Tristan da Cunha
Tristan da Cunha
Motto: "Our faith is our strength"
Map of Tristan da Cunha group
Location of Tristan da Cunha archipelago (circled) in the South Atlantic Ocean
and largest settlement
|Edinburgh of the Seven Seas|
|Part of||Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha|
• First inhabited
• Dependency of Cape Colony (to UK)
|14 August 1816|
• Dependency of St Helena
|12 January 1938|
|1 September 2009|
|207 km2 (80 sq mi)|
• Main island
• 9 October 2018 estimate
• March 2016 census
|1.4/km2 (3.6/sq mi)|
|Currency||Pound sterling (£) (GBP)|
|Time zone||UTC (GMT)|
|ISO 3166 code||SH-TA|
Tristan da Cunha (/
Tristan da Cunha is part of the British Overseas Territory of Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha. This includes Saint Helena and also near-equatorial Ascension Island, which lies some 1,741 miles (2,802 km) to the north of Tristan. There is no airstrip of any kind on the main island, meaning that the only way of travelling in and out of Tristan is by boat, a six-day trip from South Africa.
- 1 History
- 2 Geography
- 3 Economy
- 4 Government
- 5 Demographics
- 6 Culture
- 7 Notable people
- 8 In popular culture
- 9 See also
- 10 Notes and references
- 11 Further reading
- 12 External links
The islands were first recorded as sighted in 1506 by Portuguese explorer Tristão da Cunha, though rough seas prevented a landing. He named the main island after himself, Ilha de Tristão da Cunha. It was later anglicised from its earliest mention on British Admiralty charts to Tristan da Cunha Island. Some sources state that the Portuguese made the first landing in 1520, when the Lás Rafael captained by Ruy Vaz Pereira called at Tristan for water. The first undisputed landing was made on 7 February 1643 by the crew of the Dutch East India Company ship Heemstede, captained by Claes Gerritsz Bierenbroodspot. The Dutch stopped at the island four more times in the next 25 years, and in 1656 created the first rough charts of the archipelago.
The first full survey of the archipelago was made by crew of the French corvette Heure du Berger in 1767. The first scientific exploration was conducted by French naturalist Louis-Marie Aubert du Petit-Thouars, who stayed on the island for three days in January 1793, during a French mercantile expedition from Brest, France to Mauritius. Thouars made botanical collections and reported traces of human habitation, including fireplaces and overgrown gardens, probably left by Dutch explorers in the 17th century.
The first permanent settler was Jonathan Lambert of Salem, Massachusetts, United States, who moved to the island in December 1810 with two other men, and later a third. Lambert publicly declared the islands his property and named them the Islands of Refreshment. Three of the four men died in 1812; however, the survivor among the original three permanent settlers, Thomas Currie (or Tommaso Corri) remained as a farmer on the island.
In 1816, the United Kingdom annexed the islands, making them a dependency of the Cape Colony in South Africa. This was explained as a measure to prevent the islands' use as a base for any attempt to free Napoleon Bonaparte from his prison on Saint Helena. The occupation also prevented the United States from using Tristan da Cunha as a base for naval cruisers, as it had during the War of 1812.
Edmund Roberts, Embassy to the Eastern Courts of Cochin-China, Siam, and Muscat, 1837
The islands were occupied by a garrison of British Marines, and a civilian population gradually grew. Berwick stopped there on 25 March 1824 and reported that it had a population of twenty-two men and three women. Whalers set up bases on the islands for operations in the Southern Atlantic. However, the opening of the Suez Canal in 1869, together with the gradual transition from sailing ships to coal-fired steam ships, increased the isolation of the islands, which were no longer needed as a stopping port for lengthy sail voyages, or for shelter for journeys from Europe to East Asia.
In 1867, Prince Alfred, Duke of Edinburgh and second son of Queen Victoria, visited the islands. The main settlement, Edinburgh of the Seven Seas, was named in honour of his visit. On 15 October 1873, the Royal Navy scientific survey vessel HMS Challenger docked at Tristan to conduct geographic and zoological surveys on Tristan, Inaccessible Island and the Nightingale Islands. In his log, Captain George Nares recorded a total of fifteen families and eighty-six individuals living on the island.
After years of hardship since the 1880s and an especially difficult winter in 1906, the British government offered to evacuate the island in 1907. The Tristanians held a meeting and decided to refuse, despite the crown's warning that it could not promise further help in the future. No ships called at the islands from 1909 until 1919, when HMS Yarmouth finally stopped to inform the islanders of the outcome of World War I. The Shackleton–Rowett Expedition stopped in Tristan for five days in May 1922, collecting geological and botanical samples before returning to Cape Town. Of the few ships that visited in the coming years were the RMS Asturias, a Royal Mail Steam Packet Company passenger liner, in 1927, and the ocean liners RMS Empress of France in 1928, RMS Duchess of Atholl in 1929, and RMS Empress of Australia in 1935. In 1936, The Daily Telegraph of London reported the population of the island was 167 people, with 185 cattle and 42 horses.[self-published source]
From December 1937 to March 1938, a Norwegian party made a dedicated scientific expedition to Tristan da Cunha, and sociologist Peter A. Munch extensively documented island culture—he would later revisit the island in 1964–65. The island was also visited in 1938 by W. Robert Foran, reporting for the National Geographic Society; his account, Tristan da Cunha, Isles of Contentment, was published in November 1938. On 12 January 1938 by letters patent, Britain declared the islands a dependency of Saint Helena, creating the British Crown Colony of Saint Helena and Dependencies, which also included Ascension Island.
During the Second World War, Tristan was commissioned by the Royal Navy as the stone frigate HMS Atlantic Isle and used as a secret signals intelligence station to monitor Nazi U-boats (which were required to maintain radio contact) and shipping movements in the South Atlantic Ocean. This weather and radio station led to extensive new infrastructure being built on the island, including a school, a hospital, and a cash-based general store. After the war, development continued, as the island's first canning factory expanding the availability of paid employment in 1949. Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh, the Queen's consort, visited the islands in 1957 as part of a world tour on board the royal yacht HMY Britannia.
On 10 October 1961, the eruption of Queen Mary's Peak forced the evacuation of the entire population of 264 individuals. Evacuees took to the water in open boats and sailed to uninhabited Nightingale Island, where they were picked up by a Dutch passenger ship that took them via Cape Town to Britain. The islanders arrived in the UK to a big press reception, and were settled in an old Royal Air Force camp near Calshot, Hampshire. The following year a Royal Society expedition reported that Edinburgh of the Seven Seas had survived the eruption. Most families returned in 1963.
Gough Island was inscribed as a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 1995, then named "Gough Island Wildlife Reserve". The Site was extended in 2004 to include the neighbouring Inaccessible Island and renamed Gough and Inaccessible Islands, with its marine zone extended from 3 to 12 nautical miles. The Gough and Inaccessible Islands were declared as separate Ramsar sites—wetland sites designated to be of international importance—on 20 November 2008.
On 23 May 2001, the islands were hit by an extratropical cyclone that generated winds up to 190 kilometres per hour (120 mph). A number of structures were severely damaged, and numerous cattle were killed, prompting emergency aid provided by the British government. In 2005, the islands were given a United Kingdom post code (TDCU 1ZZ), to make it easier for the residents to order goods online.
On 13 February 2008, a fire destroyed the island's four power generators and fish canning factory, severely disrupting the economy. On 14 March 2008, new generators were installed and power restored, and a new factory opened in July 2009. While the replacement factory was built, M/V Kelso came to the island as a factory ship. The St. Helena, Ascension, and Tristan da Cunha Constitution Order 2009 reorganized Tristan da Cunha as a constituent of the new British Overseas Territory of Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha, giving Tristan and Ascension equal status with Saint Helena.
On 16 March 2011, the freighter MS Oliva ran aground on Nightingale Island, spilling tons of heavy fuel oil into the ocean. The resulting oil slick threatened the island's population of rockhopper penguins. Nightingale Island has no fresh water, so the penguins were transported to Tristan da Cunha for cleaning.
Tristan da Cunha is thought to have been formed by a long-lived centre of upwelling mantle called the Tristan hotspot. Tristan da Cunha is the main island of the Tristan da Cunha archipelago, which consists of the following islands:
- Tristan da Cunha, the main and largest island, area: 98 square kilometres (37.8 sq mi) ( )
- Inaccessible Island, area: 14 square kilometres (5.4 sq mi)
- Nightingale Islands, area: 3.4 square kilometres (1.3 sq mi)
- Gough Island (Diego Alvarez), area: 91 square kilometres (35 sq mi)
Inaccessible Island and the Nightingale Islands are 35 kilometres (22 mi) SW by W and SSW away from the main island, respectively, whereas Gough Island is 395 kilometres (245 mi) SSE.
The main island is generally mountainous. The only flat area is on the north-west coast, which is the location of the only settlement, Edinburgh of the Seven Seas. The highest point is the summit of a volcano called Queen Mary's Peak at an elevation of 2,062 metres (6,765 ft), high enough to develop snow cover in winter. The other islands of the group are uninhabited, except for a weather station with a staff of six on Gough Island, which has been operated by South Africa since 1956 and has been at its present location at Transvaal Bay on the southeast coast since 1963.
The archipelago has a wet oceanic climate under the Köppen system, with mild temperatures and very limited sunshine but consistent moderate-to-heavy rainfall due to the persistent westerly winds. Under the Trewartha classification, Tristan da Cunha has a humid subtropical climate due to the lack of cold weather. The number of rainy days is comparable to the Aleutian Islands at a much higher latitude in the northern hemisphere, while sunshine hours are comparable to Juneau, Alaska, 20° farther from the equator. Frost is unknown below elevations of 500 metres (1,600 ft), and summer temperatures are similarly mild, never reaching 25 °C (77 °F). Sandy Point on the east coast is reputed to be the warmest and driest place on the island, being in the lee of the prevailing winds.
|Climate data for Tristan da Cunha|
|Record high °C (°F)||23.7
|Average high °C (°F)||20.4
|Daily mean °C (°F)||17.9
|Average low °C (°F)||15.4
|Record low °C (°F)||10.9
|Average rainfall mm (inches)||93
|Average rainy days||18||17||17||20||23||23||25||26||24||22||18||19||252|
|Average relative humidity (%)||79||77||75||78||78||79||79||79||78||79||79||80||78|
|Mean monthly sunshine hours||139.5||144.0||145.7||129.0||108.5||99.0||105.4||105.4||120.0||133.3||138.0||130.2||1,498|
|Percent possible sunshine||31||35||38||38||35||34||34||32||33||33||32||29||34|
|Source #1: Worldwide Bioclimatic Classification System|
|Source #2: Climate and Temperature|
Flora and fauna
Many of the flora and fauna of the archipelago have a broad circumpolar distribution in the South Atlantic and South Pacific Oceans. For example, the plant species Nertera depressa was first collected in Tristan da Cunha, but has since been recorded as far away as New Zealand.
Tristan is primarily known for its wildlife. The island has been identified as an Important Bird Area by BirdLife International because there are 13 known species of breeding seabirds on the island and two species of resident land birds. The seabirds include northern rockhopper penguins, Atlantic yellow-nosed albatrosses, sooty albatrosses, Atlantic petrels, great-winged petrels, soft-plumaged petrels, broad-billed prions, grey petrels, great shearwaters, sooty shearwaters, Tristan skuas, Antarctic terns and brown noddies. Tristan and Gough Islands are the only known breeding sites in the world for the Atlantic petrel. Inaccessible Island is also the only known breeding ground of the spectacled petrel. The Tristan albatross is known to breed only on Gough and Inaccessible Islands: all nest on Gough, except for one or two pairs which nest on Inaccessible Island.
The endemic Tristan thrush, also known as the "starchy", occurs on all of the northern islands and each has its own subspecies, with Tristan birds being slightly smaller and duller than those on Nightingale and Inaccessible. The endemic Inaccessible Island rail, the smallest extant flightless bird in the world, is found only on Inaccessible Island. In 1956, eight Gough moorhens were released at Sandy Point on Tristan, and have subsequently colonised the island.
Various species of whales and dolphins can be seen around Tristan from time to time with increasing sighting rates, although recovery of baleen whales, especially the southern right whale, were severely hindered by illegal whaling by the Soviet Union in the aftermath of the 1960 volcanic eruption. The subantarctic fur seal Arctocephalus tropicalis can also be found in the Tristan archipelago, mostly on Gough Island.
The island has a unique social and economic structure in which all resident families farm and all land is communally owned. Outsiders are prohibited from buying land or settling on Tristan. Besides subsistence agriculture, major industries are commercial fishing and government. Major export industries are the Tristan rock lobster (Jasus) fishery, the sale of the island's postage stamps and coins, and limited tourism. Like most British Overseas Territories, it is not part of the European Union, but is rather a member of the EU's Overseas Countries and Territories Association.
The Bank of Saint Helena was established on Saint Helena and Ascension Island in 2004. This bank does not have a physical presence on Tristan da Cunha, but residents of Tristan are entitled to its services. Although Tristan da Cunha is part of the same overseas territory as Saint Helena, it does not use the local Saint Helena pound, instead, using the United Kingdom issue of the pound sterling.
The island is located in the South Atlantic Anomaly, an area of the Earth with an abnormally weak magnetic field. On 14 November 2008 a geomagnetic observatory was inaugurated on the island as part of a joint venture between the Danish Meteorological Institute and DTU Space.
The remote location of the islands makes transport to the outside world difficult. Tristan da Cunha has no airstrip and is not generally accessible to air travel, though the wider territory is served by Saint Helena Airport and RAF Ascension Island. Fishing boats from South Africa service the islands eight or nine times per year. The RMS Saint Helena used to connect the main island to St. Helena and South Africa once each year during its January voyage, but has done so only a few times in the last years, in 2006, in 2011, and most recently in 2018. The harbour at Edinburgh of the Seven Seas is called Calshot Harbour, named after the place in Hampshire where the islanders temporarily stayed during the volcanic eruption.
Although Tristan da Cunha shares the +290 code with St. Helena, residents have access to the Foreign and Commonwealth Office Telecommunications Network, provided by Global Crossing. This uses a London 020 numbering range, meaning that numbers are accessed via the UK telephone numbering plan. Internet was available in Tristan da Cunha from 1998 to 2006, but its high cost made it almost unaffordable for the local population, who primarily used it only to send email. The connection was also extremely unreliable, connecting through a 64 kbit/s satellite phone connection provided by Inmarsat. Since 2006, a very-small-aperture terminal has provided 3072 kbit/s of publicly accessible bandwidth via an internet cafe. There is not yet any mobile telephone coverage on the islands.
|This article is part of a series on the|
politics and government of
Tristan da Cunha
There are no political parties or trade unions on Tristan. Executive authority is vested in the Queen, who is represented in the territory by the Governor of Saint Helena. As the Governor resides permanently in Saint Helena, an Administrator is appointed to represent the Governor in the islands. The Administrator is a career civil servant in the Foreign Office, selected by London, who acts as the local head of government and takes advice from the Tristan da Cunha Island Council. Since 1998, each Administrator has served a three-year term (which begins in September, upon arrival of the supply ship from Cape Town). Sean Burns began a second term as Administrator in November 2016.
The Administrator and Island Council work from the Government Building, which is the only two-storey building on the island. The building is sometimes referred to as "Whitehall" or the "H'admin Building" and contains the Administrator's Office, Treasury Department, Administration Offices, and the Council Chamber where Island Council meetings are held. Policing is undertaken by one full-time police inspector and three special constables. Tristan da Cunha has some legislation of its own, but the law of Saint Helena applies generally to the extent that it is not inconsistent with local law, insofar as it is suitable for local circumstances and subject to such modifications as local circumstances make necessary.
The Island Council is made up of eight elected and three appointed members, who serve a three-year term which begins in February (or March). From amongt the eight elected councillors, the one receiving the most votes is named Chief Islander and sometimes serves as Acting Administrator when the Administrator is off the island. Ian Lavarello was elected for a third consecutive three-year term in 2016. As Chief Islander, he lit the island's beacon celebrating the Queen's Diamond Jubilee in 2012.
Tristan da Cunha recorded a population of 251 in the September 2018 census. The only settlement is Edinburgh of the Seven Seas (known locally as "The Settlement"). The only religion is Christianity, with the only denominations being Anglican and Roman Catholic. The current residents are thought to have descended from fifteen outside ancestors, eight male and seven female, who arrived on the island at various dates between 1816 and 1908. The men were European, and the women were mixed race and African. Now all of the population has mixed ancestry. In addition, a male contributor of eastern European/Russian descent arrived in the early 1900s. In 1963, when families returned after the evacuation due to the 1961 volcanic eruption, the 200 settlers included four Tristan da Cunha women who brought with them new English husbands.
The women descendants have been traced by genetic study to five female founders, believed to be women of colour (mixed-race, of African, Asian and European descent) from Saint Helena. The historical data recounted that there were two pairs of sisters, but the MtDNA evidence showed only one pair of sisters.
The early male founders originated from Scotland, England, the Netherlands, the United States and Italy, and belonged to 3 Y-haplogroups: I (M170), R-SRY10831.2 and R (M207) (xSRY10831.2) and share nine surnames: Collins, Glass, Green, Hagan, Lavarello, Repetto, Rogers, Squibb and Swain.[n 1] In addition, a new haplotype was found that is associated with men of eastern Europe and Russia. It entered the population in the early 1900s, at a time when the island was visited by Russian sailing ships. There is "evidence for the contribution of a hidden ancestor who left his genes but not his name on the island." Another four instances of non-paternity were found among male descendants, but researchers believed their fathers were probably among the island population.
There are eighty families on the island. Tristan da Cunha's isolation has led to development of an unusual, patois-like dialect of English described by the writer Simon Winchester as "a sonorous amalgam of Home Counties lockjaw and 19th century idiom, Afrikaans slang and Italian." Bill Bryson documents some examples of the island's dialect in his book, The Mother Tongue.
Education is fairly rudimentary; children leave school at age 16, and although they can take GCSEs a year later, few do. The school on the island is St. Mary's School, which serves children from ages 4 to 16. It opened in 1975 and has five classrooms, a kitchen, a stage, a computer room, and a craft and science room.
The Tristan Song Project was a collaboration between St. Mary's School and amateur composers in Britain, led by music teacher Tony Triggs. It began in 2010 and involved St Mary's pupils writing poems and Tony Triggs providing musical settings by himself and his pupils. A desktop publication entitled Rockhopper Penguins and Other Songs (2010) embraced most of the songs completed that year and funded a consignment of guitars to the school. In February 2013, the Tristan Post Office issued a set of four Song Project stamps featuring island musical instruments and lyrics from Song Project songs about Tristan's volcano and wildlife. In 2014, the project broadened its scope and continues as the International Song Project.
Healthcare is funded by the government, undertaken at most times by one resident doctor. Surgery or facilities for complex childbirth are therefore limited, and emergencies can necessitate communicating with passing fishing vessels so the injured person can be ferried to Cape Town. As of late 2007, IBM and Beacon Equity Partners, co-operating with Medweb, the University of Pittsburgh Medical Center and the island's government on "Project Tristan", has supplied the island's doctor with access to long distance tele-medical help, making it possible to send EKG and X-ray pictures to doctors in other countries for instant consultation.
There are instances of health problems attributed to endogamy, including glaucoma. In addition, there is a very high (42%) incidence of asthma among the population and research by Noe Zamel of the University of Toronto has led to discoveries about the genetic nature of the disease. Three of the original settlers of the island were asthma sufferers.
Local television began in 1984 using taped programming on Tuesday, Thursday and Sunday evenings. Live television did not arrive on the island until 2001, with the introduction of the British Forces Broadcasting Service, which now provides BBC1, BBC2, ITV and BFBS Extra, relayed to islanders via local transmitters. BFBS Radio 2 is the locally available radio station. An official website is provided by the island government and the Tristan da Cunha Association, which maintains it from the UK.
The island holds an annual break from government and factory work which begins before Christmas and lasts for three weeks. The beginning of the holiday, called Break-Up Day, is usually marked with parties and celebrations.
- Edwin Heron Dodgson (1846–1918), a clergyman in the Church of England, was the youngest brother of Charles Lutwidge Dodgson (Lewis Carroll), author of Alice's Adventures in Wonderland. He is primarily remembered for his work as a missionary in the island of Tristan da Cunha from 1880 to 1884.
- Conrad "Connie" Glass MBE (born 1961) is a Tristanian police officer and a former Chief Islander. He lives on Tristan da Cunha and is the first islander to have written a book about it, Rockhopper Copper (2005).
In popular culture
- In Wim Wenders' Wings of Desire, a dying man recollecting the things that have apparently meant most to him mentions "Tristan da Cunha".
- 37°4 S is a short film about two teenagers who live on the island.
- Edgar Allan Poe's The Narrative of Arthur Gordon Pym of Nantucket (1838), Chapter 15, has a detailed history and description of the island.
- In Jules Verne's novel In Search of the Castaways, one of the chapters is set on Tristan da Cunha, and a brief history of the island is mentioned. The island is also referred to in Verne's novel The Sphinx of the Ice Fields (1897), which he wrote as an unauthorised sequel to Poe's The Narrative of Arthur Gordon Pym of Nantucket. The 1899 English translation by Mrs. Cashel Hoey of Ice Fields was published under the title An Antarctic Mystery.
- South African poet Roy Campbell wrote "Tristan de Cunha" (1927), an elegiac poem about the island.
- Tristan da Cunha is the site of a top-secret nuclear disarmament conference in Fletcher Knebel's 1968 political thriller Vanished. The book was adapted as a 1971 two-part NBC made-for-TV movie starring Richard Widmark.
- Hervé Bazin's novel Les Bienheureux de la Désolation (1970) describes the 1961 forced exile of the population to England after the volcano erupted, and their subsequent return.
- In Primo Levi's memoir The Periodic Table (1975), one of the fictional short stories, "Mercurio", is set on Tristan da Cunha, named "Desolation Island".
- In Patrick O'Brian's novel The Mauritius Command (1977), Tristan da Cunha is mentioned by a man fond of birds, Captain Fortescue of the schooner Wasp, who spent an extended period on the island studying the Albatross whilst cast ashore. Also in O'Brian's The Thirteen-Gun Salute (1991), the ship Dianne is nearly wrecked on Inaccessible Island, with the cover of the book depicting the scene.
- Zinnie Harris's play, Further Than the Furthest Thing (2000), is inspired by events on the island, notably the 1961 volcanic eruption and evacuation of the islanders.
- Raoul Schrott's novel, Tristan da Cunha oder die Hälfte der Erde (2003), is almost entirely set on Tristan da Cunha and Gough islands, and chronicles the history of the archipelago.
- Alice Munro's short story Deep-Holes in her 2009 short story collection Too Much Happiness. The female protagonist, a mother, confides to her young son about her fascination with remote islands like Tristan da Cunha and the Faroe Islands. Later, when her son goes missing, she fantasises that he has found his way to one of these islands and is living there.
- In the book Pulse by Jeremy Robinson, Tristan de Cunha is the top secret headquarters of "Beta Incorporated", a shell company of the antagonistic "Manifold Genetics", which is later destroyed by artificially causing an eruption to self-destruct said base, killing most of the Edinburgh of the Seven Seas population.
- Frank T. Bullen provides details of visiting the island in the 1870s in his book The Cruise of the Cachalot, first published in 1898.
- Raymond Rallier du Baty describes the people and the island circa 1908 in his book 15,000 Miles in a Ketch (1915).
- In Shackleton's Last Voyage by Captain Frank Wild (1923), several chapters (with photographs) recount events on the island during the Shackleton–Rowett Expedition in May 1922.
- Rose Annie Rogers, part of an American missionary couple, wrote a memoir of her time on Tristan da Cunha, called The Lonely Island (1927).
- Katherine Mary Barrow's book Three Years in Tristan Da Cunha (1910) is a "simple and true description of daily life among a very small community cut off from the rest of the world" based on entries to her diaries and letters written during the period to her sister.
- Martin Holdgate describes a visit to the island by a scientific expedition heading for Gough Island in 1955 in Mountains in the Sea.
- Simon Winchester's Outposts: Journeys to the Surviving Relics of the British Empire (1985, reprinted in 2003), devotes a chapter to the island, which he visited in the mid-1980s. In the foreword to the reprint, the author states that he was banned from Tristan da Cunha because of his writing about the war-time romance of a local woman. He published a longer account of his banishment in Latham's Quarterly.
- In 2005, Rockhopper Copper, the first book about the island written by an Islander, was published. It was written by Conrad Glass, Tristan da Cunha's longtime Police and Conservation officer.
- Robert A. Heinlein's book Tramp Royale (1992), about a world trip in 1953–54, devoted a chapter to his near visit to Tristan da Cunha. He talked to islanders but could not go ashore owing to the weather.
Notes and references
- These names are thought to have been immigrants who were Scottish; Dutch; English; Irish; Italian (prob. Ligurian); Italian (prob. Ligurian); Scottish; English; and English, respectively. Briefly there was a resident by surname Patterson on the island. Weaver, Barry (2003). "Tristan da Cunha". College of Atmospheric & Geographic Sciences, University of Oklahoma. Archived from the original on 10 June 2007.
- "Tristan da Cunha Chief Islander". Tristan da Cunha Government & Tristan da Cunha Association. Archived from the original on 23 June 2014. Retrieved 11 October 2017.
- Crawford, Allan (1982). Tristan da Cunha and the Roaring Forties. Charles Skilton. p. 20. Retrieved 13 August 2013.
- "Tristan da Cunha Family News". Archived from the original on 5 December 2016. Retrieved 22 January 2017.
- "Census 2016 – summary report" (PDF). St Helena Government. June 2016. p. 9. Archived (PDF) from the original on 17 October 2016. Retrieved 23 January 2017.
- Winkler, Sarah (25 August 2009). "Where is the Most Remote Spot on Earth? Tristan da Cunha: The World's Most Remote Inhabited Island". How Stuff Works. Retrieved 28 December 2018.
- Rosenberg, Matt (6 March 2017). "Tristan da Cunha: The World's Most Remote Island". ThoughtCo. Retrieved 28 December 2018.
- "The St Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha Constitution Order 2009". The National Archives. 2009. Retrieved 5 January 2019.
- "Arnaldo Faustini. The Annals of Tristan da Cunha" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on 10 May 2015. Retrieved 28 December 2018.
- Headland, J.K. (1989). Chronological List of Antarctic Expeditions and Related Historical Events. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Retrieved 28 December 2018.
- Mackay, Margaret (1963). Angry Island: The Story of Tristan da Cunha, 1506–1963. London: Arthur Barker. p. 30.
- "Tristan d'Acunha, etc.: Jonathan Lambert, late Sovereign thereof". Blackwood's Edinburgh Magazine. 4 (21): 280–285. Dec 1818.
- Roberts, Edmund (1837). Embassy to the Eastern Courts of Cochin-China, Siam, and Muscat. New York: Harper & Brothers. p. 33. Archived from the original on 12 October 2013. Retrieved 11 October 2013.
- Courtney, Nicholas (2004). The Queen's Stamps. ISBN 0-413-77228-4, page 28. The visit took place during the Duke of Edinburgh's circumnavigation undertaken while commanding HMS Galatea. Tristan da Cunha post office issued four stamps in 1967 to celebrate the centenary of this visit.
- Thomson, C. Wyville (1885). Report on the Scientific Results of the Voyage of H.M.S. Challenger During the Years 1873–76. London: Her Majesty's Stationery Office. pp. 240–52. Retrieved 28 December 2018.
- "H.M.S. Challenger Station 135, Tristan da Cunha". Retrieved 29 August 2016.
- "Tristan da Cunha Isolation & Hardship 1853–1942". Tristan da Cunha Government & Tristan da Cunha Association. Retrieved 1 January 2019.
- "Tristan da Cunha Stamps". Tristan da Cunha. 8 December 2015. Retrieved 2 January 2019.
- Millington, Peter. "Tristan da Cunha News: 1920s Lantern Slides of Tristan for Sale on eBay". Tristan da Cunha. Retrieved 2 January 2019.
- Lawrence, Nigel (8 August 2017). "Tristan Da Cunha". Shipping Today & Yesterday Magazine. Retrieved 2 January 2019.
- "Sale 4010 - Web/Internet - Outgoing Ship Mail". Daniel F. Kelleher Auctions LLC. Retrieved 2 January 2019.
- Wollenberg, Ken (2000). "Chapter XI: Tristan da Cunha". The Bottom of the Map. Bloomington, Indiana: Xlibris. Retrieved 28 December 2018.
- "Results of the Norwegian Scientific Expedition to Tristan da Cunha, 1937–1938". OUR Heritage. University of Otago. 1945. Archived from the original on 29 September 2015. Retrieved 3 June 2015.
- Evans, Andrew (22 April 2011). "Holy Grail". National Geographic. Retrieved 2 January 2019.
- Foran, W. Robert. "Tristan da Cunha, Isles of Contentment." National Geographic, November 1938, pp. 671–94.
- "Royal Gifts Gladden 172 on Lonely Atlantic Island". The New York Times. New York, NY. 24 March 1935. second news section, p. N4. Archived from the original on 27 January 2012. Retrieved 15 October 2008.
- "Tristan da Cunha Joining the Modern World 1942–1961". Tristan da Cunha. Retrieved 28 December 2018.
- "hrh the duke of edinburgh's antarctic tour. january 1957". Imperial War Museum. Archived from the original on 2 July 2018. Retrieved 2 July 2018.
- "Tristan da Cunha". Global Volcanism Program. Smithsonian Institution. Retrieved 28 December 2018.
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|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Tristan da Cunha.|
|Wikivoyage has a travel guide for Tristan da Cunha.|
- Tristan da Cunha
- "Tristan da Cunha". Encyclopædia Britannica. 27 (11th ed.). 1911.
- Tristan Times
- History of Tristan da Cunha (2 books, and other material)
- TRISTAN DA CUNHA (Spanish)
Videos of the island
- Return to Trista da Cunha, Global Nomad, National Geographic (2012).
- A Day on Tristan da Cunha, Global Nomad, National Geographic (2011).
- Tristan da Cunha: The story of Asthma Island, part 1 and part 2, BBC Four (2008).
- Tristan da Cunha: Life on the island in 1963 (1963).
- Tristan da Cunha: Life of an islander in 1963 (1963).