Education in South Korea
|This article needs additional citations for verification. (July 2010) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)|
|Ministry of Education (South Korea)|
|National education budget|
|Post secondary||3.6 million|
Education in South Korea is provided by both public schools and private schools. Both types of schools receive funding from the government, although the amount that the private schools receive is less than the amount of the state schools. In recent years, Incheon Global Campus  had kick-started and Yonsei University opened an international college  to embrace the full english teaching environment scheme.
- 1 Overview
- 2 History
- 3 School grades
- 4 Kindergarten
- 5 Primary Education
- 6 Secondary Education
- 7 Tertiary education
- 8 Government influence
- 9 English education
- 10 Controversy and criticism
- 11 See also
- 12 References
- 13 Further reading
- 14 External links
South Korea is one of the top-performing OECD countries in reading literacy, mathematics and sciences with the average student scoring 542 and has one of the worlds highest-educated labour forces among OECD countries. The country is well known for its high feverish outlook on education, where its national obsession with education has been called "education fever". This obsession with education has catapulted the resource-poor nation consistently atop the global education rankings where in 2014 national rankings of students’ math and science scores by the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD), South Korea ranked second place worldwide, after Singapore.
Higher education is an overwhelmingly serious issue in South Korea society, where it is viewed as one of the fundamental cornerstones of South Korean life. Education is regarded with a high priority for South Korean families as success in education holds a cultural status as well as a necessity to improve one's socioeconomic position in South Korean society. Academic success is often a source of pride for families and within South Korean society at large. South Koreans view education as the main propeller of social mobility for themselves and their family as a gateway to the South Korean middle class. Graduating from a top university is the ultimate marker of prestige, high socioeconomic status, promising marriage prospects, and a respectable career path. An average South Korean child's life revolves around education as pressure to succeed academically is deeply ingrained in South Korean children from an early age. Not having a university degree carries a major cultural stigma as those who lack a formal university education face social prejudice and are often looked down upon by others.
In 2015, the country spent 4.7% of its GDP on all levels of education – roughly equal to the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) average of 4.7% also. A strong investment in education, a militant drive for success as well as the passion for excellence has helped the resource poor country rapidly grow its economy over the past 60 years from a war torn wasteland. South Korea’s zeal for education and its students’ desires to get into a prestigious university is one of the highest in the world, as the entrance into a top tier higher educational institution leads to a prestigious, secure and well-paid white collar job with the government, banks, a major South Korean conglomerate such as Samsung, Hyundai or LG Electronics. With incredible pressure on high school students to secure places at the nation’s best universities, its institutional reputation and alumni networks are strong predictors of future career prospects. The top three universities in South Korea, often referred to as "SKY", are Seoul National University, Korea University and Yonsei University. Intense competition for top grades and academic pressure to be the top student is deeply ingrained in the psyche of South Korean students at a young age. Yet with only so many places at universities and even fewer places at top-tier companies, many young people remain disappointed and are often unwilling to lower their sights with the result of many feeling as underachievers. There is a major cultural taboo in South Korean society attached to those who have not achieved formal university education where those who don't hold university degrees face social prejudice and are often looked down by others as second-class citizens resulting fewer opportunities for employment, improvement of one's socioeconomic position and prospects for marriage.
International reception on the South Korean education system has been divided. It has been praised for various reasons, including its comparatively high test results and its major role in ushering South Korea's economic development creating one of the world’s most educated workforces. South Korea's highly enviable academic performance has gotten British education ministers actively remodeling their own curriculum's and exams to try to emulate Korea's militant drive and passion for excellence and high educational achievement. U.S. President Barack Obama has also praised the country's rigorous school system, where over 80 percent of South Korean high school graduates go on to university. The nation's high university entrance rate has created a highly skilled workforce making South Korea among the most highly educated countries in the world with the one of the highest percentage of its citizens holding a tertiary education degree. Bachelor's degrees are held by 68 percent of South Koreans aged 25–34, the most in the OECD.
The system's rigid and hierarchical structure has been criticized for stifling creativity and innovation; described as intensely and "brutally" competitive, The system is often blamed for the high suicide rate in the country, particularly the growing rates among those aged 10–19. Various media outlets attribute the nations high suicide rate on the nationwide anxiety around the country's college entrance exams, which determine the trajectory of students entire lives and careers. Former South Korean hagwon teacher Se-Woong Koo wrote that the South Korean education system amounts to child abuse and that it should be "reformed and restructured without delay." The system has also been criticized for producing an excess supply of university graduates creating an overeducated and underemployed labor force; in the first quarter of 2013 alone, nearly 3.3 million South Korean university graduates were jobless, leading many graduates overqualified for jobs requiring less education. Further criticism has been stemmed for causing labor shortages in various skilled blue collar labor and vocational occupations, where many go unfilled as the negative social stigma associated with vocational careers and not having a university degree continues to remain deep-rooted in South Korean society.
After Gwangbokjeol and the liberation from Japan, the Korean government began to study and discuss for a new philosophy of education. The new educational philosophy was created under the United States Army Military Government in Korea(USAMGIK) with a focus on democratic education. The new system attempted to make education available to all students equally and promote the educational administration to be more self-governing. Specific policies included: re-educating teachers, lowering functional illiteracy by educating adults, restoration of the Korean language for technical terminology, and expansion of various educational institutions.
Following the Korean War, the government of Syngman Rhee reversed many of these reforms after 1948, when only primary schools remained in most cases coeducational and, because of a lack of resources, education was compulsory only up to the sixth grade.
During the years when Rhee and Park Chung Hee were in power, the control of education was gradually taken out of the hands of local school boards and concentrated in a centralized Ministry of Education. In the late 1980s, the ministry was responsible for administration of schools, allocation of resources, setting of enrollment quotas, certification of schools and teachers, curriculum development (including the issuance of textbook guidelines), and other basic policy decisions. Provincial and special city boards of education still existed. Although each board was composed of seven members who were supposed to be selected by popularly elected legislative bodies, this arrangement ceased to function after 1973. Subsequently, school board members were approved by the minister of education.
Most observers agree that South Korea's spectacular progress in modernization and economic growth since the Korean War is largely attributable to the willingness of individuals to invest a large amount of resources in education: the improvement of "human capital." The traditional esteem for the educated man, now extend to scientists, technicians, and others working with specialized knowledge. Highly educated technocrats and economic planners could claim much of the credit for their country's economic successes since the 1960s. Scientific professions were generally regarded as the most prestigious by South Koreans in the 1980s.
Statistics demonstrate the success of South Korea's national education programs. In 1945 the adult literacy rate was estimated at 22 percent; by 1970 adult literacy was 87.6 percent and, by the late 1980s, sources estimated it at around 93 percent. Although only primary school (grades one through six) was compulsory, percentages of age-groups of children and young people enrolled in secondary level schools were equivalent to those found in industrialized countries, including Japan. Approximately 4.8 million students in the eligible age-group were attending primary school in 1985. The percentage of students going on to optional middle school the same year was more than 99 percent. Approximately 34 percent, one of the world's highest rates of secondary-school graduates attended institutions of higher education in 1987, a rate similar to Japan's (about 30 percent) and exceeding Britain's (20 percent).
Government expenditure on education has been generous. In 1975, it was 220 billion won, the equivalent of 2.2 percent of the gross national product, or 13.9 percent of total government expenditure. By 1986, education expenditure had reached 3.76 trillion won, or 4.5 percent of the GNP, and 27.3 percent of government budget allocations.
Student activism has a long and honorable history in Korea. Students in Joseon secondary schools often became involved in the intense factional struggles of the scholar-official class. Students played a major role in Korea's independence movement, particularly the March 1, 1919. Students protested against the regimes of Syngman Rhee and Park Chung-hee during the 1950s, 1960s, and 1970s. Observers noted, however, that while student activists in the past generally embraced liberal and democratic values, the new generation of militants in the 1980s were far more radical. Most participants adopted some version of the minjung ideology but was also animated by strong feelings of popular nationalism and xenophobia.
The most militant university students, perhaps about 5 percent of the total enrollment at Seoul National University and comparable figures at other institutions in the capital during the late 1980s, were organized into small circles or cells rarely containing more than fifty members. Police estimated that there were 72 such organizations of varying orientation, having the change of curriculum and education system of South Korea people have been enriched in an imaginary way that makes them to propel in all their studies.
Reforms in the 1980s
Following the assumption of power by General Chun Doo-hwan in 1980, the Ministry of Education implemented a number of reforms designed to make the system more fair and to increase higher education opportunities for the population at large. In a very popular move, the ministry dramatically increased enrollment at large.
Social emphasis on education was not without its problems, as it tended to accentuate class differences. In the late 1980s, a college degree was considered necessary for entering the middle class; there were no alternative pathways of social advancement, with the possible exception of a military career, outside higher education. People without a college education, including skilled workers with vocational school backgrounds, often were treated as second-class citizens by their white-collar, college-educated managers, despite the importance of their skills for economic development. Intense competition for places at the most prestigious universities—the sole gateway into elite circles—promoted, like the old Confucian system, a sterile emphasis on rote memorization in order to pass secondary school and college entrance examinations. Particularly after a dramatic expansion of college enrollments in the early 1980s, South Korea faced the problem of what to do about a large number of young people staying in school for a long time, usually at great sacrifice to themselves and their families, and then faced with limited job opportunities because their skills were not marketable.
With a slowing economy, a rigid and fast changing job market as a result of the Financial crisis of 2007–08 and the demise of the Industrial Age, many young South Korean high school graduates are now realizing that high entrance examination and test scores for the promise of future career success did not carry the same weight as it once did. In 2013, 43,000 South Koreans in their twenties, and 21,000 in their thirties lost their jobs. According to a 2013 survey conducted by the Korea Research Institute for Vocational Education and Training, nearly four out of every 10 young workers in their 20s and 30s said they were overeducated. In 2013, fewer young South Koreans chose go on to university after finishing high school as the unemployment rate for university graduates continues to soar, falling income for college graduates continues to decline and the value of a college degree has now becoming increasingly in doubt. Educational reforms initiated by the South Korean government have become more dynamic and that university is no longer the only guarantee of a career. Government measures have also been prompted to encourage young unemployed college graduates to look at other employment possibilities such starting a business or seeking employment opportunities at smaller and medium size businesses. Former President Lee Myung-Bak urged young unemployed job seekers to start looking at other employment possibilities with small and medium-sized businesses beyond large conglomerates.
An oversaturated and overqualified labor market has resulted shortages of skilled blue-collar labor and a lack of qualified vocational employees for small and medium-sized businesses, young South Koreans now realize that a college degree no longer guarantees a job as it once did. With the nation's high university entrance rate, South Korea has produced an overeducated and underemployed labor force with many being unable find employment at the level of their education qualifications. In addition, a subsequent skills surplus has led to an overall decline in labour underutilization in vocational occupations. In the country, 70.9 percent of high school graduates went on to university in 2014, the highest college attendance rate among the Organization for Economic and Cooperation and Development (OECD) member countries. In the third quarter of 2016, one out of three unemployed people in South Korea were university graduates largely attributed to the combination of a protracted South Korean economic slowdown and so-called academic inflation. Many young unemployed South Korean university graduates are now turning to vocational education such as skilled trade and technical schools and have simply opted out the national college entrance examination test in favor of entering straight into the workforce. With dire employment prospects for university graduates, enthusiasm for tertiary education has also been waning, as less than 72% of South Korean high-school students went on to university in 2012, a sharp drop from a high of 84.6% in 2008. Other factors that attribute to this include demographic change and the current economic climate as well as financial burdens – particularly the cost of education has gone up dramatically with income growth for college graduates stagnating. According to 2012 employment trend research conducted by Statistics Korea reveals that college graduates earnings are lower than those of high school graduates. Many traditional Korean families still continue to believe that a university education is the only route to a good well paying job in spite mounting evidence to the contrary according to a McKinsey report, noting that the net present value of a university education now trails the value of a high school diploma, due to huge private education costs. The cultural norms of South Korean parents continue to pressure their children to enter university and have even disregarded the phenomenon for declining income of college graduates where the income for university graduates has fallen that below of high school graduates as well as the fact that the unemployment rate for college graduates is higher than that of high-school graduates. The country has also produced an oversupply of university graduates in South Korea where in the first quarter of 2013 alone, nearly 3.3 million South Korean university graduates were jobless, leading many graduates overqualified for jobs requiring less education. Further criticism has been stemmed for causing labor shortages in various skilled blue-collar labor vocational occupations, where many of which go unfilled. With labor shortages in many skilled labor and vocational occupations, South Korean small and medium-sized businesses complain that they struggle to find enough skilled blue-collar workers to fill potential vocational job vacancies. Despite strong criticism and research statistics pointing alternative career options such as vocational school often with good pay and greater employment prospects that rival the income and prospects of many professional jobs requiring a university degree, a number of South Korean parents still continue to pressure their children regardless of their aptitude to enter university rather than go to a vocational school. In 2012, 93% of South Korean parents expected their children to attend university, but as societal attitudes change and reforms in the South Korean education system reform underway, more young South Koreans are starting to believe that they have to do what they like and what they enjoy in order to be happy to achieve success.
With South Korea's bleak economic and employment prospects for its youth, President Park Geun-hye went out internationally to countries such as Germany, Switzerland, and Austria to address South Korea's more glaring employment needs including tackling the country's high youth employment rate and as well as reforming South Korea's education system. In early 2015, Park Geun-Hye traveled to Switzerland to study the European apprenticeship system. By summer, the South Korean government mandated that all students in vocational high schools must also have an opportunity to be an apprentice. The government has also mandated an "employment first, university later" policy to encourage vocational graduates to work in industry and put off higher education until later. Drawing inspiration from the vocational schools and apprenticeship models of Germany and Switzerland, many Meister schools have been established in South Korea to prepare students for careers earlier. The schools offer to teach students specialized industrial skills and job training to tailor the needs of respective South Korean industries such as automobile and mechanical manufacturing and shipbuilding. Dual apprentice schools have also been introduced where students can work and study at the same time. High school students can go to school for a couple of days a week or a set period of the year or study at school for the rest with a stronger emphasis gaining employment skills than rather going to college. Many young South Koreans are now choosing their jobs tailored to their interests rather than blindly accepting career choices imposed by their parents and choosing jobs outside the conventional classroom. With the changing dynamics in the global economy in the 21st century as well as the implementation of vocational education in the South Korean education system as an alternative to the traditional path of going to university, a good education from a prestigious university no longer guarantees a comfortable life, and one's status in society is no longer necessarily guaranteed by educational background. Since the rise of Meister schools and modern reforms in the South Korean education system, many young South Koreans are now realizing that one doesn't necessarily need a college degree to be successful in the workforce and enter the middle class, but instead the right skills. The establishment of Meister schools now shows South Koreans that there can be multiple pathways to socioeconomic and career success and that vocational school graduates can still be professionally and financially successful in South Korean society. Educational reform modeled from Switzerland and Germany offers career alternatives besides the traditional university route allowing South Koreans to express occupational diversity and as well as redefine what is real achievement in South Korean society is.
Note: All ages are not in Western years. In parentheses are the Korean Ages; to find the age in the Korean age system add one to the latter ages shown here.
|Nursery School||0-3 (1-4)|
|1st Grade||7 (8)|
|2nd Grade||8 (9)|
|3rd Grade||9 (10)|
|4th Grade||10 (11)|
|5th Grade||11 (12)|
|6th Grade||12 (13)|
|7th grade||13 (14)|
|8th Grade||14 (15)|
|9th Grade||15 (16)|
|10th Grade||16 (17)|
|11th Grade||17 (18)|
|12th Grade||18 (19)|
|Tertiary education (College or University)||Ages vary (usually four years,
referred to as Freshman,
Sophomore, Junior and
|Membership Training in Korea||Ages also vary as they do for Tertiary education|
The number of private kindergartens have increased as a result of more women entering the workforce, growth in the number of nuclear families where a grandparent was often unavailable to take care of children, and the feeling that kindergarten might give children an "edge" in later educational competition. Many students in Korea start kindergarten at the Western age of three and will therefore continue to study in kindergarten for three or four years, before starting their 'formal education' in 'grade one' of primary school. Many private kindergartens offer their classes in English to give students a 'head-start' in the mandatory English education they would receive later in public school. Kindergartens often pay homage to the expectations of parents with impressive courses, graduation ceremonies, complete with diplomas and gowns. Korean kindergartens are expected to start teaching basic maths, reading and writing to children, including education on how to count, add, subtract, and read and write in Korean, and often in English and Chinese. Children in Korean kindergartens are also taught using games focused on education and coordination, such as "playing doctor" to teach body parts, food and nutrition, and work positions for adults. Songs, dances, and memorization are a big part of Korean kindergarten education.
Elementary schools (Korean: 초등학교, chodeung hakgyo) consists of grades one to six (age 8 to age 13 in Korean years—6 to 12 in western years). The South Korean government changed its name to the current form from Citizens' school (Korean: 국민학교, Gungmin hakgyo) in 1996. The former name was shortened from 황국신민학교 (Hwangguk sinmin hakgyo), which means school of the people who are subjects of the Empire (of Japan).
- We Are First Graders (Korean: 우리들은 1학년) (grade 1 only)
- Korean (listening, speaking, reading, writing)
- Disciplined Life (Korean: 바른생활)
- Sensible Life (Korean: 슬기로운생활)
- Enjoyable Life (Korean: 즐거운생활)
- Physical Education
- Korean (listening, speaking, reading, writing)
- Moral Education
- Social Studies
- Practical Arts
- Physical Education
Those who wish to become a primary school teacher must major in primary education, which is specially designed to cultivate primary school teachers. In Korea, most of the primary teachers are working for public primary schools.
Because corporal punishment has been officially prohibited in every classroom since 2011, many teachers and some parents raised with corporal punishment are becoming more concerned about what they see as worsening discipline problems. However, some teachers infringe the law and raise their students with corporal punishment.
In 1987, there were approximately 4,895,354 students enrolled in middle schools and high schools, with approximately 150,873 teachers. About 69 percent of these teachers were male. About 98% of Korean students finish secondary education. The secondary-school enrollment figure also reflected changing population trends—there were 3,959,975 students in secondary schools in 1979. Given the importance of entry into higher education, the majority of students attended general or academic high schools in 1987: 1,397,359 students, or 60 percent of the total, attended general or academic high schools, as compared with 840,265 students in vocational secondary schools. Vocational schools specialized in a number of fields: primarily agriculture, fishery, commerce, trades, merchant marine, engineering, and the arts.
Competitive entrance examinations at the middle-school level were abolished in 1968. Although as of the late 1980s, students still had to pass noncompetitive qualifying examinations, they were assigned to secondary institutions by lottery, or else by location within the boundary of the school district. Secondary schools, formerly ranked according to the quality of their students, have been equalized, with a portion of good, mediocre, and poor students being assigned to each one. The reform, however, did not equalize secondary schools completely. In Seoul, students who performed well in qualifying examinations were allowed to attend better quality schools in a "common" district, while other students attended schools in one of five geographical districts. The reforms applied equally to public and private schools whose enrollments were strictly controlled by the Ministry of Education.
In South Korea, the grade of a student is reset as the student progresses through elementary, middle and high school. To differentiate the grades between students, one would often state the grade based on the level of education he/she is in. For example, a student in a first year of middle school would be referred to as "First grade in Middle School (중학교 1학년)".
Middle schools are called Jung hakgyo (중학교) in Korean, which literally means middle school. High schools are called Godeung hakgyo (고등학교) in Korean, literally meaning "high school".
Middle schools in South Korea consist of three grades. Most students enter at age 12 or 13 and graduate at age 15 or 16 (western years). These three grades correspond roughly to grades 7-9 in the North American system and Years 8-10 in the English and Welsh system.
Middle school in South Korea marks a considerable shift from primary school, with students expected to take studies and school much more seriously. At most middle schools regulation uniforms and haircuts are enforced fairly strictly, and some aspects of students' lives are highly controlled. Like in primary school, students spend most of the day in the same homeroom classroom with the same classmates; however, students have different teachers for each subject. Teachers move around from classroom to classroom, and few teachers apart from those who teach special subjects have their own rooms to which students come. Homeroom teachers (담임교사, RR: damim gyosa) play a very important role in students' lives.
Most middle school students take seven lessons a day, and in addition to this usually have an early morning block that precedes regular lessons and an eighth lesson specializing in an extra subject to finish the day. Unlike with high school, middle school curricula do not vary much from school to school. Korean, Algebra, Geometry, English, social studies, and science form the core subjects, with students also receiving instruction in music, art, PE, korean history, ethics, home economics, technology, and Hanja. What subjects students study and in what amount may vary from year to year. All regular lessons are 45 minutes long. Before school, students have an extra block, 30-or-more minutes long, that may be used for self-study, watching Educational Broadcast System (EBS) broadcasts, or for personal or class administration. Beginning in 2008, students attended school from Monday to Friday, and had a half-day every 1st, 3rd, and 5th (calendar permitting) Saturday of the month. Saturday lessons usually included Club Activity (CA) lessons, where students could participate in extracurricular activities. However these classes were also not used well either. Many schools have regular classes except having extracurricular activities because schools and parents want students to study more. However, from 2012 onwards, primary and secondary schools, including middle schools, will no longer hold Saturday classes. However, still many schools have Saturday classes illegally because the parents want their children to go to school and study.
In 1969, the government abolished entrance examinations for middle school students, replacing it with a system whereby primary school students within the same district are selected for middle schools by a lottery system. This has the effect of equalizing the quality of students from school to school, though schools in areas where students come from more privileged backgrounds still tend to outperform schools in poorer areas. Until recently most middle schools have been same-sex, though in the past decade most new middle schools have been mixed, and some previously same-sex schools have converted to mixed as well. Some schools have converted to same-sex due to pressure from parents who thought that their children would study better in single-sex education.
As with primary schools, students pass from grade to grade regardless of knowledge or academic achievement, the result being that classes often have students of vastly differing abilities learning the same subject material together. In the final year of middle school examination scores become very important for the top students hoping to gain entrance into the top high schools, and for those in the middle hoping to get into an academic rather than a technical or vocational high school. Otherwise, examinations and marks only matter insofar as living up to a self-enforced concept of position in the school ranking system. There are some standardized examinations for certain subjects, and teachers of academic subjects are expected to follow approved textbooks, but generally middle school teachers have more flexibility over curricula and methods than teachers at high school.
More than 95% of the middle school students also attend independent owned, after-school tutoring agencies known as hagwon, and many receive extra instruction from private tutors. The core subjects, especially the cumulative subjects of Korean, English and math, receive the most emphasis. Some hagwon specializing in just one subject, and others offer all core subjects, constituting a second round of schooling every day for their pupils. Indeed, some parents place more stress on their children's hagwon studies than their public school studies. Additionally, many students attend academies for things such as martial arts or music. The result of all this is that many middle school students, like their high school counterparts, return from a day of schooling well after sunset. The average South Korean family spends 20% percent of its income on after-hours cram schools, more spending per capita on private tutoring than any other country.
High schools in South Korea teach students for three years, from first grade (age 15-17) to third grade (age 17-19), and students commonly graduate at age 18 or 19. High school students are commonly expected to study increasingly long hours each year moving toward graduation, to become competitive and be able to enter attractive universities, such as the top SKY (Seoul National, Korea, and Yonsei Universities). Many high school students wake and leave home in the morning at 5 a.m. and return home after studying well after 10 p.m., then return to specialty study schools often to 2 a.m., from Monday to Friday and also they often study on weekends.
It is a commonly known saying in Korea that 'If you sleep three hours a night, you may get into a top 'SKY university;' If you sleep four hours each night, you may get into another university; if you sleep five or more hours each night, especially in your last year of high school, forget about getting into any university.' Accordingly, many high school students in their final year do not have any free time for holidays, birthdays or vacations before the CATs (National College Scholastic Aptitude Test, Korean:수능), which are university entrance exams held by the Ministry of Education. Surprisingly, some high school students are offered chances to travel with family to enjoy fun and relaxing vacations, but these offers are often refused on the first suggestion by the students themselves, and increasingly on later additional trips if any, due to peer influences and a fear of 'falling behind' in classes. Many high school students seem to prefer staying with friends and studying, rather than taking a break. The idea of 'skipping classes' for fun is extremely rare in Korea. Rebellious students will often stay in class and use smart phones connected to the internet to chat with friends behind the teacher's back during classes.
High schools in Korea can be divided into specialty tracks that accord with a student's interest and career path. For example, there are science (Science high school), foreign language and art specialty high schools to which students can attend by passing entrance examinations which are generally highly competitive. Other types of high schools include public high schools and private high schools, both with or without entrance examinations. These high schools do not report to specialise in a field, but are more focused on sending their students to college. For students who do not wish a college education, vocational schools specialising in fields such as technology, agriculture or finance are available, such that students are employable right after graduation. Around 20% of high school students are in vocational high schools.
On noting the schedule of many high school students, it is not unusual for them to arrive home from school at midnight or even as late as 3am after intensive "self-study" sessions supported by the school or parents. The Korean government has tried to crack down on such serious study habits in order to allow a more balanced system, and fined many privately run specialty study institutes ('hagwons') for running classes as late (or as early) as 2am. Some such institutes ('hagwons') also offer early morning classes for students to attend before going to school in the morning.
The normal government school curriculum is often noted as rigorous, with as many as 16 or so subjects. Most students choose to also attend privately run profit-making institutes known as hagwon (學院, Korean: 학원) to boost their academic performance. Core subjects include Korean, English and mathematics, with adequate emphasis on social and physical science subjects. Students do not typically ask questions in the classroom, but prefer to memorise details. It is critical to note that the type and level of subjects may differ from school to school, depending on the degree of selectivity and specialisation of the school. Specialty, optional, expensive, study schools help students memorise questions and answers from previous years' CAT tests (since August 1993) and universities' interview questions.
High school is not mandatory, unlike middle school education in Korea. However, according to a 2005 study of Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) member countries, some 97% of South Korea's young adults do complete high school. This was the highest percentage recorded in any country. However, this is mainly due to the fact that there is no such thing as a failing grade in Korea, and most graduate as long as they attend school a certain number of days.
As it stands, the Korean secondary system of education is highly successful in preparing students for teacher-centered education such as that often used to teach mathematics since the transfer of information is mostly one way, from teacher to student. However, this does not hold true for classroom environments where students are expected to take on self-reliant roles wherein, for the most part, active and creative personalities seem to lead to success.
It is becoming ever more evident that active student use of the English language in Korean high schools is increasingly necessary for the purposes of helping the students enter top universities in Korea as well as abroad.
South Korea once had a strong vocational education system that it rebuilt its shattered economy after the Korean war. As the university degree grew in prominence to employers during the 1970s and 1980s, the shift to a more knowledge-based rather than an industrial economy resulted vocational education shifting in favor towards university degree for many young South Koreans and their parents. In the 1970s and 1980s, vocational education in South Korea was less than socially acceptable, yet it was the another pathway to succeed in obtaining a steady job with a decent income as well as elevate their socioeconomic status yet many vocational graduates were scorned and stigmatized by their college educated managers despite the importance of their skills for economic development.
With South Korea's high university entrance rate, the perception of vocational educational still remains in doubt in the minds of many South Koreans. In 2013, only 18 percent of students were enrolled in vocational education programs as it was due to the prestige of university—affluent families that were able to afford the tutoring that is now required for students to pass the notorious difficult college entrance exam and be able to attend university. With the pervasive bias against vocational education, vocational students are labeled as "underachievers", lack a formal higher educational background, and are often looked down upon as vocational jobs are known in Korea as the "3Ds" dirty, demeaning, and dangerous. In response, the South Korean government increased the number of spots in universities and the rate of university enrollment was 68.2 percent, an increase of 15 percent over 2014. As a result, to boost the positive image of vocational training, the South Korean government has been collaborating with countries such as Germany, Switzerland, and Austria to examine the innovative solutions that are being implemented to improve vocational education, training, and career options for young South Koreans as alternative to the traditional path of going to university.
According to a 2012 research report from The McKinsey Global Institute reckons that the lifetime value of a college graduate’s improved earnings no longer justifies the expense required to obtain the degree and have called on the need for more vocational education to counteract the human cost of performance pressure and the high unemployment rate among the country's university-educated youth. The South Korean government, schools, and industry with assistance from the Swiss government and industry are now revamping and modernizing the country's once strong vocational education sector with a network of vocational schools called "Meister Schools". The purpose of the Meister schools is to reduce the country's shortage of vocational occupations such as auto mechanics, plumbers, welders, boilermakers, electricians, carpenters, millwrights, machinists and machine operators as many of the positions go unfilled. In spite of the country’s high unemployment rate during the Great Recession, secondary vocational school graduates have been successful in navigating the workforce as they possess relevant skill sets that are in high demand in the South Korean economy.
Negative perception and stigmatization of vocational education continues to be the largest challenge in South Korea. The government is encouraging younger students to visit and see the programs for themselves firsthand to change their perception. Those in doubt on the quality of vocational education are encouraged to spend time working in industry during school vacations so they are up-to-date on current industry practices. Meister schools are continuing to be proving to be a good influence in changing the opinion of vocational education yet only 15,213 (5 percent) of high school students are enrolled in Meister schools with a lack of places unable to meet the demand despite a 100 percent employment rate. Meister students are now using these schools as an alternative path besides going to university; if a student works in industry for three years after graduating from a Meister, they are exempt from the extremely difficult university entrance exam. Nonetheless, the perception of vocational education is changing and slowly increasing in popularity as participating students are working in adult jobs and learning real skills that are highly valued in the current marketplace as vocational school graduates have been swamped with job offers in an otherwise slow economy. The initiative of Meister schools has even helped youth secure jobs at conglomerates such as Samsung over their peers who graduated from elite universities. South Korea has also streamlined its small and medium-sized business sector along German lines to ease dependence on the large conglomerates ever since it began introducing Meister schools into its education system.
Some form of higher education has existed continuously in South Korea since the 4th century.
The development of higher education was influenced since ancient times. During the era of King So-Su-Rim in the kingdom of Goguryeo, Tae-Hak, the national university, taught the study of Confucianism, literature and martial arts. In 551, Silla which was one of three kingdoms including Goguryeo founded Guk-Hak and taught cheirospasm. It also founded vocational education that taught astronomy and medicine. Goryeo continued Silla’s program of study. Seong-gyun-gwan in the Chosun Dynasty period was a higher education institute of Confucianism and for government officials.
Today there are colleges and universities whose courses of study extend from 4 to 6 years. In addition, there are vocational colleges, industrial universities, open universities and universities of technology. There are day and evening classes, classes during vacation and remote education classes. The number of institutes of higher education varied consistently from 419 in 2005, to 405 in 2008, to 411 in 2010.
Private universities account for 87.3% of total higher educational institutions. Industrial universities account for 63.6% and vocational universities account for 93.8%.[clarification needed] These are much higher than the percentage of public institutes.
Students have the option of participating in either 수시 (su-shi, early decision plans for college) or 정시 (jeong-shi, regular admissions). Students will have to take the College Scholastic Ability Test (colloquially known as 수능 Su-neung). The Korean College Scholastic Ability Test has five sections: Language Ability, Mathematical Ability, First Foreign Language Ability (English), various "elective" subjects in the social and physical sciences, and 'Second Foreign Languages or Chinese Characters and Classics'. Unlike the American SAT, this test can only be taken once a year and requires intensive studying. Students who perform below their expectations on the test and choose to defer college entrance for one year in order to try and achieve a higher score on another attempt are called jaesuseng.
For Korean university admissions, college scholastic ability tests, student’s grade books and university regulated examinations are evaluated. The student’s grade book contains an overall record of their high school activity, including voluntary work. College scholastic ability tests include language, mathematics, English, social and natural sciences, job research and a second foreign language. The job research section applies only to students of vocational schools. The second foreign language requirement applies only to students who pursued a liberal arts curriculum as opposed to natural sciences.
Because college entrance depends upon ranking high in objectively graded examinations, high school students face an "examination hell", a harsh regimen of endless cramming and rote memorization of facts that is incomparably severe. Korean students study 16 hours more each week than the OECD (Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development) average. Unlike the Confucian civil service examinations of the Choson Dynasty, their modern reincarnation is a matter of importance not for an elite, but for the substantial portion of the population with middle-class aspirations. In the late 1980s, over one-third of college-age men and women (35.2 percent in 1989) succeeded in entering and attending institutions of higher education; those who failed faced dramatically reduced prospects for social and economic advancement.
Tests given in high school (twice in each semester) were almost as important in determining college entrance as the final entrance examinations. Students had no opportunity to relax from the study routine. The emphasis on memorization has been criticized. Much of the family's social life concerns their student's education.
Examinations are very serious times of the year and they change the whole pattern of society. Businesses often open at 10 AM to accommodate parents who have helped their children study late into the night. On the evenings before exams, recreational facilities such as tennis clubs close early to facilitate study for these exams.
The costs of the "examination hell" have been evident not only in a grim and joyless adolescence for many, if not most, young South Koreans, but also in the number of suicides caused by the constant pressure of tests. Often, those who committed suicide have been top achievers who suffered from despair after experiencing a slump in test performance. Roughly 53.4% of South Korean youths who consider suicide cite excessive competition as the reason. The multiple choice format of periodic high school tests and university entrance examinations has left students little opportunity to develop their creative talents. A "facts only" orientation has promoted a cramped view of the world that has tended to spill over into other areas of life.
The prospects for basic change in the system —a de-emphasis on tests— were unlikely in the late 1980s. The great virtue of facts-based testing is its objectivity. Though harsh, the system is believed to be fair and impartial. The use of nonobjective criteria such as essays, personal recommendations, and the recognition of success in extracurricular activities or personal recommendations from teachers and others could open up many opportunities for corruption. In a society where social connections are extremely important, connections rather than merit might determine entry into a good university. Students who survive the numbing regimen of examinations under the modern system are at least universally acknowledged to have deserved their educational success. Top graduates who have assumed positions of responsibility in government and business have lent, through their talents, legitimacy to the whole system. Though there have been reforms on promoting individuality and creativity, yet many Korean students still face an incredible amount of pressure from school as well as their parents who enforce long hours of study to ensure strong results on the national university examinations which can determine their chances of future career success.
The 'examination by university' is an assessment test that the university carries out autonomously; most universities implement an essay exam. Some implement an oral exam, interview and aptitude test. Recently, the 'admission officer system' is on the increase.
Most students enrolled in high school apply to colleges at the end of the year. College entrance depends upon ranking high in objectively graded examinations.
In the late 1980s, over one-third of college-age men and women (35.2 percent in 1989) succeeded in entering and attending institutions of higher education; those who failed faced dramatically reduced prospects for social and economic advancement. The number of students in higher education had risen from 100,000 in 1960 to 1.3 million in 1987, and the proportion of college-age students in higher-education institutions was second only to the United States.
The institutions of higher education included regular four-year colleges and universities, two-year junior vocational colleges, four-year teachers' colleges, and graduate schools. The main drawback was that college graduates wanted careers that would bring them positions of leadership in society, but there simply were not enough positions to accommodate all graduates each year and many graduates were forced to accept lesser positions. Ambitious women especially were frustrated by traditional barriers of sex discrimination as well as the lack of positions.
The curriculum of most schools is structured around the content of the entrance examination.
South Korean university rankings
With incredible pressure on high school students to secure places at the country's best universities, its institutional reputation and alumni networks are strong predictors of future job and career prospects. The top three universities in South Korea often referred to as ‘SKY” – include Seoul National University, Korea University and Yonsei University. According to the influential Joongang Ilbo University Rankings, the top 10 universities in 2012 in South Korea were Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Pohang University of Science and Technology, Yonsei University, Seoul National University, Sungkyunkwan University, Korea University, Sogang University, Kyung Hee University, Hanyang University, and Chung-Ang University.
The South Korean Ministry of Education also recognizes seven different types of institution at the higher education level of which include:
- Colleges and universities
- Industrial universities
- Universities of education
- Junior colleges
- Broadcast and correspondence universities
- Technical colleges
- Other miscellaneous institutions
The South Korean government and universities desire to improve the international rankings of the domestic universities. Attempts by the South Korean government are being made to improve the situation. Another solution may be as simple as making it fundamentally more attractive for highly qualified foreign professors and researchers to come to work and more importantly to stay in South Korea. All in all, the South Korean Ministry of Education hopes to remedy the problem via the ‘National Project Toward Building World Class Universities’. The project is designed to attract highly qualified foreign professors and researchers to South Korean universities to improve their international rankings.
South Korean university education often continues traditions remaining from the medieval Korean civil service examinations which entitled ambitious young men to join a clerical aristocracy. Until fairly recently many South Korean university students perceived the difficult and unpleasant entrance examination to be an end in itself, with the four years after treated as a reward. Thus South Korean universities were largely lacking in rigor with many students spending their time socializing, drinking, and dating after years of such activities being discouraged. In the past decade, however, due to South Korea's increasing globalization and inflows of foreign faculty, work expectations are more closely resembling western universities and plagiarism, once openly tolerated, is becoming stigmatized. Rural and lower-tier universities, however, still in many cases function as degree factories.
A network of Meister Schools has been developed to revamp South Korea's vocational education system that is specifically designed to prepare youths to work in high-skilled manufacturing jobs and other fields. The schools are based on the German-style Meister schools, to teach bright youngsters to become masters of a technical trade. Meister schools were set up to tackle the nations high youth unemployment rate as millions of young South Korean university graduates remain idle instead of taking up a trade while managers of small and medium businesses complain of skilled trade shortages. Many of these Meister schools offer a wide range of trades and technical disciplines that offer near guarantee of employment to graduates with an industry-supported curriculum design, with focus on developing skills required by various trades. The government of South Korea has taken initiatives to improve the perception of vocational training and combat the negative stigma attached to manual and technical work. In addition, vocational streams have been integrated with academic streams to allow a seamless transition to universities in order to allow further advancement if a young South Korean chooses to pursue higher education. Meister schools offer apprenticeship based training as an alternative beyond the traditional university takes place at vocational high schools, community and polytechnic colleges. Meister schools also offer employment supportive systems for specialized Meister high school students. The South Korean government has established an “Employment First, College Later” philosophy whereas after graduation students are encouraged to seek employment first before making plans for university. With changing demands in the Information Age workforce, global forecasts show that by 2030, the demand for vocational skills will increase in contrast to the declining demand for unskilled labor largely due to technological advances. In 2010, the Meister schools chose a total of 3,600 students for technical education and apprenticeships so that they can develop expertise in fields such as shipbuilding, mechanical engineering, semiconductor manufacturing and medical equipment. Graduates of Meister high schools have been successful in the job market and are flooded with full salary job offers from companies. Boosting employment for young people through high quality vocational education has become a top priority for the Park administration, since youth unemployment is roughly three times higher than the national average.
Graduates from vocational high schools have been successful in navigating through South Korea's highly competitive and sluggish job market. Many graduates both quantitatively and qualitatively found more employment opportunities in a number of industry sectors across the South Korean economy. Despite promising employment prospects and good pay offered by vocational education that rival the income of many university graduates, negative social attitudes and prejudice towards technicians and vocational high school students are stigmatized, treated unfairly and are still looked down upon. There were also concerns about discrimination against people with lower educational backgrounds, a long-standing tendency of South Korean employers. The negative social stigma associated with vocational careers and not having a university degree also continues to remain deep rooted in South Korean society.
Ministry of Education
The Ministry of Education has been responsible for South Korean education since 25 February 2013. Its name was The Ministry of Education, Science and Technology (often abbreviated into "the Ministry of Education") since 25 February 2008 to 24 February 2013. The former body, the Ministry of Education and Human Resources Development, was named by the former Minister of Education, who enhanced its function in 2001 because the administration of Kim Dae-jung considered education and human resources development as a matter of the highest priority. As a result of the reform, it began to cover the whole field of human resource development and the minister of education was appointed to the Vice Prime Minister. In 2008, the name was changed into the present one after the Lee Myeong Bak administration annexed the former Ministry of Science and Technology to the Education ministry. Like other ministers, the Minister of Education, Science and Technology is appointed by the president. They are mainly chosen from candidates who have an academic background and often resign in a fairly short term (around one year). (Ministry of Education has no more work on science and technology because President Park restorated the Ministry works for science and technology)
Although primary- and secondary-school teachers traditionally enjoyed high status, they often were overworked and underpaid during the late 1980s. Salaries were less than those for many other white-collar professions and even some blue-collar jobs. High school teachers, particularly those in the cities, however, received sizable gifts from parents seeking attention for their children, but teaching hours were long and classes crowded (the average class contained around fifty to sixty students).
In May 1989, teachers established an independent union, the Korean Teachers Union (KTU — 전국교원노동조합(전교조), Jeongyojo). Their aims included improving working conditions and reforming a school system that they regarded as overly controlled by the Ministry of Education. Although the government promised large increases in allocations for teachers' salaries and facilities, it refused to give the union legal status. Because teachers were civil servants, the government claimed they did not have the right to strike and, even if they did have the right to strike, unionization would undermine the status of teachers as "role models" for young Koreans. The government also accused the union of spreading subversive, leftist propaganda that was sympathetic to the communist regime in North Korea.
According to a report in The Wall Street Journal Asia, the union claimed support from 82 percent of all teachers. The controversy was viewed as representing a major crisis for South Korean education because a large number of teachers (1,500 by November 1989) had been dismissed, violence among union supporters, opponents, and police had occurred at several locations, and class disruptions had caused anxieties for families of students preparing for the college entrance examinations. The union's challenge to the Ministry of Education's control of the system and the charges of subversion had made compromise seem a very remote possibility at the start 1990.
Political involvement in the education system
South Korea still has issues with North Korea after the Korean War. This contributed South Korea's confrontational stance against North Korea in the education field. For instance, on July 7, 2011, the National Intelligence Service was criticized for the search and seizure of a civilian think tank, Korea Higher Education Research Institution (한국대학교육연구소). This incident was carried out through a warrant to investigate an alleged South Korean spy who followed an instruction from North Korea with a purpose of instigating university student rallies to stop the ongoing tuition hike in South Korea.
English is taught as a required subject from the third year of elementary school up to high school, as well as in most universities, with the goal of performing well on the TOEIC and TOEFL, which are tests of reading, listening and grammar-based English. For students who achieve high scores, there is also a speaking evaluation.
Because of large class sizes and other factors in public schools, many parents pay to send their children to private English-language schools in the afternoon or evening. Usually different private English-language schools specialize in teaching elementary school students or in middle and high school students. The most ambitious parents send their children to kindergartens that utilize English exclusively in the classroom. Many children also live abroad for anywhere from a few months to several years to learn English. Sometimes, a Korean mother and her children will move to an English-speaking country for an extended period of time to enhance the children's English ability. In these cases, the father left in Korea is known as a gireogi appa (Korean: 기러기 아빠), literally a "goose dad" who must migrate to see his family.
There are more than 100,000 Korean students in the U.S. The increase of 10 percent every year helped Korea remain the top student-sending country in the U.S. for a second year, ahead of India and China. Korean students at Harvard University are the third most after Canadian and Chinese. In 2012, 154,000 South Korean students were pursuing degrees at overseas universities, with countries such as Japan, Canada, the United States, and Australia as top destinations.
Korean English classes focus on vocabulary, grammar, and reading. Academies tend to include conversation, and some offer debate and presentation.
Due to recent curriculum changes, the education system in Korea is now placing a greater emphasis on English verbal abilities rather than grammatical skills. Universities require all first year students to take an English conversation class in their first year and some universities require students to take conversational English classes throughout the entirety of their university life. According to a 2003 survey conducted by the Hong Kong-based Political and Economic Risk Consultancy, despite being one of the countries in Asia that spends the most money on English-language education, South Korea ranks the lowest among 12 Asian countries in English ability.
English as a subject discipline, that is, the study of linguistics, literature, composition/rhetoric, or pedagogy is uncommon except in top-tier or graduate programs in Korea. As a result, despite efforts to recruit foreign faculty in Korean universities, opportunities for tenure are fewer and professorial privileges and salaries are lower than for foreigners contracted to teach major disciplinary courses in English (content-based instruction).
Controversy and criticism
South Korea's scarcity of natural resources is often cited as a reason for the rigorousness and fierce competition of its school systems; the academic pressure on its students is arguably the largest in the world. In an article entitled "An Assault Upon Our Children", Se-Woong Koo wrote that "the system's dark side casts a long shadow. Dominated by tiger moms, cram schools and highly authoritarian teachers, South Korean education produces ranks of overachieving students who pay a stiff price in health and happiness. The entire program amounts to child abuse. It should be reformed and restructured without delay." In a response to the article, educator Diane Ravitch warned against modeling an educational system in which children "exist either to glorify the family or to build the national economy". She argued furthermore that the happiness of South Korean children has been sacrificed, and likened the country's students to "cogs in a national economic machine". A 2014 poll found that over half of South Korean teenagers have suicidal thoughts, with over 40% of respondents reporting that school pressure and future uncertainty dismayed them the most. Furthermore, suicide is currently the leading cause of death among South Korean youth.
- Lee Ju-ho, the Minister representing the Ministry of Education & Science Technology, announced a plan on February 8, 2011 to dispatch un-hired reserve teachers overseas for extra training despite the opposition from the Korean Teachers Union and other public workers in the city-level and the provincial level.
- South Korean schools have a strong tendency to neglect physical education due to the over-emphasis of classroom-based education.
- 81% of middle and high schools forbid relationships among students.
- A citizen group under the Unification Church gives out sexual virginity awards under an uncertain standard.
- The low emphasis on vocational education and stigmatization in Korea with regards to skilled trade or vocational careers (often dismissed as DDD jobs, 'dirty, dangerous, and demeaning' with low social standing). It has been additionally been criticized for producing an oversupply of university graduates in the country which means that university graduates often have difficulty in finding jobs while many vocational occupational positions sometimes go unfilled. According to Jasper Kim, a visiting scholar of East Asian studies at Harvard University, "There are a lot of highly educated, arguably over-educated people, but on the flip side, the demand side, they all want to work for a narrow bandwidth of companies, namely the LGs and Samsungs of the world". Kim also states that many highly educated South Koreans who don't get selected often become second-class citizens, with fewer opportunities for employment and even marriage.
- There are concerns of overload of schoolworks and exam preparations that could threaten the students' health and emotions.
- The South Korean education system does not allow any leeways for students' rights. The Superintendent of Seoul Metropolitan Office of Education Kwak No Hyun made a remark how "it is very embarrassing to discuss verbosely about the poor development of students' rights within the South Korean society" during his seminar on March 3, 2011.
- There are concerns about the severe lack of community spirit among South Korean students that comes from examinations as the main educational direction and from an analysis according to Dr. Lee Mi-na from SNU Sociology: "harsh competition-oriented and success-oriented parenting among the parents".
- The Korean Federation of Teachers' Associations (한국교원단체총연합회) announced that 40% of teachers are not satisfied with the loss of teachers' powers in classroom due to the new Teachers' Evaluation System.
- The Ministry of Education and Science, the Ministry of National Defense, and the Korean Federation of Teachers' Association signed an MOU on May 25, 2011 to a verbose national security education to younger kids, in which it potentially violates the UN Children's Rights protocol.
- OECD ranked South Korean elementary, middle, and high school students the lowest in terms of happiness compared to other OECD countries. This survey also echoes similar results to students in Seoul according to SMOE.
- Dr. Seo Yu-hyeon, a brain expert from Seoul National University Faculty of Medicines criticized South Korea's private educations among toddlers due to the forceful nature of these educational pursuits that could deteriorate creativity and block any healthy brain development.
- The Korean Educational Development Institute reports that the majority of university students lacks the ability to ask questions to instructors mainly due to the education system that promotes examinations and instructors having too many students to handle.
- A survey from the Korean Federation of Teachers' Associations found out that 79.5% of the schoolteachers are not satisfied with their careers; a growing trend that has been for three years straight.
- The accounts of sexual abuses in school are increasing.
The South Korean political system has a strong academic elitism. Conservative politician Jeon Yeo-ok openly opposed the nomination of the former president Roh Moo-hyun who did not graduate from a higher level institution, but passed the state-run judicial examinations.
- Education in North Korea
- Gifted education#Republic of Korea
- Seoul Metropolitan Office of Education
- Student and university culture in South Korea
- "Korea (Republic of)". United Nations Development Programme. Archived from the original on November 8, 2010. Retrieved December 4, 2003.
- Clark, Nick; Park, Hanna (1 June 2013). "Education in South Korea". World Education News & Reviews. Retrieved 25 June 2015.
- "OECD.Stat Education and Training > Education at a Glance > Educational attainment and labor-force status > Educational attainment of 25-64 year-olds". OECD.
- Lee, Ji-Yeon (September 26, 2014). "Vocational Education and Training in Korea: Achieving the Enhancement of National Competitiveness" (PDF). KRIVET. KRIVET.
- "South Korea". National Center On Education and The Economy. Retrieved December 4, 2013.
- "What the world can learn from the latest PISA test results". 10 December 2016.
- "Education OECD Better Life". OECD. Archived from the original on 31 May 2016. Retrieved 29 May 2016.
- Ripley, Amanda (25 September 2011). "South Korea: Kids, Stop Studying So Hard!".
- Habibi, Nader (11 December 2015). "The overeducated generation".
- Cobbold, Trevor (November 14, 2013). "South Korea's Education Success Has a Dark Side".
- Diamond, Anna (November 17, 2016). "Why South Korea Is So Fixated With the College-Entrance Exam".
- Lee, Ji-Yeon (September 26, 2014). "Vocational Education and Training in Korea: Achieving the Enhancement of National Competitiveness" (PDF). KRIVET. KRIVET.
- Strother, Jason (10 November 2012). "Drive for education drives South Korean families into the red".
- "South Korean education ranks high, but it’s the kids who pay". March 30, 2015.
- Na Jeong-ju (23 May 2012). "Meister schools fight social prejudice". The Korea Times. Retrieved 15 July 2016.
- Tomoko Otake. "Public education spending in Japan lowest in OECD for sixth straight year". The Japan Times. Retrieved 28 October 2016.
- "High performance, high pressure in South Korea’s education system". ICEF Monitor. 23 January 2014. Retrieved 29 May 2016.
- "South Koreans Consider The Trades Over University Education". Public Radio International.
- David Santandreu Calonge (March 30, 2015). "South Korean education ranks high, but it’s the kids who pay". Retrieved 3 July 2015.
- WeAreTeachers Staff. "South Korea’s School Success". WeAreTeachers. Archived from the original on 5 July 2015. Retrieved 3 July 2015.
- "Korea Awash with the Under-Skilled and Overeducated © This is copyrighted material owned by Digital Chosun Inc. No part of it may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means without prior written permission.". Chosun. 8 December 2011. Retrieved 23 October 2016.
- Reeta Chakrabarti (2 December 2013). "South Korea's schools: Long days, high results". BBC. Retrieved 28 October 2016.
- "The Pressures of the South Korean Education System". April 20, 2013.
- "South Korean students wracked with stress". 8 December 2013.
- Ripley, Amanda (September 25, 2011). "Teacher, Leave Those Kids Alone". Time Inc. Retrieved December 4, 2013.
- Thomas, Tanya (27 April 2010). "Intensely Competitive Education In South Korea Leads to Education Fever". Medindia. Retrieved December 4, 2013.
- "The All-Work, No-Play Culture Of South Korean Education". April 15, 2015.
- Janda, Michael (October 22, 2013). "Korea's Rigorous Education System Has Delivered Growth, but It is Literally Killing the Country's Youth". ABC. Retrieved December 4, 2013.
- Koo, Se-Woong (August 1, 2014). "An Assault Upon Our Children". The New York Times. Retrieved August 19, 2015.
- "The Chosun Ilbo (English Edition): Daily News from Korea - Over 3 Million Highly Educated People Unemployed". chosun.com.
- "Lee calls for end to prejudices against non-college graduates". Yonhap. Retrieved October 2, 2016.
- Na Jeong-ju (May 23, 2012). "Meister schools fight social prejudice". The Korea Times. Retrieved July 15, 2016.
- "S Korea's vocational education needs to tackle its shortcomings". The Nation. January 6, 2014.
- Ju-min Park. "Bleak job prospects drive South Korean youth to vocational schools". Reuters. Retrieved May 29, 2016.
- "Lee calls for end to prejudices against non-college graduates". Yonhap. Retrieved 2 October 2016.
- Horn, Michael B. (14 March 2014). "Meister of Korean school reform: A conversation with Lee Ju-Ho". Archived from the original on 24 September 2016. Retrieved 29 May 2016.
- "South Koreans Consider The Trades Over University Education". Global Politics. 18 November 2011. Retrieved 29 May 2016.
- 교육 [Education]. Encyclopedia of Korean Culture (in Korean). Academy of Korean Studies. Retrieved January 22, 2014.
- Andrea Matles Savada and William Shaw, editors. ‘’South Korea: A Country Study’’. Washington: GPO for the Library of Congress, 1990.
- Lee, Ji-Yeon (September 26, 2014). "Vocational Education and Training in Korea: Achieving the Enhancement of National Competitiveness" (PDF). KRIVET. KRIVET.
- FACKLER, MARTIN (July 6, 2009). "With Wounded Pride, Unemployed Koreans Quietly Turn to Manual Labor".
- "Fighting for Equity in Education". November 24, 2013.
- "South Korea Votes in a Changing Region". Stratfor. April 13, 2016.
- "Fewer Young People Go On to University". The Chosun. Retrieved 29 May 2016.
- Ng Jing Yng (24 July 2015). "Earlier introduction of vocational education 'could have prevented' S Korea's grad glut". Today. Retrieved 2 October 2016.
- "Meister of job placement". The Dong-A-Ilbo. 22 September 2012. Retrieved 14 October 2016.
- "Lee urges job seekers to look for opportunities at smaller companies". The Korea Herald. 30 March 2010. Retrieved 26 October 2016.
- "Young Jobseekers Must Look Beyond Big Business". The Chosun llbo. 1 September 2016. Retrieved 26 October 2016.
- Jung-a Song (October 8, 2013). "South Korea pays heavy price for education".
- Park Yoon-bae (January 30, 2013). n/2014/02/164_129722.html "Overeducated, underemployed" Check
|url=value (help). Korea Times.
- c, ed. (October 17, 2016). "One in three unemployed people have bachelor's degrees". The Korea Times. Check date values in:
|year=, |year= / |date= mismatch(help)
- "Vocational schools gain ground in tight job market". Korea Herald. Retrieved 29 May 2016.
- Choi, Wonsik (April 2013). "Beyond Korean style: Shaping a new growth formula". McKinsey Global Institute.
- Naomi Rovnick (26 April 2013). "Why South Korea is under stress and college graduates there earn less than if they didn’t have a degree". Quartz. Retrieved 26 October 2016.
- "S Korea's vocational education needs to tackle its shortcomings". The Nation. 6 January 2014.
- "Voc-tech grads get jump on jobs". Korean Joonang Daily. Retrieved 2 October 2016.
- "Tackling Youth Unemployment". McKinsey on Society. Retrieved 29 May 2016.
- "The other arms race". Time. 23 October 2016. Retrieved 2 October 2016.
- "한국국제교류재단 홈페이지 관리부서에서 알려드립니다". Korea Focus. Retrieved 2 October 2016.
- "Park throws support behind vocational schools". 15 April 2014. Retrieved 14 July 2016.
- "Students, with their own dreams, choose not to take College Scholastic Aptitude Test". Arirang News. Retrieved 21 September 2016.
- "How Vocational Education Can Be an Economic Driver". Global Learning. Retrieved 14 July 2016.
- Oliver, Christian; Buseong, Kang (11 June 2010). "South Korea faces problem of ‘over-education’". Financial Times. Retrieved 29 May 2016.
- "For South Korean Youth, an Education Crossroads". Voice of America. Retrieved 29 May 2016.
- "The great mismatch". The Economist. Retrieved 29 May 2016.
- "Lee calls for end to prejudices against non-college graduates". Yonhap. Retrieved 2 October 2016.
- ko:대한민국의 초등학교
- Kwaak, Jeyup S. (28 June 2014). "Extreme Corporal Punishment Case in Seoul School Sparks Debate". The Wall Street Journal.
- Arrizabalaga, M. "Así ha escalado la educación de Corea del Sur al podio mundial". ABC.es (in Spanish).
- "South Korea: An end to Saturday classes | Thomas White International". Thomaswhite.com. 2011-09-26.
- "In Hypercompetitive South Korea, Pressures Mount on Young Pupils". PBS. 21 January 2011. Retrieved 28 October 2016.
- Song Jung-a (5 November 2013). "Education in South Korea: system must change to satisfy country’s and pupils’ needs". Financial Times. Retrieved 28 October 2016.
- "Seeing the shared traits". The Slovak Spectator. Retrieved 28 October 2016.
- In-Jin Yoon (1997). On My Own: Korean Businesses and Race Relations in America. University of Chicago Press. p. 78.
- "Korean parents spending most of income on children's education". Arirang News. 7 May 2013. Retrieved 28 October 2016.
- Kuczera, Małgorzata; Kis, Viktória; Wurzburg, Greg (May 2009). OECD review of vocational education and training in Korea (PDF) (Report). Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development.
- "South Korea's education success". BBC News. 13 September 2005.
- Jambor, Zoltan Paul (26 November 2009). Favourable Teaching Approaches in the South Korean Post Secondary Classroom (PDF) (Report). Education Resources Information Center, United States Department of Education.
- Jambor, Paul Z. (January 2012). English Language Necessity: What It means for Korea and Non-English Speaking Countries (PDF) (Report). Education Resources Information Center, United States Department of Education.
- Singmaster, Heather (2016). "How Vocational Education Can Be an Economic Driver". Education Week.
- "South Korea's Graduate Glut". June 11, 2012.
- "Generation jobless". April 27, 2013.
- Park, Young-bum (August 29, 2012). "‘Work First-School Later’ Policy Needs to Take Root". KRIVET.
- Wooldridge, Adrian (2015). The Great Disruption: How business is coping with turbulent times. The Economist. ISBN 978-1610395076.
- "Tech-centered vocational school opens in Daejeon". Korea Jooang Daily. 14 March 2015. Retrieved 15 July 2016.
- "South Korea: Role model Germany". DW News.
- "대학". Korean Council for University Education. Retrieved 11 December 2011.
- "Exams in South Korea: The one-shot society". The Economist. 17 December 2011.
- "청소년 사망 원인 1위는 ‘자살’" [Youth No. 1 cause of death is suicide]. Women's Newspaper (in Korean). 20 May 2011.
- "Exam Pressure Making S.Korean Students Contemplate Suicide". Medindia.
- ko:대한민국의 대학 입시 제도
- Jambor, Paul Z. (Summer 2009). "Why South Korean Universities Have Low International Rankings - Part II: The Student Side of the Equation". Academic Leadership. 7 (3).
- Jambor, Paul Z. (Winter 2009). "Why South Korean Universities Have Low International Rankings". Academic Leadership. 7 (1).
- "German Lessons". The Economist. 2014 12 July. Check date values in:
- Murisa, Tendai (2015). Beyond the crises: Zimbabwe's prospects for transformation. Weaver Press. p. 332. ISBN 9781779222855.
- "Over 90 pct of public firms adopt wage peak system". The Korea Observer. 4 November 2015. Retrieved 15 July 2016.
- Kwon (권), O-seong (오성) (2011-07-09). 국정원, ‘반값 등록금’ 민간 연구기관 압수수색. The Hankyeoreh (in Korean). Retrieved 2011-07-26.
- Onishi, Norimitsu (8 June 2008). "For English Studies, Koreans Say Goodbye to Dad". The New York Times.
- "South Korean student mobility takes a dip". ICEF. Retrieved 19 January 2015.
- Koo, Se-Woong (1 August 2014). "An Assault Upon Our Children". The New York Times.
- Ravitch, Diane (August 3, 2014). "Why We Should Not Copy Education in South Korea". Retrieved November 25, 2015.
- Kang, Yewon (March 20, 2014). "Poll Shows Half of Korean Teenagers Have Suicidal Thoughts". The Wall-Street Journal. Retrieved August 6, 2016.
- "Suicide No. 1 cause of death for S. Korean teens, youths". Yonhap News. April 28, 2015. Retrieved August 6, 2016. "A recent survey shows that just over half of South Korean teenagers have had suicidal thoughts this year, while nearly one in three said they had felt very depressed."
- 김 (Kim), 경수 (Gyeong-su) (2011-02-08). 교사 1만명 해외 파견..‘실효성’ 논란. Financial Times (in Korean). Retrieved 2011-02-21.
- Song (송), Ju-hui (주희) (2011-02-20). "[이슈 인사이드] 빨간불 켜진 청소년 건강". Hankook Ilbo (in Korean). Archived from the original on 2012-03-19. Retrieved 2011-03-07.
- Lim (임), Ji-seon (지선) (2010-11-16). 이성교제 3번 걸리면 퇴학…"사랑은 19금이 아니랍니다!". The Hankyeoreh (in Korean). Retrieved 2011-03-10.
- Kim (김), Min-gyeong (민경) (2011-02-16). 학생들에 웬 순결선행상?. The Hankyeoreh (in Korean). Retrieved 2011-03-12.
- "College Grads Turn to Saunas in Tough Job Market". Chosun. Retrieved 19 January 2015.
- Jason Strother (November 18, 2011). "South Koreans Consider The Trades Over University Education". PRI. Retrieved 19 January 2015.
- Shim (심), Hye-ri (혜리); Lee Seo-hwa (이서화) (2011-03-06). "[아직도 먼 학생인권] "우리는 공부기계… 아플 수도 없어요"". Kyunghyang Shinmun (in Korean). Retrieved 2011-03-22.
- Shim (심), Hye-ri (혜리); Kim Jeong-geun (김정근) (2011-03-15). 곽노현 서울시 교육감 "한국사회 학생인권 운운하는 것 창피하다". Kyeonghyang (in Korean). Retrieved 2011-04-17.
- Hwang (황), Cheol-hwan (철환) (2011-03-27). 한국 청소년 '공동체 의식 희박' 원인은. Yonhap News (in Korean). Retrieved 2011-04-17.
- Lee (이), Yeong-jun (영준) (2011-05-14). 교사 40% "교권 상실"… ‘벼랑 끝 교단’. Yonhap News (in Korean). Retrieved 2011-05-15.
- Lee (이), Gyu-hong (규홍) (2011-06-03). 초등학생들의 총쏘기 체험, 꼭 이래야 하나. OhMyNews (in Korean). Retrieved 2011-06-04.
- "S. Korean children unhappiest among OECD countries: survey". Yonhap News. 2011-05-04. Retrieved 2011-07-01.
- Lee (이), Hui-jin (희진) (2011-05-29). 학교ㆍ학년 올라갈수록 불행한 우리 아이들. Nocut News (in Korean). Retrieved 2011-07-01.
- Lee (이), Hui-jin (희진) (2011-05-25). 과잉 조기교육 아이뇌 망친다. Nocut News (in Korean). Retrieved 2011-07-01.
- Yang (양), Hong-ju (홍주); Park Cheol-hyeon (박철현) (2011-04-14). "[질문이 사라진 교실] 입시위주 교육이 호기심을 지웠다". Hankook Ilbo (in Korean). Archived from the original on 2011-08-27. Retrieved 2011-08-02.
- Hwang (황), Cheol-hwan (철환) (2011-05-12). 교총 "교사 직업만족도 3년 연속 감소". Yonhap News (in Korean). Retrieved 2011-11-19.
- Kim (김), Hye-yeong (혜영) (2011-05-09). "[진화하는 학교폭력] 초등학생간 性폭력도 다반사". Hankook Ilbo (in Korean). Archived from the original on 2011-08-29. Retrieved 2011-11-20.
- 다음 대통령, 대학 나온 사람이 돼야. Hankook Ilbo (in Korean). 2005-06-03. Archived from the original on 2013-06-16. Retrieved 2012-03-08.
- Csizmazia Roland A., Jambor, Paul Z. "Korean Higher Education on the Rise: Time to Learn From the Success - Comparative Research at the Tertiary Education Level", Human Resource Management Academic Research Society: International Journal of Academic Research in Progressive Education and Development,Volume 3, Issue 2 (March, 2014)
- Jambor, Paul Z. "The 'Foreign English Teacher' A Necessary 'Danger' in South Korea", United States of America; Department of Education - Education Resources Information Center, 2010
- Jambor, Paul Z, 'Sexism, Ageism and Racism Prevalent Throughout the South Korean System of Education' Department of Education - The United States of America: Educational Resources Information Center, 2009 (Accessed in 2009)
- Jambor, Paul Z, 'Protectionism in South Korean Universities' Academic Leadership, Volume 8, Issue 2
- Jambor, Paul Z, 'LEARNER ATTITUDES TOWARD LEARNER CENTERED EDUCATION AND ENGLISH AS A FOREIGN LANGUAGE IN THE KOREAN UNIVERSITY CLASSROOM' The University of Birmingham: CELS, March 2007 (Accessed in 2007)
- Jambor, Paul Z, 'Slide and prejudice', Times Higher Education, December 10, 2009
- Jambor, Paul Z, 'The Reluctance of Korean Education in the Face of Change' Academic Leadership, May 25, 2010
- Jambor Paul Z, 'Lingua Frankly' Times Higher Education, February 11, 2010
- Jambor Paul Z. "English Language Necessity: What It means for Korea and Non-English Speaking Countries", United States of America; Department of Education - Education Resources Information Center, 2012
- Johnsrud, Linda K. "Korean academic women: Multiple roles, multiple challenges." Higher Education 30, no. 1 (1995): 17-35.
- Kim, Terri. "Internationalisation of higher education in South Korea: Reality, rhetoric, and disparity in academic culture and identities." Australian Journal of Education 49, no. 1 (2005): 89-103.
- Card, James. "Appetite for language costs S Korea dear". The Guardian Weekly, 15 December 2006. Accessed 4 July 2009.
- Lee, Brian. "Korea’s endless grapple with English". JoongAng Daily, February 14, 2008. Accessed 4 July 2009.
- Lee, Jeong-Kyu. Korean Higher Education: A Confucian Perspective (2002). ISBN 0-9705481-5-X
- Lee, Jeong-Kyu. Historic Factors Influencing Korean Higher Education (2000). ISBN 0-9705481-1-7
- Lee, Jeong-Kyu. Korean Higher Education: Perspectives of Religion and Culture [Korean](2010). ISBN 978-89-268-0999-0
- Lee, Jeong-Kyu. Higher Education in Korea: The Perspectives of Globalization and Happiness (2012). ISBN 978-89-268-3670-5
- Lee, Sungho H. "The academic profession in Korea." The international academic profession: Portraits from fourteen countries (1996): 97-148.
- Park, Hyunjoon. "South Korea: Educational expansion and inequality of opportunity in higher education." (2007).
- Tang, Hei-hang. Scholarship reconsidered in an era of entrepreneurialism: academic professions in Hong Kong and South Korea. Thesis (Ph. D.)--University of Hong Kong, 2013.
- Yang, Eunjoo, Sang Min Lee, and Sung-Sik Ahn. "Career centers in higher education in South Korea: Past, present, and future." Asian Journal of Counselling 19, no. 1 (2012): 2-53.
- Ministry of Education, Science, and Technology
- Kuhn, Anthony. "Korean School Preps Students For Ivy League". All Things Considered, July 2, 2009.
- Teacher, Leave Those Kids Alone, Time Magazine, Amanda Ripley, September. 25, 2011. On the problem of the hagwon cram schools.
- Information on education in Korea, OECD - Contains indicators and information about Korea and how it compares to other OECD and non-OECD countries
- Diagram of Korean education system, OECD - Using 1997 ISCED classification of programmes and typical ages.
- Also in country language