Northern region, Eastern region and western region, which Edo land was under it jurisdiction. Dominated by the Edo ethnic-linguistic group. Benin and Delta [Bendel] people sharing a common origin, cultures, religious worships, and ancestors traceable to the ancient Benin Empire. This historical ties and discovery of a common roots and identity was transformed into a political consciousness this Consciousness was crystallized into geo-political umbrella movement, a powerful lobby group head by the late Oba Akenzua II which lobby vigorously for the creation of a separate region for Benin and Delta people [Bendel]. This ideal of a separate region did not find favour with the western regional government. After much political and constitutional debate a referendum was eventually held on 27 July 1963. The result was massive and overwhelmingly 87% of the qualified voters back a separate region for the Benin and Delta people. 29% more than the statutory minimum. The Midwestern region act of 1962 was subsequently brought into force on 9 August 1963 and a new region called Midwestern region was born and legally came into existence. With Benin City as it capital. It Form the fourth region of Nigeria. Dennis Osadebey was appointed administrator on 9 August 1963 and he eventually became the first premier in February 1964.

When Nigeria was further restructured, from four regions to 12 states On 27 May 1967, Midwestern region was changed to Midwestern state but retained its original geographical boundaries. On 3 February 1976, when Murtala Muhammad regime further subdivided Nigeria’s states from 12 states to 19 states, Midwestern state was change to Bendel state, with some little adjustment in the geographical boundaries, minor cession of some riverine area to Rivers state. On 27 August 1991, two states were created out of Bendel state; Edo state was one of them, retaining Benin City as its capital in continuation of Midwestern region historical perspectives. Edo State was formed on 27 August 1991 when Bendel State was split into Edo and Delta State [2]


The 1992 gubernatorial election, pitting John Odigie Oyegun (the SDP candidate) against Lucky Igbinedion (the NRC candidate) was annulled on 4 February of that year by the electoral tribunal. Among Igbinedion's claims were that the Oba of Benin and one of his chiefs, Nosakhare Isekhure, unfairly supported Oyegun. Oyegun's victory was upheld on 18 March 1992.[3]

On 20 March 2008, an election tribunal nullified the election of Oserheimen Osunbor People's Democratic Party,(PDP) and declared erstwhile labour leader Comrade Adams Oshiomhole of the Action Congress as the winner. The decision was based on several voting irregularities.[4]

Oshiomhole was voted for a second term in 2012.

Local Government Areas[edit]

Edo State consists of eighteen (18) Local Government Areas. They are:

  • Akoko-Edo
  • Egor
  • Esan Central
  • Esan North-East
  • Esan South-East
  • Esan West
  • Etsako Central
  • Etsako East
  • Etsako West
  • Igueben
  • Ikpoba-Okha
  • Oredo
  • Orhionmwon
  • Ovia North-West
  • Ovia North-East
  • Ovia South-West
  • Owan East
  • Owan West
  • Uhunmwonde


English is the official language of the state. The major tribal languages spoken in the state are Igarra, Edo, Esan and Okpamheri.[5] Edo State is home to several ethnicities, among them the Edo, Okpe, Esan, Afemai, Ora,[disambiguation needed] Akoko-Edo, Igbanke, Emai and Ijaw. The 2014 Population Estimate of Edo state is 5 million.


The University of Benin, Benin City, The Ambrose Alli University, Ekpoma, The Igbinedion University, Okada, The Benson Idahosa University, Benin City, The Federal Polytechnic, Auchi, Edo State Institute of Technology and Management, Usen, College of Education (Benin), Ekiadolor. Baptist College of Theology, Benin City. Wellspring University, Irhirhi road, Benin City, Edo State College of Agriculture, Iguoriakhi, Lighthouse Polytechnic, Evbuobanosa, Samuel Adegboyega University, Ogwa, and Shaka Polytechnic, Benin City are amongst institutions of higher education located in the state.


Tourist attractions in Edo State include the Emotan Statue in Benin City, Ise Lake and River Niger beach in Agenebode, Etsako-East; Ambrose Alli Square, Ekpoma, River Niger beaches at Ilushi, BFFM building at Ewu, College of Agriculture and Aqua Culture Technology, Agenebode, Okpekpe with its hills and scenes and the Somorika hills in Akoko Edo, where a government-run tourist center at Ososo is set among spectacular scenery.[6][7] The state produces crude oil.[8] The state is also noted for the following agricultural products: rubber, cocoa, cashew nuts and is blessed with precious stones like Quartz, Amethyst, Mica, Dolomite, Granite Stone and Lime Stone used in the production of Cement at Okpella. Among the Tourist centers is the Imiegba Uchikpo River in three Ibie Clan and hills.[clarification needed]

Notable people[edit]


  1. ^ a b "C-GIDD (Canback Global Income Distribution Database)". Canback Dangel. Retrieved 20 August 2008. 
  2. ^ http://www.edoworld.net work of Osamede Osunde
  3. ^ Osaghae, Eghosa E (1998). The Crippled Giant: Nigeria Since Independence. Indiana University Press. p. 236. ISBN 0-253-33410-1. 
  4. ^ "Governor's Election Nullified". Africa Research Bulletin; Political, Social, and Cultural series (Blackwell) 45 (3): 17419C–17420B. 2008. doi:10.1111/j.1467-825X.2008.01568.x. 
  5. ^ Seibert, Uwe (24 April 2000). "Languages of Edo State". University of Iowa. Retrieved 2007-11-10. 
  6. ^ "Edo State". NigeriaGalleria. Retrieved 28 December 2009. 
  7. ^ "70 Exciting Tourist Spots". OnlineNigeria. Retrieved 28 December 2009. 
  8. ^ Ogbeifun, Greg U (April 2006). "Importance of a Sea Outlet for Edo State". Retrieved 10 November 2007. 

External links[edit]