Education for justice
Education for justice is the process of promoting a culture of lawfulness through educational activities at all levels. Education for justice aims at teaching the next generation about crime prevention, and to better understand and address problems that can undermine the rule of law. It promotes peace and encourages students to actively engage in their communities and future professions. Education for Justice is a basic legal knowledge, in which educational activities at all levels seek to promote understanding of crime prevention, peace, justice, human rights, and problems that can undermine the rule of law. Education reportedly plays a key role in transmitting and sustaining socio-cultural norms and ensuring their continued evolution. As such, governments may seek to strengthen this promotion of a culture of lawfulness through education.
Education and justice
Peace, justice, human rights and fundamental freedoms are considered to be of vital importance for the stability and well-being of societies across the world. Governments around the world believe that while regulatory frameworks on corruption, violence, and crime are part of the responses to be given, the challenges still persist, often beyond national borders and, increasingly, in globally interconnected ways.
Many governments strengthen efforts to uphold the principle of the rule of law in the daily lives of their citizens and through the public institutions that seek to serve them. This is to promote and protect the safety, dignity and human rights of all people. The criminal justice sector has a key role to play and a specific responsibility. The rule of law is considered to be fundamental to all aspects of society, both public and private, shaping the way individuals interact with each other and with public institutions in all sectors of society – forging relationships of trust and mutual accountability.
National education systems are responsible for upholding and advancing the principles of the rule of law so that future generations hold state institutions accountable to these principles and equip learners with the knowledge, values, attitudes and behaviours they need to take constructive and ethically responsible decisions in their daily lives that support justice and human rights. It is on this basis that trusted and trustworthy institutions are constructed.
Rule of law in education aims at teaching learners how they can acquire and develop the cognitive socio-emotional and behavioural experiences and skills needed to develop into constructive and responsible contributors to society. Experts believe education plays a key role in transmitting and sustaining socio-cultural norms and ensuring their continued evolution. Formal education contributes to helping children and youth to adopt values, such as behaviours, attitudes and roles that form their personal and social identity. As they develop, children and youth also develop the capacity to reflect critically on norms, and to shape new norms that reflect contemporary conditions.
Education encourages learners to value, and apply, the principles of the rule of law in their daily lives. It also equips learners with the appropriate knowledge, values, attitudes, and behaviours needed to contribute to its continued improvement and regeneration in society more broadly. This can be reflected, for instance, in the way learners demand greater transparency in, or accountability of, public institutions, as well as through the everyday decisions that learners take as ethically responsible and engaged citizens, family members, workers, employers, friends, and consumers etc.
A culture of lawfulness means that the general population in a society follows the law because it believes that it provides a fair and just response to the needs of individuals and society as a whole. It also means that individuals’ expectations about the law and the justice system are reflected in their formal and informal interactions with the law.
Teaching the basics: key knowledge, values, attitudes and bahaviours
Certain key knowledge, value, attitudes and behaviours empowers learners to carry out the rule of law and to participate in the continued development of a culture of lawfulness within their community.
Learners need to acquire knowledge, understanding and critical thinking about the meaning of the rule of law and a culture of lawfulness, and how these concepts manifest in different social settings and through established institutions, laws, mechanisms and procedures. Based on established norms and factual evidence, learners are required to make knowledgeable judgments about their environment. If education is to promote the rule of law, then it is key to teach about the ability to carry out critical thinking and analysis.
An integral part of the learning process is to understand and appreciate the linkages between global and local issues. Violations of the rule of law have far-reaching consequences at the individual, community, national, regional and global levels, which impact different countries and populations in ways that are often interconnected. It is important not to underestimate the extent to which a culture of lawfulness is embedded in national and local realities. Therefore, teachers and students also need to understand their rights and responsibilities and identify the behaviours that support democratic processes and the rule of law on a daily basis. These understandings depend on the context.
Key areas of knowledge for learners to understand the meaning of the rule of law and culture of lawfulness, include:
- Good citizenship, representation of individuals’ voices in formal institutions, as well as rights and duties of citizens
- The justice system
- Human rights
- Conflict prevention and peacebuilding
- Global, national, and local expressions of the rule of law and culture of lawfulness
- Democratic values such as transparency, accountability and inclusiveness
- Local, visible expressions of a culture of lawfulness through pluralism and egalitarianism
- Causes and consequences/impacts of crime on family, community, society, as well as safety
- Responsible and ethical decision-making
Key attitudes and values
Attitudes and values are developed across a broad range of settings, including in the home, in schools, and through the experiences that individuals gain in broader social and cultural contexts (i.e., through socio-emotional learning). Developing positive attitudes and values is the foundation to the holistic and healthy development of learners at all ages.
Attitudes and values also help learners make responsible decisions (proactive behaviour) and be resilient when faced with dangerous or threatening situations (responsive behaviour). Most importantly is the sense of ‘self-efficacy’, which means a belief in one’s own abilities to meet challenges, complete a task successfully, and succeed in reaching a specific goal. A sense of self-efficacy combined with high levels of motivation provide the conditions for resilience, which is key to promoting a culture of lawfulness and the rule of law.
School practices that lead learners to address issues that affect their own lives and those of their peers and family also nurture civic engagement, which is key to the sustainability of a culture of lawfulness. When learners invest in learning processes through a personal effort, they take individual and collective responsibilities that nurture civic maturity. There are other outcomes of socio-emotional learning that are relevant to the rule of law, such as learning to value equality, fairness, mutual respect and integrity and develop attitudes, values and capacities, including:
- A sense of belonging to a community
- Self-identity and positive self-image
- Social awareness (empathy, inclusion)
- Relationship skills (communication, cooperation, and conflict resolution)
- A sense of personal security
- Resilience (especially for persons vulnerable to becoming a victim or being recruited into crime)
- Empathetic concern and compassion
The behavioural learning outcomes of global citizenship education are relevant to the promotion of the rule of law, specifically, to act effectively and responsibly at local, national and global levels for a more peaceful and sustainable world, and to develop the motivation and willingness to take necessary actions.
Learning to develop specific behaviours enhances the efforts to promote the rule of law. Such behaviours include:
- Participation in democratic structures and processes (in and out of school)
- Participatory and democratic practices in group decision-making
- Monitoring of rule of law institutions and processes (in and out of schools)
- Actions to promote improvements in rule of law/culture of lawfulness (at different levels of society)
"Pro-social" behaviours also function as protective factors, which benefit other people or society as a whole and support learners' well-being and sense of belonging to the community. These pro-social behaviours include:
- Actions of support and solidarity with survivors of violence and crime;
- Respecting school property;
- Participating in school community actions.
Speaking to real issues and dilemmas
Addressing learners' individual vulnerabilities
Addressing learners' individual vulnerabilities requires identifying two main categories:
- Risk factors: those factors that increase the likelihood that a young person will experience harm, engage in criminal activity, or become violent. Without necessarily being the direct causes of unlawful behaviour, risk factors increase learners' vulnerability to engage in such behaviour. Risk factors can be mitigated by protective factors.
- Protective factors: factors that encourage the positive development and well-being of children. Protective factors shield young people from the risks of experiencing harm, engaging in criminal activity, or becoming violent. Though protective factors are less researched than risk factors, they are equally important to develop effective educational prevention programmes and, more broadly, support learners' socio-emotional, physical, and intellectual development. Protective factors also nurture social inclusion, civic engagement, agency and interconnectedness.
Risk and protective factors can be found at the individual, family, peer and social levels. The more a learning context reduces risk factors and increases protective factors, the more likely it will succeed in enhancing the well-being of the individual and, as a result, strengthen their resilience to crime and violence.
Adult women and men, whether parents, educators or school personnel, may have a different perception of learners’ degree of exposure to risk and their abilities to face them. Therefore, learners need to be perceived and treated as knowledgeable and engaged actors. It not only increases the likelihood of gaining an accurate understanding of their learning needs but also bolsters their sense of empowerment and strengthens their decision-making abilities.
Assessment processes should take a positive approach to learners' abilities by focusing on questions such as, "What is going well?" and "What are the learners' strengths and assets to face this situation?" rather than exclusively considering "What is going wrong?"
It is possible to identify relevant educational responses by distinguishing between three types of prevention efforts, which also helps design relevant and impactful interventions:
- Primary prevention 3 efforts target all learners, whether they show any level of risk or not. At its core, primary prevention is about strengthening communities and individuals, and ensuring their well-being and connectedness with their families and communities.
- Secondary prevention is provided in addition to primary prevention to individuals who are at risk of victimization or involvement in violence or crimes. Early indications might include problems of disrespecting the rule of law or committing a crime. In these contexts, some learners may be given additional academic support and SEL-related trainings, if they are considered "at risk" of being victimized or of developing problematic behaviours.
- Tertiary prevention interventions are for learners who continue to struggle despite primary and secondary prevention efforts. Most typically, these constitute a small number of learners with the most serious patterns of problem behaviour and who are often subject to victimization. These learners need specific support and protective measures targeted at preventing the problem from getting worse or trying to remediate it.
Addressing real-life dilemmas
Schooling can potentially play a partial role in resolving deeper problems such as corruption, organized crime or drug trafficking, educational programmes must be relevant to the real-life contexts of learners in order to deliver meaningful learning with long-term impact. This means placing learners in the active role of problem solvers – i.e. those who can understand and find solutions to realistic dilemmas and conflicts.
Learning about abstract notions of the rule of law will not lead to sustainable change, especially if there are differences between the rule of law values taught in the classroom and those that prevail in the school environment, families or society. In such contexts, it is important that education programmes inspire and sustain learners' motivation, confidence and creative abilities to strive to improve their situation.
Education personnel and teachers need to help learners deal with the frustrations, anger, and possible disillusionment in order to avoid cultivating cynicism or indifference. They must develop hope and constructive responses that result from this discrepancy. Well-guided educational programmes can foster personal transformations that empower learners to play a constructive role in society and re-build the rule of law (and its institutions) where necessary. Such programmes must take into account the social environment of learners, and in particular, the degree of dissonance between norms and values taught in schools and those that prevail outside.
Reinforcing positive behaviour
It is necessary when working with children and youth, in particular those perceived as vulnerable, to take a positive look at their skills, assets and attributes as the foundation for further learning. This approach is much more effective than viewing young people as lacking knowledge, skills or values to promote the rule of law.
The challenge is to support positive and sustained behaviour change when working with vulnerable learners. This is important in a context where the enforcement of norms is not sufficient and policymakers, therefore, need to ensure education systems create the desire and conditions for positive behaviours and genuine sustainable change.
Depending on the age, gender, socio-economic background of learners and the social context in which they live, this may involve developing educational policies that go beyond conventional educational approaches to expose learners to new experiences that bring to life abstract ideals. For example, rather than punishing inappropriate behaviour, it can be effective to introduce mediation or reconciliation programmes. The challenge is to ensure learners are able to apply their new skills in a real-world context.
Practising what we preach
Schools or any other educational setting who play a meaningful role in strengthening the rule of law, should carry out and strive to apply the principles of the rule of law. This means ensuring all aspects of school management and school life, including teacher-teacher relations, learner-teacher relations, and school-family relations, are guided by a culture of fairness, rights, accountability and transparency, consistent with international human rights norms and standards.
Not all education staff are aware of their own behaviours, attitudes and biases (overt and covert) and this can undermine their ability to speak credibly about the rule of law and contribute actively to its implementation on a daily basis. The principles of the rule of law in schools and classrooms is not easy and should be encouraged and supported by education leaders.
Making the rule of law and a culture of lawfulness a priority is not just about transmitting knowledge but also about values and behaviours that are modelled and enforced on a daily basis through what is called the "hidden curriculum". The "hidden curriculum" of the classroom and school transmits norms, values and beliefs to learners in ways other than formal teaching and learning processes and ensures learners develop the skills and know-how they need to engage in society as ethically responsible citizens.
When teachers establish clear and fair classroom rules and enforce them equally, children can understand what it means to follow the rules and observe first-hand that they apply to all students equally. They witness that the same consequences apply to all students who break them. Students will gain experience of transparency, accountability and certainty, which are all key elements of the rule of law. When teachers and students co-create classroom rules, it also sends the message that students have an active role to play in shaping the rules that govern them. This is how a culture of lawfulness is cultivated.
Classroom and school rules are one example in which the rule of law comes alive for students in everyday life.
Other approaches may include:
- Guaranteeing the personal safety and well-being of children in the school environment, particularly those students belonging to vulnerable groups;
- Ensuring the transparency of school policies and practices that are in line with human rights and supporting the rule of law as well as accountability of school leaders and teachers;
- Providing meaningful opportunities for learners to contribute to decisions that affect them, including rules in the classroom and school and beyond through student councils and other forms of student representation in various governance levels (local, regional, national) of educational institutions;
- Making it a priority to cultivate a climate of trust and openness where learners are encouraged to share their opinions and to respectfully consider the views of others;
- Developing neutral and appropriate mechanisms for students and teachers to use when someone (student, teacher or school leader) is in conflict with the established rules;
- Implementing policies of inclusion that embrace diversity in the curriculum and facilitate the involvement of all learners in the life of the school.
The importance of creating safe and inclusive learning environments
Inclusive school policies and practices provide learners with the opportunity to experience the rule of law at first hand. Inclusive school policies create enabling environments that support learners' outcomes and behaviours which are important to the rule of law - such as "an appreciation and respect for diversity", "a sense of belonging" and "a willingness to take action".
Holistic learning environments can be created by working in partnership with learners and their families and relevant community actors who may not necessarily have a formal educational mandate, for example the artistic and sports community, cultural and religious leaders, media, as well as business. Engaging with these actors in ways that further illustrate how the rule of law permeates all aspects of our lives can be an additional way of bringing the rule of law to life.
Necessary support systems
There are numerous curricular strategies for implementing rule of law and culture of lawfulness activities or programmes. These strategies are intended for all learners across different learning environments.
These curricular options are (not mutually exclusive):
- A dedicated subject, such as "citizenship education";
- The infusion of themes and approaches predominantly within a few subjects, such as history, social studies, civics or life skills education;
- A cross-curricular or transversal approach that infuses rule of law principles – for example, social and emotional learning (SEL) or human rights education - across all subjects;
- Whole school activities and practices including extracurricular clubs for learners, experiential learning and community partnerships.
A global citizenship education curriculum strategy that is cross-disciplinary and not restricted to a single subject is encouraged. It should also be holistic and not restricted just to content knowledge. In keeping with the general principles of global citizenship education, curriculum that supports the rule of law will involve a participatory, learner-centred pedagogy with values oriented toward personal and social transformation.
Peace education distinguishes between negative peace (a mere absence of violence) and positive peace (peace that encompasses larger notions of justice). In both instances, peace education often emphasizes the importance of conflict within a culture, as it is often productive and indicative of true diversity. Peace education emphasizes the importance of conflict transformation instead of conflict resolution.
Similarly, human rights education aims at transformation, where the goal is not merely to teach about human rights, but to teach for human rights, empowering learners and teachers to act for social change. In certain cases, this might present both opportunities and challenges for the pursuit of the rule of law and a culture of lawfulness, especially where there are conflicts between governmental educational objectives and broader human rights considerations.
Teaching and learning resources
Curriculum frameworks come alive through educational resources that support teachers’ efforts in the classroom. Teaching resources are aimed at translating learning objectives into engaging, accurate, and comprehensive materials for learners. This is can be seen as challenging and requiring creativity. Writers can frame educational materials around cooperative and group activities, bearing in mind that the materials should elicit conversation and open discussion to reflect on what is of interests to learners, and to also reflect on the transmitted messages and knowledge.
Assessments provide a measurement of learning and are a key component of the teaching and learning process. Assessment techniques and tools should be multifaceted and provide a variety of opportunities for students with different learning styles to demonstrate their understanding and convey their ideas. Localized, differentiated, and curriculum specific assessments are usually recommended. Many different types of assessment tools are available, including stand-alone tests, longer term courses, certification programmes, and archives of assessment resources.
Other forms of assessment include peer assessment, self-assessment, and alternative assessment. Peer assessment is designed to help students gain insight into the aspects of learning that the teacher sees as important, and therefore increases metacognitive thinking skills that are useful when the student is working on their own projects and learning activities. In a similar vein, a self assessment also encourages students to take an objective, critical look at their own work and assess their performance and understanding based on rubrics provided by the teacher. Both methods, rather than being entirely separate from the learning process, enhance the student’s learning by becoming part of it.
Education for Justice includes developing social and emotional learning (SEL) and behavioural learning outcomes that are traditionally more difficult to assess; and ‘grading’ of values is discouraged. Nevertheless, educators might elicit and observe student values through classroom assignments and discussions. Any troubling exhibitions of values – such as prejudice against certain groups in the school – can be addressed through counselling as well as classroom and school processes.
Teachers have found ways to document participation in rule of law class activities, such as through observation of class dynamics and active participation in civic groups. However, other kinds of behavioural outcomes, such as reduced acts of bullying, may be difficult to track because of their long-term nature and because such behaviour might not be evident to the teacher. For this reason, impact and programme evaluations undertaken for rule of law interventions carried out in other places might be informative, although caution should be exercised in applying findings across different cultural contexts.
Participatory approaches and methods – at the core of global citizenship education pedagogy – aim at ensuring that learners benefit from an active learning and practical experience grounded in their everyday lives which develops learning outcomes such as critical thinking and problem-solving skills.
In the classroom, learners can be given concrete exercises that foster a culture of lawfulness. Activities include role playing, dialogues and community governance activities that allow them to work on actively being considerate, tolerant and ‘other-oriented’. By engaging their classmates in ways that anticipate conflicts they are likely to experience outside of the classroom, learners will be better equipped to address such challenges and more likely to be respectful of others’ differences.
Examples below provide a variety of transformative pedagogical tools and approaches that might be used to promote transformations in learners and ultimately in society:
- Project-based learning is one of the most widely practiced participatory learning methods that can be used for any topic or skill that needs to be taught. When engaged in project-based learning, learners produce a project which engages their cognitive and creative skills while also increasing their familiarity with the subject matter through independent research.
- Problem-based learning helps learners work towards a solution to a specific problem. The solution can either be fully realized and implemented or simply conceptualized and planned out. Either way, learners' problem-solving skills are fostered, and/or they develop confidence in their own ability to deal with complex issues.
- Community-based learning utilizes active research and implementation skills to help address a challenge in the learners’ own communities. Learners identify a social, economic, or environmental issue and not only practice planning solutions but also create change in their communities by implementing these solutions. An example could be holding a community event or a workshop on safe use of the internet. Peer-to-peer learning is a teaching methodology where certain members of a group educate other members of the same group, i.e. their peers, to change individual knowledge and behaviour as well as group behaviours and attitudes. Empowering children through peer-to peer initiatives and providing opportunities to discuss topics in a safe environment are important aspects of most participatory methodologies.
- Web-based learning. Information and communications technologies are an important pedagogical tool that can be integrated into any of the above approaches and provide an alternative to traditional classroom-based environments. They also ensure the development of digital literacy, an essential twenty-first century skill. There is a wide range of online learning platforms which offer everything from readings, audio-visual aids, and activity ideas to opportunities for intercultural internet-based communication.
Many educational environments across the world incorporate Information and communications technology learning into their curriculum in some fashion and it is often an easy entry point from which to engage with global citizenship education. In the area of rule of law, online platforms can be used for games involving role playing and engagement with dilemmas. Games and apps must balance fun with learning opportunities through a mixture of online and offline activities. The human connection remains essential for learning global citizenship education and rule of law. While Information and communications technologies are considered to be useful tools for learning, online environments can also be used as a tool for recruitment, extortion and promotion of crime and extreme violent behaviour. Since mobile phone access to internet is growing worldwide, it is essential to teach about online risks and the tools to resist recruitment by gangs, criminal and hate groups, and violent extremists.
Learning through non-formal education and community-based approaches is instrumental to ensure learning by the most marginalized. Research suggests that sports have the capacity to connect youth to positive adult role models and provide positive development opportunities, as well as promote the learning and application of life skills. In recent years the use of sport to reduce crime, as well as to prevent violent extremism and radicalization, has become more widespread, especially as a tool to improve self-esteem, enhance social bonds and provide participants with a feeling of purpose.
Effective classroom management means safe and nurturing classroom environments, which have positive effects on student learning and behaviour. For example, introducing structured small group discussions ('Magic Circle' classroom meetings) about a variety of interpersonal and intrapersonal topics can make the classroom environment more responsive to learners’ affective and cognitive needs and eventually reduce their acceptance of high risk behaviours.
These pedagogies represent important considerations when looking for opportunities to integrate global citizenship education, rule of law and culture of lawfulness into existing educational structures. When teaching values to others, it is essential to pay particular attention to the way in which those values are embedded within the "informal" or "hidden" curriculum of the teaching methodology and environment themselves to provide a more cohesive and immersive learning experience, since these factors also influence student learning immensely. Values and attitudes are best communicated through participatory pedagogical methods, which are interactive, inclusive and learner-centred. Paying attention to these details will create a more holistic, value-laden learning experience which teaches by example.
Teacher training and development
Investing in teacher training and development is fundamental for two main reasons. It is well established that teacher quality has a direct positive impact on student achievement. As teachers act as planners, initiators, climate builders, facilitators and guides, mediators, knowledge organizers and evaluators, they are central to interpreting and implementing any curriculum.
It is possible to identify the skills and characteristics of a good teacher, who is able to model and promote the principles of the rule of law. The development of teacher codes of conduct, and their inclusion as part of the in service and continuous training of teachers can be usefully considered in this context.
Teachers may need to learn about aspects of the rule of law that are not already covered in subject matter preparation so that they can instruct students. Educators will need, to: understand the principle of the rule of law, its tenets and implications, expand their knowledge of human rights, understand the causes, consequences and impacts of crime on family, community, society, and on the safety and security of society as a whole and increase their awareness of social influencers that shape student behaviours online and off.
Teachers will also need to critically assess their own behaviours, attitudes and biases that possibly undermine the rule of law and their ability to speak credibly on challenges to the rule of law, embrace practices that foster inclusion and respect for diversity, with attention to gender and coming from marginalized communities, adapt to the real learning needs of young people, lead socio-emotional learning recognize and appropriately respond to risky or potentially harmful situations, foster and nurture their moral character, create a sense of community and a climate of trust in the classroom (where learners feel safe and respected – "safe space"), engage in peer counselling and peer mediation, developing teachers' ability to acquire this knowledge and develop these skills requires understandable, accessible and relevant resources and support that address their genuine needs according with the cultural, school and educational policy environments in which teachers work.
Any areas not already covered in pre-service training could be introduced to teachers through in-service training, workshops and resource supports. These supports could be offered through teacher training institutions and faculty, Ministries of Education and affiliated training centres, professional associations and civil society organizations.
Teacher learning and development for the rule of law involves training as well as empowering teachers to play their multiple roles. This is possible through the establishment of professional learning communities that nurture improvements in teaching practices and continuous teacher learning. Using online networks, teachers can compare, contrast and shape ideas with each other for implementing the rule of law in their local environment. Websites can be used as clearinghouses of resources or materials for use in lessons or classrooms. Online forums and hotlines can provide an avenue for getting guidance in using the materials or information offered on these online platforms.
Teaching values, attitudes and skills that strengthen the rule of law and promote a culture of lawfulness requires additional preparation from teachers. Such preparations include:
- Improving self-awareness;
- Screening for stereotypes;
- Ensuring subject matter knowledge;
- Managing sensitive issues;
- Obtaining necessary clearance;
- Mobilizing resources in the community.
Learning outside of schools
Issues around rule of law are often perceived as an area of work associated with ministries of justice and the interior, including law enforcement. Therefore, it can be challenging to develop multi-sector partnerships to promote and integrate crime prevention and criminal justice issues into all education activities.
Civil society organizations, in particular, play a vital role in supporting educational efforts, both as a partner in developing educational materials based on the rule of law and in supporting outreach and dissemination activities to reach all stakeholders, including children, youth, students, parents, teachers, professors and the media.
Schools can work in a participatory manner with stakeholders that operate within and outside of the education sector, including non-formal educators, out-of-school youth, parents, civil society organizations, the media, artists, and other actors based in the community, while respecting the primary mandate of education. Such collaborations can foster innovation, creativity, and participatory approaches.
Engaging Non-governmental organizations or other community organizations not only amplifies a school's global citizenship education and rule of law efforts and ensures that the community benefits from them, but also provides learners with practical, real-world learning experiences in the social work space. Behavioural and action-oriented global citizenship education competencies are developed and nurtured through these connections to community organizations, providing learners with examples of good citizenship in practice.
The following learning opportunities outside of the school context include:
- Youth-led action: Young people have a fundamental role to play in bringing a culture of lawfulness and integrity in all areas of society. Policymakers and educators can engage with youth as partners for development projects, initiatives or responses that address crime and violence at the school, community, regional and national levels. Youth-led action includes youth organizations’ initiatives against corruption, youth integrity networks, peaceful demonstrations, and expressions through art against crime, drugs and violence. Learners can also participate in Youth-led Participatory Action Research where young people identify a problem of concern, gather data and make recommendations to policymakers.
- Family-focused programmes: Education programmes geared toward prevention or intervention for youth populations at high risk from violence or crime often involve parents. Evidence shows that parent involvement can increase the success of violence and crime prevention programmes in schools because of the added reinforcement that learners get at home.
- School-community partnerships: Another interesting way to integrate global citizenship education values into learning at the local level is by building community-classroom partnerships with local Non-governmental organizations or existing community efforts. Building partnerships with community organizations is critical to global citizenship education efforts. Such partnerships need to be maintained and sustained long term to have a real impact on the community. Learners will be involved in localized, hands-on learning while understanding the principles of good community action and that social work efforts must be scalable as well as sustainable. School administration and Non-governmental organization staff can work together to ensure the terms of the partnership are clear and the goals are attainable.
- Inter-school collaborations: In addition to collaborating with community organizations and Non-governmental organizations, schools can collaborate and learn from each other. Just as peer education is meaningful for learners, peer institutions have a critical role to play in helping schools to implement effective practices. Schools can replicate programmes, collaborate on inter-school events and initiatives, and create a network to more easily share local rule of law and culture of lawfulness resources and amplify efforts. This networking can even extend beyond the local community and stretch nationally and internationally, either online or through conferences and professional learning communities. Schools and other educational institutions all over the world can connect and learn from one another about what works and what does not in terms of pedagogy and practice.
- Partnerships with government and private sector actors: Non-traditional educational actors such as government employees in the criminal justice sector, law enforcement and local government authorities, as well as community-based organizations and the private sector are also, when appropriate, collaborating with schools. These actors may participate directly in the educational programme, provide teacher training on specific sensitive topics and supplemental off-site learning opportunities to inform on the risks associated with violence and crime. Their interventions can also help overcome fears and mistrust between learners and representatives of[clarification needed] .
- Futures of Education
- Global citizenship education
- Human rights education
- Right to education
- Education for sustainable development
- Glossary of education terms
- List of education articles by country
- Outline of education
- Progressive education
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- This article incorporates text from a free content work. Licensed under CC BY-SA 3.0 IGO Text taken from Strengthening the rule of law through education: a guide for policymakers, UNESCO, UNESCO. UNESCO.
- This article incorporates text from a free content work. Licensed under CC BY-SA 3.0 IGO Text taken from Empowering students for just societies: a handbook for secondary school teachers, UNESCO, UNESCO. UNESCO.