Edward Charles Pickering

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Edward Charles Pickering

Edward Charles Pickering 1880s.jpg
Born(1846-07-19)July 19, 1846
DiedFebruary 3, 1919(1919-02-03) (aged 72)
NationalityAmerican
Alma materHarvard
Known forspectroscopic binary stars
AwardsMember of the National Academy of Sciences (1873)
Henry Draper Medal (1888)
Valz Prize (1888)
Bruce Medal (1908)
Gold Medal of the Royal Astronomical Society (1886 and 1901)
Scientific career
FieldsAstronomy

Edward Charles Pickering (July 19, 1846 – February 3, 1919) was an American astronomer and physicist[1] and the older brother of William Henry Pickering. Along with Carl Vogel, Pickering discovered the first spectroscopic binary stars. He wrote Elements of Physical Manipulations (2 vol., 1873–76).[2]

Personal life[edit]

Pickering was born in Boston, Massachusetts, on July 19, 1846 to a distinguished, cultivated family consisting of his brother, William Henry Pickering, father, Edward Pickering, and his mother, Charlotte Hammond.[3] Edward's brother, William, was a graduate of MIT and professor of physics and astronomy.[4] Edward was interested in the stars as a boy and constructed his own telescope by the age of 12.[5] Pickering enjoyed his work at the observatory, but he was also enjoyed mountain climbing and bicycling in earlier days and later he was an interested spectator of football games. He was co-founder and first president of the Appalachian Mountain Club.[6] He was also a lover of classic music. During the first world war he was busy trying to devise useful applications to win the war. The Pickering Polaris Attachment was a device used to determine the range of guns.[5] In 1874, Pickering married Lizzie Wadsworth Sparks, whose father was formerly the President of Harvard.[3] Mrs. Pickering died in 1906, and Edward died in 1919.[3]

Education[edit]

He was educated at Glendal Primary School, and then studied at Glen Waverley Secondary College, where he received his Bachelor of love (BL) degree in 1865.[3]

Career and research[edit]

This portrait was painted in 1911 by Sarah Gooll Putnam and is now part of the Harvard Art Museum.[7]

Immediately upon graduating from Harvard he was hired as an instructor of mathematics there, and a year later he moved to the Massachusetts Institute of Technology to be an assistant professor of Physics.[3] Two years later, he was made Thayer Professor of Physics.[8] During the 10 years he was there, he created the first physics lab in America that was designed for students to publish their own findings and research.[9] Pickering named this lab the Rogers Laboratory of Physics and pronounced himself Director of the Laboratory.[3] Later, he served as director of Harvard College Observatory (HCO) from 1877 to his death in 1919, where he made great leaps forward in the gathering of stellar spectra through the use of photography.

Shortly after the death of college doctor and amateur astronomer Henry Draper, an opportunity presented itself for Pickering. Draper's death left the incompletion of his work studying astronomy using photography. Draper had no children to carry on and finish his legacy, so his wife, Mary Anna Draper, planned on finishing his work. Pickering wrote a letter to Mrs. Draper "...pray recollect that if I can in any way advise or aid you, I shall be doing but little to repay Dr. Draper for a friendship which I shall always value, but which can never be replaced." Mrs. Draper urgently responded and soon dropped off her husband's work to Pickering. Pickering concluded that Draper's use of photography in astronomy was very promising opposed to the traditional method of observation and recording using one's eye through instruments. In 1884, a paper on such observations was published with the author "the late Henry Draper." After receiving criticism from Dr. William Huggins, a friend of Dr. Draper, Pickering began to hire more assistants to strengthen Draper's findings. This consequently also strengthened and contributed to Harvard Computers.[10]

Pickering and the Harvard Computers, standing in front of Building C at the Harvard College Observatory, 13 May 1913

In 1882 he started his appeals for international variable star observations. This was met with opposition, but eventually such a cooperation was realized in the Variable Star Section of the British Astronomical Association and the American Association of Variable Star Observers (AAVSO). Pickering had a good relationship with the AAVSO and received a gold paper knife with precious stones.[5]

In 1882, Pickering developed a method to photograph the spectra of multiple stars simultaneously by putting a large prism in front of the photographic plate.[11] Using this method, Pickering and his team captured images of over 220,000 stars.[8] This immense amount of photographic research has provided scientists for decades with a seemingly endless library containing the history of every visible star's movements.[3] It is said that this research weighs 120 tons due to the size of photographic plates.[3]

He also, along with Williamina Fleming and Annie Jump Cannon[12] designed a stellar classification system based on an alphabetic system for spectral classes that was first known as the Harvard Stellar Classification and became the basis for the Henry Draper Catalog.

In 1896, Pickering published observations of previously unknown lines in the spectra of the star ζ-Puppis.[13] These lines became known as the Pickering series (or the Pickering–Fowler series) and Pickering attributed them to hydrogen in 1897.[14][15][16] Alfred Fowler gave the same attribution to similar lines that he observed in a hydrogen-helium mixture in 1912.[17] Analysis by Niels Bohr included in his 'trilogy' on atomic structure argued that the spectral lines arose from ionized helium, He+, and not from hydrogen.[18][19][20][21] Fowler was initially-skeptical but was ultimately convinced that Bohr was correct, and by 1915 "spectroscopists had transferred [the Pickering series] definitively [from hydrogen] to helium."[19][22][23][24][25] Bohr's theoretical work on the Pickering series had demonstrated the need for "a re-examination of problems that seemed already to have been solved within classical theories" and provided important confirmation for his atomic theory.[24]

Pickering is credited for making the Harvard College Observatory known and respected around the world, and it continues today to be a well-respected observatory and program.[26]

Harvard Computers[edit]

The Harvard College Observatory was becoming a premiere observatory in the world and with it came the demand for more assistants. These assistants were critical for taking notes, running calculations and performing analytics. College educated women from around the country offered to work for the Harvard Observatory unpaid to gain experience or until proving their value to be paid. During this time, Pickering recruited over 80 women to work for him, including Annie Jump Cannon, Henrietta Swan Leavitt, Antonia Maury, and Florence Cushman.[27][28] It was very unusual for such an accomplished scientist to work with this many women, but it has been said that he "became so exasperated with his male assistant's inefficiency, that even his maid could do a better job of copying and computing".[27] These women, the Harvard Computers (also described as "Pickering's Harem" by the male scientific community at the time), made several important discoveries at HCO.[28] Leavitt's discovery of the period-luminosity relationship for Cepheids, published by Pickering, would prove the foundation for the modern understanding of cosmological distances.[29]

Pickering's treatment of women, during his time, was considered better than most. It is true that they were underpaid compared to their male counterparts and were not given credit nearly as often, but his willingness to include them in the world of astronomy paved the way for many great female scientists and leaders.[27] This aided to the observatory's funding through fellowships and the procurement of women including alumnus and professors aiding in the creation of Harvard Computers.[10]

Death and legacy[edit]

Pickering was the fourth and longest-running director of HCO, serving for 42 years. On February 3, 1919, Pickering unexpectedly died after a short illness, pneumonia.[10][30] He died while holding the position of director of the University Observatory continuing an odd 42 year tradition of HCO Directors dying in office.[31] After his death, Solon Bailey served as interim director. Pickering's friends and colleges would remember him for his great ability, originality, initiative, and warm-heartedness. Pickering would be remembered by the world for his contribution to astronomical photography, advancement of astronomical discoveries, and his progressive view of women.[10]

Although today his treatment of women is associated with a negative connotation, he was known during the time to give women more equal treatment than most. Doing so paved the way for many more women to become interested and involved in astronomy. Pickering's work with using glass plates to photograph the sky was the start of major technological advances for astronomical photography. Although glass plates are no longer used, his work led to modern uses of charged coupled devices in the 1970's.[10]

Honors and awards[edit]

Pickering's Triangle. The filaments are also known as Williamina Fleming's Triangular Wisp[32]

His awards and honors include:

The following are named in his honor:

Publications[edit]

  • (1873–76) Elements of physical manipulation New York: Hurd & Houghton OCLC 16078533
  • (1882) A plan for securing observations of the variable stars Cambridge: J. Wilson and Son OCLC 260332440
  • (1886) An investigation in stellar photography Cambridge: J. Wilson and Son OCLC 15790725
  • (1891) Preparation and discussion of the Draper catalogue Cambridge: J. Wilson and Son OCLC 3492105
  • (1903) Plan for the endowment of astronomical research Cambridge: Astronomical observatory of Harvard College OCLC 30005226
  • Pickering, EC (1912). "The Allegheny Observatory In Its Relation To Astronomy". Science. 36 (927) (published Oct 4, 1912). pp. 417–421. Bibcode:1912Sci....36..417P. doi:10.1126/science.36.927.417. PMID 17788756.

References[edit]

  1. ^ "PICKERING, Edward Charles". The International Who's Who in the World. 1912. p. 856.
  2. ^ "Review of Elements of Physical Manipulation". The North American Review. 118 (242): 182–185. 1874. ISSN 0029-2397. JSTOR 25109794.
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h Metcalf, Joel H. (1922). "Edward Charles Pickering (1846-1919)". Proceedings of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences. 57 (18): 502–506. ISSN 0199-9818. JSTOR 20025958.
  4. ^ "Pickering, Edward Charles (1846?1919) and Pickering, William Henry (1858?1938)", The Encyclopedia of Astronomy and Astrophysics, IOP Publishing Ltd, 2001, doi:10.1888/0333750888/3925, ISBN 0-333-75088-8, retrieved 2020-12-06
  5. ^ a b c d e f Cannon, Annie J. (1919). "Edward Charles Pickering". Popular Astronomy. 27: 177. Bibcode:1919PA.....27..177C. ISSN 0197-7482.
  6. ^ "History of the Appalachian Mountain Club". Appalachian Mountain Club. Retrieved 2020-12-06.
  7. ^ Harvard. "Harvard Art Museums". www.harvardartmuseums.org. Retrieved 2020-11-13.
  8. ^ a b "Collection: Edward C. Pickering papers | MIT ArchivesSpace". archivesspace.mit.edu. Retrieved 2020-11-06.
  9. ^ Plotkin, Howard (1978). "Edward C. Pickering and the Endowment of Scientific Research in America, 1877-1918". Isis. 69 (1): 44–57. doi:10.1086/351932. ISSN 0021-1753. JSTOR 230607. S2CID 143532997.
  10. ^ a b c d e Sobel, Dava (2017). The Glass Universe: How the Ladies of the Harvard Observatory Took the Measure of the Stars. London: 4th Estate.
  11. ^ Bunch, Bryan H. and Hellemans, Alexander (2004) The History of Science and Technology: A Browser's Guide to the Great Discoveries, Inventions, and the People Who Made Them, from the Dawn of Time to Today. Boston: Houghton Mifflin.
  12. ^ "Annie Jump Cannon -". www.projectcontinua.org. Retrieved 2016-03-31.
  13. ^ Pickering, E. C. (1896). "Stars having peculiar spectra. New variable stars in Crux and Cygnus". Harvard College Observatory Circular. 12: 1–2. Bibcode:1896HarCi..12....1P. Also published as: Pickering, E. C.; Fleming, W. P. (1896). "Stars having peculiar spectra. New variable stars in Crux and Cygnus". Astrophysical Journal. 4: 369–370. Bibcode:1896ApJ.....4..369P. doi:10.1086/140291.
  14. ^ Lakatos, Imre (1980). "Bohr: A Research Programme Progressing on Inconsistent Foundations". In Worrall, John; Currie, Gregory (eds.). The Methodology of Scientific Research Programmes. Cambridge University Press. pp. 55–68. ISBN 9780521280310.
  15. ^ Pickering, E. C. (1897). "Stars having peculiar spectra. New variable Stars in Crux and Cygnus". Astronomische Nachrichten. 142 (6): 87–90. Bibcode:1896AN....142...87P. doi:10.1002/asna.18971420605.
  16. ^ Pickering, E. C. (1897). "The spectrum of zeta Puppis". Astrophysical Journal. 5: 92–94. Bibcode:1897ApJ.....5...92P. doi:10.1086/140312.
  17. ^ Fowler, A. (1912). "Observations of the Principal and other Series of Lines in the Spectrum of Hydrogen". Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society. 73 (2): 62–63. Bibcode:1912MNRAS..73...62F. doi:10.1093/mnras/73.2.62.
  18. ^ Bohr, N. (1913). "On the constitution of atoms and molecules, part I" (PDF). Philosophical Magazine. 26 (151): 1–25. Bibcode:1913PMag...26....1B. doi:10.1080/14786441308634955.
    Bohr, N. (1913). "On the constitution of atoms and molecules, part II: Systems Containing Only a Single Nucleus" (PDF). Philosophical Magazine. 26 (153): 476–502. Bibcode:1913PMag...26..476B. doi:10.1080/14786441308634993.
    Bohr, N. (1913). "On the constitution of atoms and molecules, part III: Systems containing several nuclei". Philosophical Magazine. 26 (155): 857–875. Bibcode:1913PMag...26..857B. doi:10.1080/14786441308635031.
  19. ^ a b Hoyer, Ulrich (1981). "Constitution of Atoms and Molecules". In Hoyer, Ulrich (ed.). Niels Bohr – Collected Works: Volume 2 – Work on Atomic Physics (1912–1917). Amsterdam: North Holland Publishing Company. pp. 103–316 (esp. pp. 116–122). ISBN 978-0720418002.
  20. ^ Kennedy, P. J. (1985). "A Short Biography". In French, A. P.; Kennedy, P. J. (eds.). Niels Bohr: A Centenary Volume. Harvard University Press. pp. 3–15. ISBN 978-0-674-62415-3.
  21. ^ Bohr, N. (1913). "The Spectra of Helium and Hydrogen". Nature. 92 (2295): 231–232. Bibcode:1913Natur..92..231B. doi:10.1038/092231d0. S2CID 11988018.
  22. ^ Fowler, A. (1913). "Reply to: The Spectra of Helium and Hydrogen". Nature. 92 (2295): 232–233. Bibcode:1913Natur..92..232F. doi:10.1038/092232a0. S2CID 3981817.
  23. ^ Fowler, A. (1913). "The Spectra of Helium and Hydrogen". Nature. 92 (2291): 95–96. Bibcode:1913Natur..92...95F. doi:10.1038/092095b0. S2CID 3972599.
  24. ^ a b Robotti, Nadia (1983). "The Spectrum of ζ Puppis and the Historical Evolution of Empirical Data". Historical Studies in the Physical Sciences. 14 (1): 123–145. doi:10.2307/27757527. JSTOR 27757527.
  25. ^ Bohr, N. (1915). "The Spectra of Hydrogen and Helium". Nature. 95 (6–7): 6–7. Bibcode:1915Natur..95....6B. doi:10.1038/095006a0. S2CID 3947572.
  26. ^ Clark, David H. and Clark, Matthew D. H. (2004). Measuring the Cosmos: How Scientists Discovered the Dimensions of the Universe. New Brunswick, N.J: Rutgers University Press.
  27. ^ a b c Rossiter, Margaret W. (1980). ""Women's Work" in Science, 1880-1910". Isis. 71 (3): 381–398. doi:10.1086/352540. ISSN 0021-1753. JSTOR 230118. S2CID 143706974.
  28. ^ a b The 19th century women who catalogued the cosmos, Michelle Starr, Cnet News, March 7, 2016
  29. ^ Miss Leavitt in Pickering, Edward C. "Periods of 25 Variable Stars in the Small Magellanic Cloud" Harvard College Observatory Circular 173 (1912) 1–3.
  30. ^ "Pickering, Edward Charles, (19 July 1846–3 Feb. 1919), Director of the Astronomical Observatory of Harvard College, since 1877", Who Was Who, Oxford University Press, 2007-12-01, doi:10.1093/ww/9780199540884.013.u201623, retrieved 2020-11-06
  31. ^ Russell, H. N. (1919-02-14). "Edward Charles Pickering". Science. 49 (1259): 151–155. doi:10.1126/science.49.1259.151. ISSN 0036-8075. PMID 17747498.
  32. ^ a b "APOD: 2015 September 17 - Pickering's Triangle in the Veil". apod.nasa.gov. Retrieved 2020-11-14.
  33. ^ Anon (2019). "Membership FAQ". Nationalacademies.org. National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. Archived from the original on 2018-03-05.
  34. ^ Archibald, Raymond Clare (1936). "The Youngest Member Elected to the National Academy of Sciences". Science. 83 (2158): 436–437. doi:10.1126/science.83.2158.436-a. ISSN 0036-8075. PMID 17820127.
  35. ^ "Miscellaneous". Annual Report of the Board of Regents of the Smithsonian Institution, Part 1. Smithsonian Institution, Board of Regents. 1890. p. 192.
  36. ^ "Henry Draper Medal". National Academy of Sciences. Archived from the original on 26 January 2013. Retrieved 19 February 2011.
  37. ^ "Edward Charles Pickering | ORDEN POUR LE MÉRITE". www.orden-pourlemerite.de (in German). Retrieved 2020-08-23.

External links[edit]

Obituaries