|Born||2 November 1636
|Died||11 October 1721
Edward Colston (2 November 1636 – 11 October 1721) was a Bristol-born English slave trader, merchant and Member of Parliament. Much of his wealth, although used often for philanthropic purposes, was acquired through the trade and exploitation of slaves. He endowed schools and almshouses and his name is commemorated in several Bristol landmarks, streets, three schools and the Colston bun.
Colston was born on 2 November 1636 in Church Street, Bristol, the youngest of at least 15 children. His parents were William Colston, a prosperous merchant and Sarah (née Batten). He was brought up in Bristol until the time of the English Civil War, when he probably lived for a while on his father's estate in Winterbourne, south Gloucestershire. The family then moved to London where Edward may have been a pupil at Christ's Hospital, a school.
He was apprenticed to the Mercers Company for eight years and by 1672 was shipping goods from London. He built up a lucrative business, trading with Spain, Portugal, Italy and Africa. In 1680, Colston became a member of the Royal African Company, which had held the monopoly in Britain on trading in gold, ivory and slaves from 1662.
His parents had resettled in Bristol and in 1682 he made a loan to the Corporation, the following year becoming a member of the Society of Merchant Venturers and a burgess of the City. In 1684 he inherited his brother's mercantile business in Small Street, and was a partner in a sugar refinery in St. Peter's Churchyard, shipping sugar produced by slaves from St. Kitts. But he was never resident in Bristol, carrying on his London business from Mortlake in Surrey until he retired in 1708.
Altruism and politics
He founded almshouses in King Street and on St. Michaels Hill, endowed Queen Elizabeth's Hospital school and helped found Colston's Hospital, a boarding school which opened in 1710 leaving an endowment to be managed by the Society of Merchant Venturers for its upkeep. He gave money to schools in Temple (one of which went on to become St Mary Redcliffe and Temple School) and other parts of Bristol, and to several churches and the cathedral. He was a strong Tory and high-churchman, and was returned as Member of Parliament (MP) for Bristol in 1710 for just one parliament.
David Hughson writing in 1808 described Colston:
[Cromwell House was certainly the residence, in the last century, of] that excellent man Edward Colston, Esq. the great benefactor of the city of Bristol, who, in his lifetime, expended more than 10,000L. [£] in charitable institutions.
He died on 11 October 1721 at his home, (old) Cromwell House (demolished 1857), in Mortlake. His body was carried back to Bristol and was buried at All Saints Church. His tomb was designed by James Gibbs. He died at the age of 84.
Colston and Bristol today
A statue, designed by John Cassidy, was erected in the centre of Bristol in 1895 commemorating Colston. In 1998, however, "someone scrawled on its base the name of one of the professions in which he made his fortune: SLAVE TRADER."  He is a divisive figure in Bristolian civil society, viewed by some as an inspirational figure for the city, due to his donations of money to schools and other causes, but, in more recent times as Colston's activities as a major slave trader emerged, many in Bristol and beyond, now regard him as having committed crimes against humanity. Some have called for his statue to be taken down, and others that a memorial plaque honouring the victims of slavery should be fitted to his statue. Bristol's first elected mayor, George Ferguson, stated on Twitter in 2013 that "Celebrations for Colston are perverse, not something I shall be taking part in!" Yet Colston's name permeates the city in such landmarks as Colston Tower, Colston Hall, Colston Avenue, Colston Street, Colston's Girls' School, Colston's School and Colston's Primary School. He is also remembered, particularly in some schools, by Colston's Day, on 13 November. A regional bread bun, the Colston bun, is named after him.
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