|Founded||November 19, 1956|
|Defunct||November 19, 1959|
|Headquarters||Allen Park, Michigan, US|
Citation, Corsair, Pacer, Ranger
Bermuda, Villager, Roundup
|Parent||Ford Motor Company|
1958 Edsel Corsair
|Manufacturer||Edsel Division of Ford Motor Company|
|Designer||Roy Brown Jr. |
|Body and chassis|
Edsel is a defunct automobile brand of Ford Motor Company that sold automobiles from the 1958 to the 1960 model years. Officially designated as a third brand of the Lincoln-Mercury Division (re-christened the Mercury-Edsel-Lincoln Division), Edsel (deriving its name from Edsel Ford) was intended to give Ford a fourth brand, allowing the company to gain additional market share between General Motors and Chrysler. In a similar fashion to Buick, Oldsmobile, and Pontiac (and Dodge and DeSoto), Edsel and Mercury shared a similar price range; the division shared bodies with both Ford and Mercury.
As Edsel marked the first launch of a new brand by a major American automaker since Mercury in 1939, Ford invested heavily in a year long advertising campaign leading consumers to believe that Edsels were the cars of the future. While its model lines introduced several advanced features for its price segment, the 1958 launch of Edsel would become a symbol of a commercial failure. Introduced in a recession that catastrophically affected sales of medium-priced cars, Edsels were considered overhyped, unattractive (distinguished by a vertical grille), and low quality.
Following a loss of over $250 million on development, manufacturing, and marketing on the model line, Ford quietly discontinued the Edsel brand before 1960.
Ford Motor Company became a publicly traded corporation on January 17, 1956, and thus was no longer entirely owned by members of the Ford family. The company was now able to sell cars according to current market trends following the sellers' market of the postwar years.[dubious ] Ford's new management compared the company's roster of makes with that of General Motors and Chrysler,[dubious ] and concluded that Lincoln was competing not with Cadillac, but with Oldsmobile, Buick, and DeSoto. Ford developed a plan to move Lincoln upmarket, with the Continental broken out as a separate make at the top of Ford's product line, and to add premium/intermediate vehicles to the intermediate slot vacated by Lincoln.[original research?]
Marketing research and development for the new intermediate line had begun in 1955 under the code name "E car", which stood for "experimental car." Ford Motor Company eventually decided on the name "Edsel", in honor of Edsel B. Ford, son of the company's founder, Henry Ford (despite objections from Henry Ford II). The proposed vehicle marque would represent the start-up of a new division of the firm alongside that of Ford itself and the Lincoln-Mercury division, whose cars at the time shared the same bodies.
Ford later claimed to have performed more than adequate, if not superior, product development and market research work in the planning and design of the new vehicle. Ford assured its investors, and the Detroit automotive press, that Edsels were not only superior products (as compared to their Oldsmobile/Buick/DeSoto competition), but the details of their styling and specifications were the result of a sophisticated market analysis and research and development effort that would essentially guarantee their broad acceptance by the buying public when the cars were introduced.
its exciting new features,
make other cars
-- Edsel advertisement, 1957
In November 1956, the Edsel Division of Ford Motor Company was formed to establish a retail organization and dealer network, alongside Ford and Lincoln-Mercury (the Continental Division had ceased to exist several months earlier). With a network of 1,187 Edsel dealers, Ford Motor Company now had approximately 10,000 dealerships between its three divisions, bringing it closer in line with Chrysler (10,000 dealers across four brands) and General Motors (16,000 across six brands).
E Day introduction
Edsels were introduced amid considerable publicity on "E Day"—September 4, 1957. They were also promoted by a top-rated television special, The Edsel Show, on October 13, but the promotional effort was not enough to counter the adverse initial public reaction to Edsel styling and unconventional build.
After the launch date, Edsel was described as a "reborn LaSalle," a General Motors brand that had disappeared in 1940. For months, Ford had been telling the industry press that it "knew" (through its market research) that there would be great demand for the vehicles. Ford also insisted that, in the Edsels, it had built exactly the "entirely new kind of car" that Ford had been leading the buying public to expect through its pre-introduction publicity campaign for the cars. In reality, however, Edsels shared their engineering and bodywork with other Ford models, and the similarities were apparent once the vehicles were viewed firsthand.
For its inaugural model year, Edsel introduced a seven-model product line, including four sedans and three station wagons. The lower-trim Edsel Ranger and Edsel Pacer shared bodies with Ford sedans (118-inch wheelbase) while the higher-trim Edsel Corsair and Edsel Citation shared bodies with Mercury sedans (124-inch wheelbase). Sharing its body and 116-inch wheelbase with Ford station wagons, Edsel offered the two-door Edsel Roundup and the four-door Edsel Villager and Edsel Bermuda.
The Edsel model line offered multiple design features that were considered innovative for the time. In place of a horizontal strip or a round dial, the speedometer was a rotating dome; in line with aircraft design, the dashboard adopted warning lights for conditions as low oil level, parking brake engaged, and engine overheating. While not equipped with cruise control, Edsel introduced a speed warning on the speedometer if the driver exceeded a preset speed limit. While a standard column-mounted transmission shifter was offered (as a delete option), Edsel marked the introduction of the Teletouch push-button shifting system (mounted in the steering wheel hub).
The Edsel also integrated many elements of the Ford Lifeguard safety package into its design. Along with optional seatbelts, the Edsel featured a deep-dish steering wheel, double-latched doors, and childproof rear door locks; the model line was among the first to introduce remote-operated trunk opening and self-adjusting brakes.
In the first year, 63,110 Edsels were sold in the United States, and 4,935 were sold in Canada. Though below expectations, this nevertheless represented the second-largest launch for any new car brand to date, exceeded only by the DeSoto introduction in 1929. There was one four-door Citation model purchased and delivered in October 1957 to the United Kingdom for the Duke of Bedford. Its current whereabouts are unknown. In January 1958, the free-standing Edsel division was added to Lincoln-Mercury, with the re-christened Mercury-Edsel-Lincoln Division (M-E-L) adopting Edsel sales and marketing operations. As the model year progressed and sales fell under expectations, multiple Edsel-only dealers closed or expanded their brand offerings with the encouragement of Ford Motor Company, including Lincoln-Mercury or imported Ford of Britain and Ford of Germany franchises.
For the 1959 model year, Edsel was pared down to its highest-selling model lines, the Ranger and Corsair sedans and Villager station wagon. In an effort to position the Edsel closer to Ford in price, the Mercury-based Edsels were discontinued, with all Edsel vehicles now sharing their bodies with Ford; sedans were moved to a 120-inch wheelbase.
Following the widely negative response to the exterior design, Ford stylists toned down the appearance of the exterior body panels. While a vertical center grille made its return (following heavy revision), a redesign of the hoodline moved the headlamps to the enlarged outer grilles (placing greater emphasis on the front bumper). A similar revision of the rear body panels introduced new taillamps moved below the trunklid.
The interior saw several 1958 features to increase its commonality with Ford. The trouble-prone Teletouch transmission shifter and the rotating-dome speedometer were withdrawn, replaced with a slightly restyled version of the Ford Fairlane 500 dashboard (the fully padded dashboard and optional climate control remained). Along with retaining separate interior trim from Ford, Edsel continued the 70/30 split-bench seatback for Corsairs.
In the 1959 model year, 44,891 Edsels were sold in the U.S., and 2,505 were sold in Canada.
For the 1960 model year, Edsel offered only the Ranger sedans, hardtop, and convertible and the Villager station wagon. Coinciding with the redesign of the 1960 Ford, the 1960 Edsel adopted much more conservative styling than its 1958 namesake. The vertical grille was abandoned in favor of a split grille (similar to the 1959 Pontiac), allowing for a single-piece front bumper for the first time. The rear fascia was distinguished by four oblong taillamps inset into the tailfins (the latter design, shared with Ford). Distinguished primarily by their grille and taillamps, 1960 Edsels were also fitted with model-unique hoods, bumpers and body-side trim.
Edsel shared nearly its entire body with Ford; the four-door Ranger hardtop had no Ford equivalent, combining the Fairlane roofline with the doors of the Galaxie (all Fairlane four-doors were pillared sedans). All Edsels were produced on a 120-inch wheelbase (one inch longer than Ford) with a different rear suspension configuration.
For the 1960 model year, 2,846 vehicles were produced between October 15 and November 19, 1959; all vehicles were assembled at Louisville Assembly (except for pilot prototypes).
Ford announced the end of the Edsel program on November 19, 1959. However, production continued until late in November, with the final tally of 2,846 model year 1960 cars. Total Edsel sales were approximately 116,000, less than half the company's projected break-even point. The company lost $350 million, or the equivalent of $2.4 billion in 2019 dollars, on the venture. Only 118,287 Edsels were built, including 7,440 produced in Ontario, Canada. By U.S. auto industry standards, these production figures were dismal, particularly when spread across a run of three model years.
On Friday, November 20, United Press International's (UPI) wire service reported that book values for used Edsels had declined by as much as $400 based on condition and age immediately following the Ford press release. In some newspaper markets, dealers scrambled to renegotiate newspaper advertising contracts involving the 1960 Edsel models, while others dropped the name from their dealerships' advertising entirely. Ford issued a statement that it would distribute coupons to customers who purchased 1960 models (and carryover 1959 models) prior to the announcement, valued at $300 to $400 toward the purchase of new Ford products to offset the decreased values. The company also issued credits to dealers for stock unsold or received following the announcement.
Historians have advanced several theories in an effort to explain Edsel's failure. Popular culture often faults vehicle styling. Consumer Reports has alleged that poor workmanship was Edsel's chief problem. Marketing experts hold Edsels up as a supreme example of the corporate culture's failure to understand American consumers. Business analysts cite the weak internal support for the product inside Ford's executive offices. According to author and Edsel scholar Jan Deutsch, an Edsel was "the wrong car at the wrong time."
"The aim was right, but the target moved"
Edsels are most notorious for being a marketing disaster. The name "Edsel" became synonymous with the real-life commercial failure of the predicted "perfect" product or product idea. Similar ill-fated products have often been colloquially referred to as "Edsels". Ford's own Sierra model, which launched almost 25 years later, is often compared to Edsels owing to initial buyer antipathy to their perceived radical styling, even though, unlike Edsels, it ultimately became a sales success. Since the Edsel program was such a debacle, it gave marketers a vivid illustration of how not to market a product. The principal reason Edsel's failure is so infamous is that Ford did not consider that failure was a possibility until after the cars had been designed and built, the dealerships established, and $400 million invested in the product's development, advertising and launch. Incredibly, Ford had presumed to invest $400 million (well over $4 billion in 21st century dollars) in developing the new product line without any prior study to determine whether such an investment would be prudent or profitable.
The prerelease advertising campaign promoted the cars as having "more YOU ideas", and the teaser advertisements in magazines revealed only glimpses of the cars through a highly blurred lens or wrapped in paper or under tarps. In fact, Ford had never test marketed the vehicles or their radical styling concepts with potential buyers prior to either the vehicles' initial development decision or vehicle shipments to their new dealerships. Edsels were shipped to the dealerships under wraps and remained so on the dealer lots.
The public also had difficulty understanding exactly what Edsels were, primarily because Ford made the mistake of pricing Edsels within Mercury's market price segment. Theoretically, Edsels were conceived to fit into Ford's marketing structure as a mid-price model, with the brand slotted in between Ford and Mercury. However, when the cars debuted in September 1957, the least expensive Ranger model was priced within $74 of the most expensive and best-trimmed Ford sedan and $63 less than Mercury's base Medalist model. In their mid-range pricing, Edsel's Pacer and Corsair models were more expensive than their ostensibly more costly Mercury counterparts. Edsel's top-of-the-line Citation hardtop sedan was the only model priced to correctly compete with Mercury's mid-range Montclair Turnpike Cruiser model, as illustrated in the chart below.
|1958 Ford Motor Company Pricing (FOB) Structure|
|Park Lane $4,280–$4,405|
|Citation $3,500–$3,766||Montclair $3,236–$3,597|
|Pacer $2,700–$2,993||Monterey $2,652–$3,081|
|Fairlane 500 $2,410–$3,138||Ranger $2,484–$2,643||Medalist $2,547–$2,617|
|Galaxie 500 $2,196–$2,407|
|Custom 300 $1,977–$2,119|
Not only was Edsel competing against its own sister divisions, but model for model, buyers did not understand what the cars were supposed to be—a step above the Mercury, or a step below it.
After introduction to the public, Edsels did not live up to their preproduction publicity, even though many new features were offered, such as self-adjusting rear brakes and automatic lubrication. While Ford's market research had indicated that these and other features would make Edsels attractive to them as car buyers, their selling prices exceeded what buyers were willing to pay. Upon seeing the price for a base model, many potential buyers simply left the dealerships. Other customers were frightened by the price for a fully equipped top-of-the-line model.
“The wrong car at the wrong time”
Compounding Edsel's problems was the fact that the car had to compete with well-established nameplates from the Big Three, such as Pontiac, Oldsmobile, Buick, Dodge and DeSoto, as well as with its sister division Mercury, which had never been a stellar sales success. To make matters still worse, as a new make, Edsel had no established brand loyalty with buyers, as its competing makes had.
Even if the 1957–1958 recession had not occurred, Edsel would have been entering a shrinking marketplace. In the early 1950s, when the "E" car was in its earliest stages of development, Ford Executive Vice President Ernest R. Breech had convinced Ford management that the medium-priced market segment offered great untapped opportunity. At the time, Breech's assessment was basically correct; in 1955, Pontiac, Buick and Dodge had sold a combined two million units. But by the fall of 1957, when Edsels were introduced, the market had changed drastically. Independent manufacturers in the medium-priced field were drifting to insolvency. Hoping to reverse its losses, Packard acquired Studebaker, which was also in financial difficulty. The board decided to stop production under the venerable Packard badge after 1958. The 1957–58 Packards were little more than Studebakers badged as Packards (also known as "Packardbakers"). Attempting to capitalize on the emerging consumer interest in economy cars, American Motors shifted its focus to its compact Rambler models and discontinued its pre-merger brands, Nash and Hudson, after the 1957 model year. Sales of Chrysler's DeSoto marque dropped dramatically from its 1957 high by over 50% in 1958. When DeSoto sales failed to rebound during the 1959 model year, plans were made in Highland Park to discontinue the nameplate by 1961.
Sales for most car manufacturers, even those not introducing new models, were down. Among domestic makes, only Rambler and Lincoln produced more cars in 1958 than in 1957. Customers started buying more fuel-efficient automobiles, particularly Volkswagen Beetles, which were selling at rates exceeding 50,000 a year in the U.S. from 1957 onward. Edsels were equipped with powerful engines and offered brisk acceleration, but they also required premium fuel, and their fuel economy, especially in city driving, was poor even by late-1950s standards.
Ford Motor Company had conducted the right marketing study, but it came up with the wrong product to fill the gap between Ford and Mercury. By 1958, buyers had become fascinated with economy cars, and a large car like an Edsel was seen as too expensive to buy and own. When Ford introduced the Falcon in 1959, it sold over 400,000 units in its first year. Ford's investment in expanded plant capacity and additional tooling for Edsels helped make the company's subsequent success with the Falcon possible.
By 1965, the market for medium-priced cars had recovered, and this time, Ford had the right car: the Galaxie 500 LTD. The LTD's success led Chevrolet to introduce the Caprice as a mid-1965 upscale trim option on its top-of-the-line Impala four-door hardtop.
"Edsel, a difficult name to place"
The name of the car, Edsel, is also often cited as a further reason for its lack of popularity. Naming the vehicle after Edsel Ford was proposed early in its development. However, the Ford family strongly opposed its use. Henry Ford II declared that he did not want his father's good name spinning around on thousands of hubcaps. Ford also ran internal studies to decide on a name, and even dispatched employees to stand outside movie theaters to poll audiences as to what their feelings were on several ideas. They reached no conclusions.
Ford retained the advertising firm Foote, Cone & Belding to come up with a name. When the agency issued its report, citing over 6,000 possibilities, Ford's Ernest Breech commented that they had been hired to develop one name, not 6,000. Early favorites for the name brand included Citation, Corsair, Pacer, and Ranger, which were ultimately chosen for the vehicle's series names.
David Wallace, manager of marketing research, and coworker Bob Young unofficially invited freethinker poet Marianne Moore for input and suggestions. Moore's unorthodox contributions (among them "Utopian Turtletop," "Pastelogram," "Turcotinga," "Resilient Bullet," "Andante con Moto" and "Mongoose Civique") were meant to stir creative thought and were not officially authorized or contractual in nature.
By the instruction of Ernest Breech, who was chairing a board meeting in the absence of Henry Ford II, the car was finally called "Edsel" in honor of Edsel Ford, former company president and son of Henry Ford.
Even though Edsels shared basic technology with other Ford cars of the era, a number of issues caused reliability problems, mostly with the 1958 models. Reports of mechanical flaws with the cars surfaced, due primarily to lack of quality control and confusion of parts with other Ford models. Ford never dedicated a stand-alone factory solely to Edsel model production. The 1958 Edsels were assembled in both Mercury and Ford factories. The longer-wheelbase models, Citation and Corsair, were produced alongside the Mercury products, while the shorter-wheelbase models, Pacer and Ranger, were produced alongside Ford products. Workers assembling Fords and Mercurys often found the task of assembling the occasional Edsel that moved down the line burdensome, because it required them to change tools and parts bins, then switch back to resume assembling Fords or Mercurys after completing assembly on Edsels. The workers were also expected to accommodate Edsel assembly with no adjustment in their hourly quota of Ford and Mercury production. Consequently, the desired quality control of the different Edsel models proved difficult to achieve, even when the Fords and Mercurys were satisfactorily assembled on the same lines. Many Edsels actually left the assembly lines unfinished. Uninstalled parts were placed in the trunks along with installation instructions for dealership mechanics, some of whom never installed the additional parts at all. Some dealers did not even receive all the parts.
In the March 1958 issue of Popular Mechanics, 16% of Edsel owners reported poor workmanship, with complaints ranging from faulty welding to power steering failure. In its test car, Popular Mechanics tested for these problems and discovered others, notably a badly leaking trunk during rain, and the odometer showing fewer than actual miles traveled.
Undoubtedly, Edsel's most memorable design feature was its trademark "horsecollar" grille, which was quite distinct from other cars of the period. According to a popular joke at the time, Edsels "resembled an Oldsmobile sucking a lemon", while automotive critic Dan Neil cites the grille's vaginal appearance. Many others compared the grille's shape to a toilet seat.
According to Thomas E. Bonsall's book, Disaster in Dearborn (2002), it was assistant stylist Bob "Robin" Jones, who suggested a vertical motif for the front end of the "E-car".
Edsel's front-end ensemble as it eventually appeared bore little resemblance, if any, to the original concept. Roy Brown, the original chief designer on the Edsel project, had envisioned a slender, almost delicate opening in the center. Engineers, fearing engine cooling problems, vetoed the intended design, so a ring design was suggested. Ernest Breech then demanded the grille be taller and wider, which led to the now-infamous "horsecollar". The vertical grille theme, while improved for the 1959 models, was discontinued for the 1960 models, which were similar to Ford models of the same year, although coincidentally, the new front-end design was very similar to that of the 1959 Pontiac.
Complaints also surfaced about the taillights on 1958-model Edsel station wagons. The lenses were boomerang-shaped and placed in a reverse fashion. At a distance, they appeared as arrows pointed in the opposite direction of the turn being made. When the left turn signal flashed, its arrow shape pointed right, and vice versa. However, there was little that could be done to give the Ford-based station wagons a unique appearance from the rear, because corporate management had insisted that no sheetmetal could be changed. Only the taillights and trim could be touched. There was room for separate turn signals in addition to the boomerangs, but the U.S. industry had never supplied them up to that point, and they were probably never seriously considered.
The Teletouch pushbutton automatic transmission selector was an extremely complex feature. It proved problematic in part because the steering wheel hub, where the pushbuttons were located, was the traditional location of the horn button. Some drivers inadvertently shifted gears when they intended to sound the horn. While Edsels were fast, the location of the transmission pushbuttons was not conducive to street racing. There were also jokes among stoplight drag racers about the buttons: D for Drag, L for Leap, and R for Race (instead of Drive, Low and Reverse). The control wires for Teletouch were also routed too close to the exhaust manifold, which often caused unpredictable movement of the selector mechanism and, in some cases, complete failure. The electrical design required drivers to shift from Park to Reverse to Neutral to Drive, in that order, to avoid overloading the Teletouch motor. The motor was also not powerful enough to bring the car out of Park while on a hill, so dealerships would instruct drivers to set the parking brake before pushing the Park button.
Mechanics of the time were wary of the 410-cubic-inch Edsel "E-475" engine because its perfectly flat cylinder heads lacked distinct combustion chambers. The heads were set at an angle, with "roof" pistons forming both a squish zone on one side and a combustion chamber on the other. Combustion thus took place entirely within the cylinder bore. This design was similar to Chevrolet's 348-cubic-inch "W" engine, which was also introduced in 1958. While the design reduced the cost of manufacture and may also have helped minimize carbon buildup, it was also unfamiliar to many mechanics.
Company politics and the role of Robert McNamara
This section needs additional citations for verification. (September 2016) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)
Following World War II, Henry Ford II retained Robert McNamara as one of the "Whiz Kids" to help turn Ford around. McNamara's cost-cutting and cost-containment skills helped Ford emerge from its near-collapse after the war. As a result, McNamara eventually amassed a considerable amount of power at Ford. McNamara was very much a throwback to Henry Ford in that, like the elder Ford, McNamara was committed to the Ford marque to the almost total exclusion of the company's other products. Thus, McNamara had little use for the Continental, Lincoln, Mercury and Edsel brand cars made by the company.
McNamara opposed the formation of the separate divisions for Continental, Lincoln, Mercury, and Edsel cars, and moved to consolidate Lincoln, Mercury, and Edsel into the M-E-L division. McNamara saw to it that the Continental program was canceled and that the model was merged into the Lincoln range for 1958. He next set his sights on Edsel by maneuvering for elimination of the dual wheelbases and separate bodies used for 1958. Instead, Edsels would share the Ford platform and use Ford's inner body structure for 1959. By 1960, Edsels emerged as little more than a Ford with different trim. McNamara also moved to reduce Edsel's advertising budget for 1959, and for 1960, he virtually eliminated it. The final blow came in the fall of 1959, when McNamara convinced Henry Ford II and the rest of Ford's management that Edsel was doomed and that it was time to end production before Edsel bled the company dry. McNamara also attempted to discontinue the Lincoln nameplate, but that effort ended with Elwood Engel's now classic redesign of 1961. McNamara left Ford when he was named Secretary of Defense by President John F. Kennedy.
During the 1964 presidential election, Republican nominee Barry Goldwater blamed McNamara, then Secretary of Defense, for Edsel's failure. Eventually, Ford's former executive vice president Ernest R. Breech, who was a financial contributor to Goldwater, wrote to the Senator's campaign, explaining that "Mr. McNamara ... had nothing to do with the plans for the Edsel car or any part of the program." However, the charge continued to be leveled against McNamara for years. During his time as head of the World Bank, McNamara instructed his public affairs officer to distribute copies of Breech's letter to the press whenever the accusation was made.
The Ho Chi Minh Museum in Hanoi features an Edsel crashing through a wall, intended to symbolically represent US military failure in the Vietnam War. McNamara became the US Secretary for Defense after his career at Ford, and oversaw the escalation of the US military presence in Vietnam.
- Edsel Citation
- Edsel Corsair
- Edsel Pacer
- Edsel Ranger
- Edsel Bermuda
- Edsel Villager
- Edsel Roundup
- Edsel Comet (concept)
Edsels as Mercurys
The scheduled 1960 Edsel Comet compact car was hastily rebranded as the Comet and assigned to Lincoln-Mercury dealerships as a stand-alone product. Based on the new-for-1960 Ford Falcon, the Comet was an instant success, selling more cars in its first year than all models of Edsel produced during that marque's entire three-year run. Styling touches seen in the Comets sold to the public that allude to being part of the Edsel family of models included the instrument cluster, rear tailfins (though canted diagonally), and the taillight shape (the lens is visually similar to that used on the 1960 Edsel, and even retained the embossed "E" part code). The Comet's keys were even shaped like Edsel keys, with the center bar removed from the "E" to form a "C." For 1962, Ford officially assigned the Comet to the Mercury brand. The Mercury name does not appear anywhere on the 1960 and 1961 models.
Beginning life as a design for the intended 1961 Edsel Ranger, the Mercury Meteor entered production as an entry-level line, slotted below the Monterey. As Ford and Mercury adopted the same basic body for its full-size lines for 1961 (pairing the model lines together through 2011), Mercury was produced on a longer wheelbase. The base trim of the Meteor was produced with oblong taillamps (switching to a horizontal layout), drawn from the 1960 Edsel Ranger. In 1962, the line was discontinued, with Mercury applying the Meteor nameplate to its newly introduced intermediate car line.
While Edsel front end designs were considered "weird" or "too different" by contemporary buyers and critics, many other car manufacturers (such as Pontiac, Jaguar, BMW, Subaru, Lancia, Alfa Romeo, and Saab) have employed similar vertical grilles successfully in their car designs. Many Edsel features, such as self-adjusting brakes, gear selection by steering wheel buttons, etc., which were considered "too impractical" in the late 1950s, are now standard features of sports cars.
More than half a century after its spectacular failure, Edsels have become highly collectible items among vintage car hobbyists. Fewer than 10,000 Edsels survive and they are considered valuable collectors' items. A mint-condition Edsel convertible from any of its three model years may sell for over $100,000. The rarest Edsel (by body style) is the 1960 Ranger convertible: only 76 were built. Approximately 25 survive today. The rarest Edsel by model is the 1960 Ranger deluxe interior 4-door hardtop, model 57B. Originally intended to be released as the 1960 Corsair, only 31 units were produced.
Plastic scale models of all three Edsel years were produced by Aluminum Metal Toys (AMT), in its familiar 1/25 scale. Both promotional and kit versions were sold. These command premium prices today, especially the rare 1959 and 1960 models. The 1958 Pacer hardtop was re-issued as a totally new and much more detailed kit by AMT in the 1990s. The 1960 hardtop is also available as a resin kit from several resin model producers, but is typically priced close to the cost of an original kit. Yat Ming, a producer of diecast model cars, offered a nicely detailed 1958 Citation in 1/18 scale in both hardtop and convertible body styles. Yat Ming also produced a detailed 1/43 scale diecast of the Citation convertible in several color combinations. The Franklin Mint produced highly detailed 1/24 scale and 1/43 scale diecast models of the 1958 Citation convertible. The Danbury Mint produced a 1/24 scale diecast replica of the 1958 Bermuda station wagon, complete with accurately detailed wood trim.
- Yardley, William. "Roy Brown Jr., Edsel Designer, Dies at 96". Retrieved 17 August 2016.
- Dicke, Tom (2010). "The Edsel: Forty years as a symbol of failure". Journal of Popular Culture. 43 (3): 486–502.
- Henry, Jim (16 June 2003). "Henry Ford never wanted his company to go public". autonews.com. Retrieved 30 August 2015.
- Warnock, C Gayle (1980). The Edsel Affair. Pro West.
- "This is the Edsel (advertisement)". Life. 1957-11-11. pp. 90–91. Retrieved February 22, 2013.
- "Slowest Market of Year Declines; 1,260,000 Shares Traded--Average Drops 2.68 Points to 313.73 OILS, MOTORS RETREAT Steels, Metals, and Aircrafts [sic] Also Weak--Coal Issues Are Under Pressure Experts Bemused Oils Beat Retreat" (PDF). The New York Times. 1957-09-05.
- Flory, Jr., J. "Kelly" (2008). American Cars, 1946–1959 Every Model Every Year. McFarland & Company, Inc., Publishers. ISBN 978-0-7864-3229-5.
- "Directory Index: Edsel/1958_Edsel/1958_Edsel_Foldout". www.oldcarbrochures.com. Retrieved 2020-09-26.
- "Directory Index: Edsel/1958_Edsel/1958_Edsel_Foldout". OldCarBrochures.com. Retrieved 2011-11-08.
- "Directory Index: Edsel/1958_Edsel/1958_Edsel_Features". www.oldcarbrochures.com. Retrieved 2020-09-26.
- "Directory Index: Edsel/1958_Edsel/1958_Edsel_Features". www.oldcarbrochures.com. Retrieved 2020-09-26.
- "Directory Index: Edsel/1958_Edsel/1958_Edsel_Foldout". www.oldcarbrochures.com. Retrieved 2020-09-26.
- "Directory Index: Edsel/1958_Edsel/1958_Edsel_Sell-O-Graph". OldCarBrochures.com. Retrieved 2011-11-08.
- "1959 Edsel Extra News Folder". www.oldcarbrochures.com. Retrieved 2020-09-26.
- "Directory Index: Edsel/1959_Edsel/1959_Edsel_Prestige_Brochure". www.oldcarbrochures.com. Retrieved 2020-09-26.
- "Directory Index: Edsel/1959_Edsel/1959_Edsel_Prestige_Brochure". www.oldcarbrochures.com. Retrieved 2020-09-26.
- "1960 Edsel Quick Facts Brochure". www.oldcarbrochures.com. Retrieved 2020-09-26.
- Thomas, Ryland; Williamson, Samuel H. (2020). "What Was the U.S. GDP Then?". MeasuringWorth. Retrieved September 22, 2020. United States Gross Domestic Product deflator figures follow the Measuring Worth series.
- Collier, Peter; Horowitz, David (1987). The Fords: An American Epic. Summit Books. p. 263. ISBN 9780671540937.
- The Auto Editors of Consumer Guide (2006). Encyclopedia of American Cars: A Comprehensive History of the American Automakers From 1930 to Today. Publications International. p. 374.
- "HowStuffWorks "1955–1959 Volkswagen Beetle"". Auto.howstuffworks.com. Retrieved 2009-05-17.
- The Auto Editors of Consumer Guide (2006). Encyclopedia of American Cars: A Comprehensive History of the American Automakers From 1930 to Today. Publications International, Ltd. p. 375.
- "Edsel Power, Handling, Are Tops, Say Owners". Popular Mechanics. 109 (3): 90–95. March 1958. Retrieved 7 July 2012.
- "Autos: The $250 Million Flop". Time. 30 November 1959. Retrieved 2011-01-30.
- Neil, Dan (2007-09-07). "The 50 Worst Cars of All Time – 1958 Ford Edsel". Time. Retrieved 7 July 2012.
- Tingwall, Eric (1 March 2013). "Collectible Classic: 1959 Edsel Corsair".
- McNamara, Robert (1995). In Retrospect: The Tragedy and Lessons of Vietnam. Random House. p. 150. ISBN 9780679767497.
- "The Flop Heard Round the World". Washingtonpost.com. Retrieved 2009-05-17.
- Barron, James (2007-08-01). "To Ford, a Disaster. To Edsel Owners, Love". The New York Times.
- Bonsall, Thomas E. (2002). Disaster in Dearborn: The Story of the Edsel. Stanford University Press. ISBN 978-0804746540.
- Brooks, John. "The Fate of the Edsel" in Business Adventures. New York: Open Road, 2014 edition, ISBN 9781497644892.
- Daines, Robert (1994). Edsel: The Motor Industry's Titanic. Academy Books. ISBN 978-1873361191.
- Deutsch, Jan (1976). The Edsel and Corporate Responsibility. Yale University Press.
- Dicke, Tom. "The Edsel: Forty Years as a Symbol of Failure," Journal of Popular Culture, June 2010, Vol. 43 Issue 3, pp 486–502
- Lacey, Robert (1988). Ford: The Men and the Machine. Little Brown and Company.
- Wallace, David (1975). "Naming the Edsel". Automobile Quarterly. XIII (2): 182–191.
- The Auto Editors of Consumer Guide (2006). Encyclopedia of American Cars: A Comprehensive History of the American Automakers From 1930 to Today. Publications International, Ltd.
- Warnock, C Gayle (1980). The Edsel Affair.. What Went Wrong. Pro West.
- Warnock, C Gayle (2007). The Rest of the Edsel Affair. AuthorHouse. ISBN 978-1434332905.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Edsel automobiles.|
- Edsel.com History, specifications, resources for owners.
- Smith Motor Company Virtual Edsel Dealer
- The International Edsel Club
- Edsels in the Media Listing of Edsel references in popular culture.
- Edsel Promo Time A Web site devoted to plastic dealer promotional models of Edsels.
- Washington Post article about the Edsel
- The Edsel Tinsmith A catalog of tin toy Edsels that were manufactured in Japan
- "All About Ford's Luxury Loaded Edsel." Popular Science, September 1957, pp. 98–103/282-283.
Edsel road car timeline, North American market, 1958–1960