Edoxaban

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Edoxaban
Edoxaban.svg
Clinical data
Trade namesSavaysa, Lixiana, Roteas, others
Other namesDU-176b
AHFS/Drugs.comMonograph
MedlinePlusa614055
License data
Pregnancy
category
  • US: N (Not classified yet)[1]
Routes of
administration
By mouth
ATC code
Legal status
Legal status
Pharmacokinetic data
Bioavailability62%; Tmax 1–2 hours[5]
Protein binding55%[5]
Metabolismminimal CES1, CYP3A4/5, hydrolysis, glucuronidation[5]
Elimination half-life10–14 hours[5]
Excretion62% feces, 35% urine (97% of 60 mg)[5]
Identifiers
CAS Number
PubChem CID
IUPHAR/BPS
DrugBank
ChemSpider
UNII
KEGG
ChEBI
CompTox Dashboard (EPA)
Chemical and physical data
FormulaC24H30ClN7O4S
Molar mass548.06 g·mol−1
3D model (JSmol)
 ☒N☑Y (what is this?)  (verify)

Edoxaban, sold under the brand name Lixiana among others, is an anticoagulant medication and a direct factor Xa inhibitor.[2] It is taken by mouth.[2]

Compared with warfarin it has fewer drug interactions.[5]

It was developed by Daiichi Sankyo and approved in July 2011, in Japan for prevention of venous thromboembolisms following lower-limb orthopedic surgery.[6] It was also approved in the United States by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in January 2015, for the prevention of stroke and non–central-nervous-system systemic embolism.[7][8] It was approved for use in the European Union in June 2015.[3]

Medical uses[edit]

In the United States, edoxaban is approved for treating deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism following five to ten days of initial therapy with a parenteral anticoagulant. It is also approved for reducing the risk of blood clots in people with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation.[9][2]

In the European Union, edoxaban is approved for preventing blood clots in people with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation who also have at least one risk factor, such as having had a previous stroke, high blood pressure, diabetes mellitus, heart failure or being 75 years old or over. It is also used to treat deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism and to prevent either of these from reoccurring.[3]

Contraindications and notes[edit]

Edoxaban is often contraindicated in people (incomplete list):

Edoxaban (incomplete list):

Adverse effects[edit]

May affect up to 1 in 10 people:[10]

  • stomach ache
  • abnormal results of blood tests that measure liver function
  • anemia
  • bleeding from the skin, nose, vagina, bowel, mouth, throat or stomach
  • rash
  • bloody urine
  • dizziness
  • feeling sick
  • headache
  • itching

May affect up to 1 in 100 people:[10]

  • bleeding in the eyes, brain, after a surgical operation or other types of bleeding
  • blood in the spit when coughing
  • reduced number of platelets in blood
  • allergic reaction
  • hives

May affect up to 1 in 1000 people: bleeding in the muscles, joints, abdomen, heart or inside the skull.[10]

Overdose[edit]

Edoxaban overdose can cause serious bleeding.[medical citation needed] No approved antidotes for edoxaban overdose exist.[medical citation needed] Hemodialysis does not significantly contribute to edoxaban clearance.[2][10] Andexanet alfa has been studied as an antidote for edoxaban overdose, but has only been approved for reversing rivaroxaban and apixaban effects by the FDA and the EMA as of 2019.[11][12]

Mechanism of action[edit]

Edoxaban is a direct, selective, reversible and competitive inhibitor of human factor Xa, with an inhibitory constant (Ki) value of 0.561 nM. In coagulation, uninhibited factor Xa forms a prothrombinase complex with factor Va on platelet surfaces. Prothrombinases turn prothrombins to thrombins. Thrombins turn blood-soluble fibrinogens to insoluble fibrins, which are the main components of blood clots.[5]

Pharmacokinetics[edit]

In human, 15–150 mg oral doses of edoxaban reach their maximum concentrations in blood 1–2 hours after ingestion. With 60 mg doses of isotope labeled edoxaban, 97% of the total radiation was detected after oral administration, with 62% from feces and 35% from urine. 49% of the total radiation from the feces and 24% from the urine were from edoxaban, the rest from its metabolites.[5]

Metabolism occurs mostly via CES1, CYP3A4, CYP3A5 and enzymatic hydrolysis. CES1 oxidizes the tertiary amide carbonyl carbons of edoxabans to carboxylic acid groups. CYP3A4 and CYP3A5 oxidize edoxabans via hydroxylation or demethylation. In hydrolysis, 2-amino-5-chloropyridine moiety of edoxaban is removed. Glucuronidation occurs to a lesser extend via glucuronosyltransferases.[5]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Edoxaban (Savaysa) Use During Pregnancy". Drugs.com. 17 June 2020. Retrieved 25 September 2020.
  2. ^ a b c d e f "Savaysa- edoxaban tosylate tablet, film coated". DailyMed. 24 April 2020. Retrieved 23 July 2020.
  3. ^ a b c "Lixiana EPAR". European Medicines Agency (EMA). Retrieved 23 July 2020.
  4. ^ "Roteas EPAR". European Medicines Agency (EMA). Retrieved 25 September 2020.
  5. ^ a b c d e f g h i Parasrampuria DA, Truitt KE (June 2016). "Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics of Edoxaban, a Non-Vitamin K Antagonist Oral Anticoagulant that Inhibits Clotting FactorXa". Clinical Pharmacokinetics. 55 (6): 641–55. doi:10.1007/s40262-015-0342-7. PMC 4875962. PMID 26620048.
  6. ^ "First market approval in Japan for Lixiana (Edoxaban)". Daiichi Sankyo Europe GmbH (Press release). 2011-04-22. Archived from the original on 2013-11-06.
  7. ^ O'Riordan M (9 January 2015). "FDA Approves Edoxaban for Stroke Prevention in AF and DVT/PE Prevention". Medscape. Retrieved 10 January 2015.
  8. ^ "Drug Approval Package: Savaysa (edoxaban tosylate) Tablets NDA #206316". U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). 13 February 2015. Retrieved 23 July 2020.
  9. ^ Lowenstern A, Al-Khatib SM, Sharan L, Chatterjee R, Allen LaPointe NM, Shah B, et al. (December 2018). "Interventions for Preventing Thromboembolic Events in Patients With Atrial Fibrillation: A Systematic Review". Annals of Internal Medicine. 169 (11): 774–787. doi:10.7326/M18-1523. PMC 6825839. PMID 30383133.
  10. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k "Lixiana, INN-edoxaban" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on 2019-11-06. Retrieved 2019-11-06.
  11. ^ Ovanesov M (2017-08-03). "Summary basis for regulatory action - ANDEXXA". Retrieved 2019-11-06.
  12. ^ "Ondexxya". European Medicines Agency. 2019-02-27. Retrieved 2019-11-06.

External links[edit]

  • "Edoxaban". Drug Information Portal. U.S. National Library of Medicine.