Education in the United Kingdom
Education in the United Kingdom is a devolved matter with each of the countries of the United Kingdom having separate systems under separate governments: the UK Government is directly responsible for England; whilst the Scottish Government, the Welsh Government and the Northern Ireland Executive are responsible for Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland, respectively. In England and Wales, the EYFS (Early Years Foundation Stage) is applicable to children aged 5 and below, and the national curriculum is applicable to children aged 5+.
For details of education in each country, see:
In each country there are five stages of education: early years, primary, secondary, further education (FE) and higher education (HE). The law states that full time education is compulsory for all children between the ages of 5 (4 in Northern Ireland) and 16, the compulsory school age (CSA). In England, compulsory education or training has been extended to 18 for those born on or after 1 September 1997. This full-time education does not need to be at a school and a number of parents choose to home educate. Before they reach compulsory school age, children can be educated at nursery if parents wish though there is only limited government funding for such places. Further Education is non-compulsory, and covers non-advanced education which can be taken at further (including tertiary) education colleges and Higher Education institutions (HEIs). The fifth stage, Higher Education, is study beyond A levels or BTECs (and their equivalent) which, for most full-time students, takes place in universities and other Higher Education institutions and colleges.
The National Curriculum (NC), established in 1988, provides a framework for education in England and Wales between the ages of 5 and 18. Though the National Curriculum is not compulsory it is followed by most state schools, but some private schools, academies, free schools and home educators design their own curricula. In Scotland the nearest equivalent is the Curriculum for Excellence programme, and in Northern Ireland there is something known as the common curriculum. The Scottish qualifications the National 4/5s, Highers and Advanced Highers are highly similar to the English Advanced Subsidiary (AS) and Advanced Level (A2) courses.
Traditionally a high-performing country in international rankings of education, the UK has stagnated in recent years in such rankings as the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) tests; in 2013 for reading and maths the country as a whole stood in the middle-rankings, a position broadly similar to three years before. Within the UK Scotland performed marginally better than England; both were slightly ahead of Northern Ireland and markedly ahead of Wales. However these results contradict those of the education and publishing firm Pearson published in 2014, which placed the UK in second place across European countries and sixth worldwide; these rankings took account of higher-education graduate rates, which may have accounted for the higher ranking than in PISA.
Funding for UK schools will change to a national formula in 2018, with some schools likely to gain from the new formula and others likely to lose. Secretary of State for Education, Justine Greening claims funding will depend less on the postcode lottery. The National Audit Office (NAO) claims funding will be cut by 8%. Opponents fear class sizes will increase, schools will be less able to buy basic equipment and children's life chances will be damaged. Liberal Democrat education spokesman John Pugh accused the government of having, "completely the wrong priorities." adding, "It is a disgrace that while schools face a severe funding crisis, £240m is being spent on expanding grammars." Five teachers' and head teachers' unions gave out as joint statement suggesting that schools suffer the "biggest real-terms cuts in a generation". Malcolm Trobe of the Association of School and College Leaders said: "We are deeply concerned that the life chances of young people are being put at risk by the government's under-funding of education." Grammar schools also face problems, many claim their funding will be cut. Some are considering asking parents for financial contributions.
Head teachers in Sussex have been writing letters complaining about lack of funds. Head teachers in Sussex and Cheshire are considering a four-day week among other options. Children could lose the chance to learn some subjects, mental health support workers and teaching assistants could be made redundant due to funding shortages. Class sizes will increase and services for children with special needs will be reduced. Heads previously petitioned Downing Street and complain that, "no matter how clearly we state our position or how reasonable our approach is, no improvements are made to either the financial or associated staffing crises". They describe the national funding formula as "giving with one hand whilst taking away with two". The heads ask whether they should, reduce staff, increase class sizes further, reduce books, equipment and IT, change school hours, stop counselling and pastoral services. Reduced counselling can reduce children's performance in school. Costs head teachers face are rising, National Insurance and teachers' pensions are more expensive, the national living wage also adds to costs as do pay increases and the apprenticeship levy. Funding per pupil is rising by less than inflation. The National Audit Office fears cuts could damage children's education outcomes. The education services grant of £600m also faces cuts making it harder for local authorities to pay for school improvements. Parents have also been asked to write to MPs and councillors or email them asking for schools to be better funded.
£384m which was planned to transform all schools into academies has been taken back. Head teachers complained about the loss of funding at a time when a 4-day week is being considered to save money. Recruiting and retaining teachers is difficult and recruits to teacher training are falling. Dr Mary Bousted of the Association of Teachers and Lecturers said, "Excessive teacher workloads continue to drive down retention rates, salaries are falling behind those of other graduate professions and funding cuts are reducing what schools can provide for children. The government must tackle the workload and salary levels for classroom teachers as a key priority, investing in school funding and national pay."
A cross-party parliamentary committee has criticised the government's free school programme as poor value for money. The Public Accounts Committee criticised the government for spending excessively on unsuitable sites and building schools where none are needed. Meanwhile, other schools are not getting repairs done and need £7bn to be brought back to a satisfactory condition. “While the department is spending significant funds in creating 500 more free schools, even in areas with no shortage of places, existing schools struggle to live within their budgets and carry out routine maintenance,” according to the Public Accounts Committee report.
- Education in England
- Higher education in the United Kingdom
- Home education in the United Kingdom
- Faith schools in the United Kingdom
- Dyslexia support in the United Kingdom
- Examination boards in the United Kingdom
- Special education in the United Kingdom
- Teachers' trade unions in the United Kingdom
- The Scottish Government scotland.gov.uk, accessed 6 june 2009
- About wales.gov.uk, accessed 6 June 2009
- "EDUCATION SYSTEM IN THE UK" (PDF). British Government. Retrieved 3 December 2013.
- Guardian article
- "THE EDUCATION SYSTEMS OF ENGLAND & WALES, SCOTLAND AND NORTHERN IRELAND" (PDF). British Council. Retrieved 3 December 2013.
- Education Otherwise website
- "The British Education System". HMC Projects. Retrieved 3 December 2013.
- Coughlan, Sean. "UK makes no progress in Pisa tests". BBC. Retrieved 3 December 2013.
- "Pisa ranks Wales' education the worst in the UK". BBC. Retrieved 3 December 2013.
- Coughlan, Sean. "UK 'second best education in Europe'". BBC. Retrieved 8 May 2014.
- Schoolsweek report 14 December 2016
- Schools face cuts of £3bn, says watchdog BBC
- Thousands of schools stand to lose out under new funding formula The Guardian
- Grammar schools 'may ask parents for hundreds of pounds a year' BBC
- Cheshire East schools 'could face four-day week' BBC
- Heads warn MPs of 'extremely bleak' funding problems BBC
- Cuts, cuts, cuts. Headteachers tell of school system ‘that could implode’ The Guardian
- Sutton secondary heads ask parents for help to fight budget cuts BBC
- Treasury takes back £384m school funding BBC
- Drop in teacher training recruits revealed BBC
- MPs condemn free schools policy as incoherent and wasteful The Guardian
- Blatchford, Roy (2014). The Restless School. John Catt Educational. p. 136. ISBN 978-1909717077.
- Christodoulou, Daisy (2014). Seven Myths About Education. Routledge. p. 148. ISBN 978-0415746823.
- Gearon, Liam (2002). Education in the United Kingdom. David Fulton Publishers Ltd. ISBN 1853467154.
- Giddens, Anthony; Griffiths, Simon (2006). Sociology. Polity Press. pp. 682–728. ISBN 0745633781.
- Machin, Stephen; Vignoles, Anna (2005). What's The Good Of Education? The Economics Of Education In The UK. Princeton University Press. ISBN 0691117349.
- Peal, Robert (2014). Progressively worse: The Burden of Bad Ideas in British Schools. Civitas. p. 298. ISBN 978-1906837624.
- Staples N., Rebecca; Cochran, Moncrieff (2008). Early Childhood Education: An International Encyclopedia. IV. Praeger. pp. 1281–1318. ISBN 0313341435.
- Department for Education at the UK government
- Studies from the Office for National Statistics regarding Children, Education and Skills
- Information on education in United Kingdom, OECD - Contains indicators and information about United Kingdom and how it compares to other OECD and non-OECD countries
- Diagram of British education systems, OECD - Using 1997 ISCED classification of programmes and typical ages.
- Fully searchable UK school guide independent and state