Edward Alsworth Ross
|Edward Alsworth Ross|
From the George Grantham Bain Collection (Library of Congress)
|Born||Edward Alsworth Ross|
December 12, 1866
|Died||July 22, 1951 (aged 84)|
|Known for||Social Control, The Principles of Sociology|
He was born in Virden, Illinois. His father was a farmer. He attended Coe College and graduated in 1887. After two years as an instructor at a business school, the Fort Dodge Commercial Institute, he went to Germany for graduate study at the University of Berlin. He returned to the U.S., and in 1891 he received his Ph.D. from Johns Hopkins University in political economy under Richard T. Ely, with minors in philosophy and ethics.
Ross was a professor at Indiana University (1891–1892), secretary of the American Economic Association (1892), professor at Cornell University (1892–1893), and professor at Stanford University (1893–1900).
Ross affair and departure from Stanford
In Stanford's "first academic freedom controversy", Ross was fired from Stanford because of his political views on eugenics. He objected to Chinese immigrant labor (on both economic and racial grounds: he was an early supporter of the "race suicide" doctrine and expressed his wish to restrict entry of other races in strong and crude language in public speeches) and Japanese immigration altogether. In the speech that was the catalyst for his potential firing and ultimate resignation, he was quoted as declaring:
And should the worst come to the worst it would be better for us if we were to turn our guns upon every vessel bringing Japanese to our shores rather than to permit them to land
In Ross' public statement as to his resignation, he wrote about how his good friend, Dr. Jordan, was the one who asked him to make the unfortunate speech in the first place, which ended up being surrounded with so much controversy. Jordan managed to keep Ross from being fired, but Ross resigned shortly after. The position was at odds with the university's founding family, the Stanfords, who had made their fortune in Western rail construction, a major employer of coolie laborers.
Ross had also made critical remarks about the railroad industry in his classes: "A railroad deal is a railroad steal." This was too much for Jane Stanford, Leland Stanford's widow, who was on the board of trustees of the university. Numerous professors at Stanford resigned after protests of his dismissal, sparking "a national debate... concerning the freedom of expression and control of universities by private interests." The American Association of University Professors was founded largely in response to this incident.
Nebraska, Wisconsin, and later life
Ross left for the University of Nebraska, where he taught until 1905. In 1906, he moved to the University of Wisconsin–Madison, where he became Professor of Sociology, and eventually chairman of the department. He retired in 1937.
His understanding of Americanization and assimilation bore a striking resemblance to that of another Wisconsin professor, Frederick Jackson Turner. Like Turner, Ross believed that American identity was forged in the crucible of the wilderness. The 1890 census's proclamation that the frontier had disappeared, then, posed a significant threat to America's ability to assimilate the mass of immigrants who were arriving from southern and eastern Europe. In 1897, just four years after Turner had presented his frontier thesis to the American Historical Association, Ross, then at Stanford, argued that the loss of the frontier destroyed the machinery of the melting pot process.
In 1913, the State of Wisconsin passed its first sterilization law. Ross, who lived in Wisconsin at the time, was a reserved proponent of sterilization and indicated his support for the measure. He qualified his support by contrasting it with the greater harm of hanging a man.and advocated its initial use "only to extreme cases, where the commitments and the record pile up an overwhelming case." Involuntary sterilization remained legal in Wisconsin until July 1978.
Ross visited Russia after the Bolshevik Revolution in 1917. He endorsed the revolution even as he acknowledged its bloody origins. He was subsequently a leading advocate of US recognition of the Soviet Union. However, he later served on the Dewey Commission, which cleared Leon Trotsky of the charges made against him by the Soviet government during the Moscow Trials.
From 1900 to the 1920s, Ross supported the alcohol Prohibition movement as well as continuing to support eugenics and immigration restriction. By 1930, he had moved away from those views, however.
In the 1930s, he was a supporter of the New Deal programs of President Franklin Roosevelt. In 1940, he became chairman of the national committee of the American Civil Liberties Union, serving until 1950.
He died in 1951.
- Honest Dollars. Chicago: C. H. Kerr & Co., 1896.
- Social Control: A Survey of the Foundations of Order, The Macmillan Company, 1901 [Last reprint 2009 by Transaction Publishers; with a new introduction by Matthias Gross].
- Foundations of Sociology, The Macmillan Company, 1905.
- Sin and Society: An Analysis of Latter-Day Iniquity (with a letter from President Roosevelt), Houghton, Mifflin & Company, 1907.
- Social Psychology: An Outline and Source Book, The Macmillan Company, 1908.
- Latter Day Sinners and Saints, B. W. Huebsch, 1910.
- The Changing Chinese: The Conflict of Oriental and Western Cultures in China, The Century Co., 1911.
- Changing America: Studies in Contemporary Society, The Century Co., 1912.
- The Old World in the New: The Significance of Past and Present Immigration to the American People, The Century Co., 1914.
- South of Panama, The Century Co., 1915.
- Russia in Upheaval, The Century Co., 1918.
- What is America?, The Century Co., 1919.
- The Principles of Sociology, The Century Co., 1920.
- The Russian Bolshevik Revolution, The Century Co., 1921.
- The Social Trend, The Century Co., 1922.
- The Outlines of Sociology, The Century Co., 1923.
- The Russian Soviet Republic, The Century Co., 1923.
- The Social Revolution in Mexico, The Century Co., 1923.
- Changes in the Size of American Families in One Generation, University of Wisconsin Studies, 1924 [with R. E. Baber].
- Roads to Social Peace, The University of North Carolina Press, 1924.
- Civic Sociology: A Textbook in Social and Civic Problems for Young Americans, World Book Company, 1926 [1st Pub. 1925].
- Report on the Employment of Native Labor in Portuguese Africa, Abbott Press, 1925.
- Standing Room Only?, The Century Co., 1927.
- World Drift, The Century Co., 1928.
- Tests and Challenges in Sociology, The Century Co., 1931.
- Seventy Years of It: An Autobiography, D. Appleton-Century Company, 1936.
- New-Age Sociology, D. Appleton-Century Company, 1940.
- Schweinitz Brunner, Edmund de (1923). Churches of Distinction in Town and Country, with a Foreword by Edward Alsworth Ross, George H. Doran Company.
- Weinberg, Julius (1972). Edward Alsworth Ross and the Sociology of Progressivism, State Historical Society of Wisconsin.
- Hertzler, J. O. (1951). "Edward Alsworth Ross: Sociological Pioneer and Interpreter," Archived 2014-03-23 at the Wayback Machine. American Sociological Review, Vol. 16, No. 5, pp. 597-613.
- "The findings of the eugenicists quite naturally gave support to the opponents of further immigration. One of the most widely read books on this controversial issue was The Old World in the New, by Edward A. Ross [...] he believed in the conventional myth of Nordic supremacy and the need for a program of positive eugenics in order to preserve our Anglo-Saxon Americanism against pollution through immigration [...] [ending] with a chapter showing how 'Immigrant Blood' was slowly polluting the purer 'American Blood', as 'beaten members of the beaten breeds' swarmed over the beloved land of his own pioneer ancestors. Somewhat obsessed with race, Ross was of course convinced that 'the blood being injected into the veins of our people was sub-human'; the newer immigrants were 'morally below the races of northern Europe'; and that it all would end in 'Race Suicide'." — Baltzell, E. Digby (1964). The Protestant Establishment: Aristocracy and Caste in America. Random House, p. 105.
- Rafter, Nicole H. (2009). "Edward Alsworth Ross: The System of Social Control, 1901," in The Origins of Criminology: A Reader, Routledge, p. 320.
- Ross, Dorothy (1992). The Origins of American Social Science. Cambridge University Press. p. 230.
- Encyclopedia of World Biography on Edward Alsworth Ross
- "Edward A. Ross, President 1914-1915". Archived from the original on 2010-07-10.
- Casper, Gerhard (1995). Die Luft der Freiheit weht - On and Off. Stanford University, Office of the President.
- Mohr, James C. (1970). "Academic Turmoil and Public Opinion: The Ross Case at Stanford". Pacific Historical Review. 39 (1): 39–61. JSTOR 3638197.
- Riley, Naomi Schaefer (2011). The Faculty Lounges and Other Reasons Why You Won't Get the College Education You Paid For. Lanham, Maryland: Ivan R. Dee. p. 34. ISBN 978-1-56663-886-9.
- Stanford University. The Independent (New York).
- Burns, Edward McNall (1953). David Starr Jordan: Prophet of Freedom. Stanford University Press.
- The Argonaut. San Francisco: San Francisco Museum and Historical Society. 1900.
- Samuels, Warren J. (1991). "The Firing of E. A. Ross from Stanford University: Injustice Compounded by Deception?". Journal of Economic Education. 22 (2): 183–190. doi:10.1080/00220485.1991.10844707.
- Keith, Bruce (1988). "The Foundations of an American Discipline: Edward A. Ross at the University of Nebraska, 1901-1906," Mid-American Review of Sociology, Vol. 13, No. 2, pp. 43-56.
- Weinberg, Julius (1967). "E. A. Ross: The Progressive as Nativist," The Wisconsin Magazine of History, Vol. 50, No. 3, pp. 242-253.
- Vecoli, Rudolph (1960). "Sterilization: A Progressive Measure?". The Wisconsin Magazine of History. 43: 190–202.
For my own part, I am entirely in favor of it. The objections to it are essentially sentimental, and will not bear inspection. Sterilization is not nearly so terrible as hanging a man, and the chances of sterilizing the fit are not nearly so great, as are the chances of hanging the innocent. In introducing the policy, the wedge should have a very thin end indeed. Sterilization should at first be applied only to extreme cases, where the commitments and the record pile up an overwhelming case. As the public becomes accustomed to it, and it is seen to be salutary and humane, it wil be possible gradually to extend its scope until it fills its legitimate sphere of application.
- Dewey Commission Report
- McMahon, Sean H. (1999). Social Control and Public Intellect: The Legacy of Edward A. Ross, Transaction Publishers.
- "40th Anniversary Issue" (PDF). ACLU San Diego.
- Gillin, John Lewis (1937). "The Personality of Edward Alsworth Ross". American Journal of Sociology. 42 (4): 534–542. doi:10.1086/217493.
- Gross, Matthias (2002). "When Ecology and Sociology Meet: The Contributions of Edward A. Ross". Journal of the History of the Behavioral Sciences. 38 (1): 27–42. doi:10.1002/jhbs.1095.
- Gross, Matthias (2003). "Sociologists of the Unexpected: Edward A. Ross and Georg Simmel on the Unintended Consequences of Modernity". The American Sociologist. 34 (4): 40–58. doi:10.1007/s12108-003-1015-9.
- Kolb, William L. (1948). "The Sociological Theories of Edward Alsworth Ross". In Barnes, Harry Elmer. An Introduction to the History of Sociology. University of Chicago Press.
- McMahon, Sean H. (1998). "Professional Purpose and Academic Legitimacy: Ross's Social Control and the Founding of American Sociology". The American Sociologist. 29 (3): 9–25. doi:10.1007/s12108-998-1002-2.
- Odum, Howard W. (1951). "Edward Alsworth Ross: 1866–1951". Social Forces. 30 (1): 126–127. doi:10.1093/sf/30.1.126.
- Page, Charles Hunt (1940). Class and American Sociology: from Ward to Ross. The Dial Press.
- Spellman, William E. (1979). "The Economics of Edward Alsworth Ross". American Journal of Economics and Sociology. 38 (2): 129–140. JSTOR 3486894.
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Edward Alsworth Ross