Edward S. Curtis

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Edward S. Curtis
Self-portrait circa 1889
Born Edward Sheriff Curtis
(1868-02-16)February 16, 1868
Whitewater, Wisconsin, U.S.
Died October 19, 1952(1952-10-19) (aged 84)
Los Angeles, California, U.S.
Occupation Photographer
Spouse(s) Clara J. Phillips (1874–1932)
Children Harold Curtis (1893–1988)
Elizabeth M. Curtis (1896–1973)
Florence Curtis Graybill (1899–1987)
Katherine Curtis (1909–unknown)
Parent(s) Ellen Sheriff (1844–1912)
Johnson Asahel Curtis (1840–87)

Edward Sheriff Curtis (February 16, 1868 – October 19, 1952) was an American ethnologist and photographer of the American West and of Native American peoples.[1][2]

Early life[edit]

Edward Curtis was born on February 16, 1868 on a farm near Whitewater, Wisconsin.[3][4] His father, the Reverend Asahel "Johnson" Curtis (1840–87), was a minister, farmer, and American Civil War veteran[5] born in Ohio. His mother, Ellen Sheriff (1844–1912), was born in Pennsylvania. Curtis's siblings were Raphael (1862–c.1885), also called Ray; Edward, called Eddy; Eva (1870–?); and Asahel Curtis (1874–1941).[3] Weakened by his experiences in the Civil War, Johnson Curtis had difficulty in managing his farm, resulting in hardship and poverty for his family.[3]

Around 1874, the family moved from Wisconsin to Minnesota to join Johnson Curtis's father, Asahel Curtis, who ran a grocery store and was a postmaster in Le Sueur County.[3][5] Curtis left school in the sixth grade and soon built his own camera.


Early career[edit]

Princess Angeline (Duwamish) in an 1896 photogravure by Edward Sheriff Curtis

In 1885 at the age of 17, Edward became an apprentice photographer in St. Paul, Minnesota. In 1887 the family moved to Seattle, Washington, where Edward purchased a new camera and became a partner in an existing photographic studio with Rasmus Rothi. Edward paid $150 for his 50% share in the studio. After about six months, Curtis left Rothi and formed a new partnership with Thomas Guptill. The new studio was called Curtis and Guptill, Photographers and Photoengravers.[2][4]

In 1895, Curtis met and photographed Princess Angeline (c. 1820–1896), aka Kickisomlo, the daughter of Chief Sealth of Seattle. This was to be his first portrait of a Native American. In 1898, three of Curtis' images were chosen for an exhibition sponsored by the National Photographic Society. Two were images of Princess Angeline, "The Mussel Gatherer", and "The Clam Digger". The other was of the Puget Sound, titled "Homeward". The latter was awarded the exhibition's grand prize and a gold medal.[6] In that same year, while photographing Mt. Rainier, Curtis came upon a small group of scientists. One of them was George Bird Grinnell, an expert on Native Americans. Curtis was appointed Official Photographer to the Harriman Alaska Expedition of 1899, probably as a result of his friendship with George Bird Grinnell. Having very little formal education Curtis learned much during the lectures that were given aboard the ship each evening of the voyage.[7] Grinnell became interested in Curtis' photography and invited him to join an expedition to photograph people of the Blackfoot Confederacy in Montana in the year 1900.[2]

The North American Indian[edit]

The North American Indian, 1907

In 1906, J. P. Morgan provided Curtis with $75,000 to produce a series on Native Americans.[8] This work was to be in 20 volumes with 1,500 photographs. Morgan's funds were to be disbursed over five years and were earmarked to support only fieldwork for the books not for writing, editing, or production of the volumes. Curtis himself would receive no salary for the project,[9] which was to last more than 20 years. Under the terms of the arrangement, Morgan was to receive 25 sets and 500 original prints as his method of repayment.

Once Curtis had secured funding for the project, he was able to hire several employees to help him. For writing as well as with recording Native American languages, Curtis hired a former journalist, William E. Myers.[9] For general assistance with logistics and fieldwork, Curtis hired Bill Phillips, a graduate of the University of Washington. Perhaps the most important hire for the success of the project was Frederick Webb Hodge, an anthropologist employed by the Smithsonian who had also researched Native American peoples of the southwestern United States.[9] Hodge was hired to edit the entire series.

222 complete sets were eventually published. Curtis' goal was not just to photograph, but to document, as much of Native American traditional life as possible before that way of life disappeared. He wrote in the introduction to his first volume in 1907: "The information that is to be gathered ... respecting the mode of life of one of the great races of mankind, must be collected at once or the opportunity will be lost." Curtis made over 10,000 wax cylinder recordings of Native American language and music. He took over 40,000 photographic images from over 80 tribes. He recorded tribal lore and history, and he described traditional foods, housing, garments, recreation, ceremonies, and funeral customs. He wrote biographical sketches of tribal leaders, and his material, in most cases, is the only written recorded history although there is still a rich oral tradition that documents history.[2][10] This work was exhibited at the Rencontres d'Arles festival (France) in 1973.

In the Land of the Head Hunters[edit]

Curtis had been using motion picture cameras in the fieldwork for The North American Indian since 1906.[9] He worked extensively with ethnographer and British Columbia native George Hunt in 1910, which inspired his work with the Kwakiutl, but much of their collaboration remains unpublished.[11] At the end of 1912, Curtis decided to create a feature film depicting Native American life, partly as a way of improving his financial situation and partly because film technology had improved to the point where it was conceivable to create and screen films more than a few minutes long. Curtis chose the Kwakiutl tribe of the Queen Charlotte Strait region of the Central Coast of British Columbia, Canada, for his subject. This film, entitled In the Land of the Head Hunters, was the first feature-length film whose cast was composed entirely of Native North Americans[12]

In the Land of the Head-Hunters premiered simultaneously at the Casino Theatre in New York and the Moore Theatre in Seattle on December 7, 1914.[12] The silent film was accompanied by a score composed by John J. Braham, a musical theater composer who had also worked with Gilbert and Sullivan. The film was praised by critics but made only $3,269.18 in its initial run.[13]

Later years[edit]

Indian Days of the Long Ago, 1915

Photographer Ella E. McBride assisted Curtis in his studio beginning in 1907, and became a friend of the family. McBride made an unsuccessful attempt to purchase the studio with Curtis' daughter Beth in 1916, the year of Curtis' divorce, and left to open her own studio.[14]

Around 1922, Curtis moved to Los Angeles with his daughter Beth, and opened a new photo studio. To earn money he worked as an assistant cameraman for Cecil B. DeMille and was an uncredited assistant cameraman in the 1923 filming of The Ten Commandments. On October 16, 1924 Curtis sold the rights to his ethnographic motion picture In the Land of the Head-Hunters to the American Museum of Natural History. He was paid $1,500 for the master print and the original camera negative. It had cost him over $20,000 to film.[2]

In 1927, after returning from Alaska to Seattle with his daughter Beth, he was arrested for failure to pay alimony over the preceding 7 years. The total owed was $4,500, but the charges were dropped. For Christmas of 1927, the family was reunited at daughter Florence's home in Medford, Oregon. This was the first time since the divorce that Curtis was with all of his children at the same time, and it had been thirteen years since he had seen Katherine. In 1928, desperate for cash, Edward sold the rights to his project to J.P Morgan's son. In 1930 he published the opus-concluding volume of The North American Indian. In total, about 280 sets were sold of his now completed magnum opus. In 1930, his ex-wife, Clara, was still living in Seattle operating the photo studio with their daughter Katherine. His other daughter, Florence Curtis, was still living in Medford, Oregon with her husband Henry Graybill. After Clara died of heart failure in 1932,[15] his daughter Katherine moved to California to be closer to her father and her sister Beth.[2]

Loss of rights to The North American Indian[edit]

In 1935, the Morgan estate sold the rights and remaining unpublished material to the Charles E. Lauriat Company in Boston for $1,000 plus a percentage of any future royalties. This included 19 complete bound sets of The North American Indian, thousands of individual paper prints, the copper printing plates, the unbound printed pages, and the original glass-plate negatives. Lauriat bound the remaining loose printed pages and sold them with the completed sets. The remaining material remained untouched in the Lauriat basement in Boston until they were rediscovered in 1972.[2]

Personal life[edit]

Marriage and divorce[edit]

In 1892, Edward married Clara J. Phillips (1874–1932), who was born in Pennsylvania. Her parents were from Canada. Together they had four children: Harold Curtis (1893–1988); Elizabeth M. (Beth) Curtis (1896–1973), who married Manford E. Magnuson (1895–1993); Florence Curtis (1899–1987) who married Henry Graybill (1893–?); and Katherine (Billy) Curtis (1909–?).

In 1896, the entire family moved to a new house in Seattle. The household then included Edward's mother, Ellen Sheriff; Edward's sister, Eva Curtis; Edward's brother, Asahel Curtis; Clara's sisters, Susie and Nellie Phillips; and their cousin, William.[citation needed]

During the years of work on The North American Indian, Curtis was often absent from home for most of the year, leaving Clara to manage the children and the studio by herself. After several years of estrangement, Clara filed for divorce on October 16, 1916. In 1919 she was granted the divorce and received the Curtis' photographic studio and all of his original camera negatives as her part of the settlement. Edward went with his daughter, Beth, to the studio and destroyed all of his original glass negatives, rather than have them become the property of his ex-wife, Clara. Clara went on to manage the Curtis studio with her sister, Nellie M. Phillips (1880–?), who was married to Martin Lucus (1880–?). Following the divorce, the two oldest daughters, Beth and Florence, remained in Seattle, living in a boarding house separate from their mother. The youngest daughter, Katherine Curtis lived with Clara in Charleston, Kitsap County, Washington.[2]


On October 19, 1952, at the age of 84, Curtis died of a heart attack in Los Angeles, California in the home of his daughter, Beth. He was buried at Forest Lawn Memorial Park in Glendale, California. His terse obituary appeared in The New York Times on October 20, 1952:

Edward S. Curtis, internationally known authority on the history of the North American Indian, died today at the home of a daughter, Mrs. Beth Magnuson. His age was 84. Mr. Curtis devoted his life to compiling Indian history. His research was done under the patronage of the late financier, J. Pierpont Morgan. The foreward [sic] for the monumental set of Curtis books was written by President Theodore Roosevelt. Mr. Curtis was also widely known as a photographer.[1]

Collections of Curtis materials[edit]

Curtis Library at Northwestern University[edit]

The entire twenty volumes of narrative text and photogravure images for each volume are online.[16] Each volume is also accompanied by the portfolio of large photogravure plates. The online publishing was supported largely by funds from the Institute for Museum and Library Services.

Curtis Archive at the Library of Congress[edit]

The Prints and Photographs Division Curtis collection consists of more than 2,400 silver-gelatin, first generation photographic prints – some of which are sepia-toned – made from Curtis's original glass negatives. Most are 5 by 7 inches (13 cm × 18 cm) although nearly 100 are 11 by 14 inches (28 cm × 36 cm) and larger; many include the Curtis file or negative number within the image at the lower left-hand corner.

The Library of Congress acquired these images through copyright deposit from about 1900 through 1930. The dates on them reflect date of registration, not when the photographs were taken. About two-thirds (1,608) of these images were not published in The North American Indian volumes and therefore offer a different and unique glimpse into Curtis's work with indigenous cultures. The original glass plate negatives which had been stored and nearly forgotten in the basement of New York's Morgan Library were dispersed during World War II. Many others were destroyed and some were sold as junk.[4]

Charles Lauriat archive[edit]

Around 1970, Karl Kernberger of Santa Fe, New Mexico went to Boston to search for Curtis' original copper plates and photogravures at the Charles E. Lauriat rare bookstore. He discovered almost 285,000 original photogravures as well as all the original copper plates. With Jack Loeffler and David Padwa, they jointly purchased all of the surviving Curtis material that was owned by Charles Emelius Lauriat (1874–1937). The collection was later purchased by another group of investors led by Mark Zaplin of Santa Fe. The Zaplin Group owned the plates until 1982, when they sold them to a California group led by Kenneth Zerbe, the current owner of the plates as of 2005.

Peabody Essex Museum[edit]

Dr. Charles Goddard Weld purchased 110 prints that Curtis had made for his 1905–06 exhibit and donated them to the Peabody Essex Museum, where they remain. The 14" by 17" prints are each unique and remain in pristine condition. Clark Worswick, curator of photography for the museum, describes them as:

...Curtis' most carefully selected prints of what was then his life’s work...certainly these are some of the most glorious prints ever made in the history of the photographic medium. The fact that we have this man’s entire show of 1906 is one of the minor miracles of photography and museology.[17]

Archives of traditional music at Indiana University[edit]

Two hundred and seventy six of the wax cylinders made by Curtis between 1907 and 1913 are held by the Archives of Traditional Music at Indiana University.[18] These include recordings of music of the following Native American groups: Clayoquot, Cowichan, Haida, Hesquiat, and Kwakiutl in B.C.; Arapaho, Cheyenne, Cochiti, Crow, Klikitat, Kutenai, Nez Percé, Salish, Shoshoni, Snohomish, Wishram, Yakima, Acoma, Arikara, Hidatsa, Makah, Mandan, Paloos, Piegan, Tewa (San Ildefonso, San Juan, Tesuque, Nambé), and possibly Dakota, Clallam, Twana, Colville and Nespelim in the western U.S.

Toppan Rare Books Library, University of Wyoming[edit]

The rare books library at the University of Wyoming in Laramie, Wyoming contains the entire twenty volumes of narrative text and photogravure images. Each volume is also accompanied by the portfolio of large photogravure plates.


Revival of interest[edit]

Though Curtis was largely forgotten at the time of his death, interest in his work revived in the 1970s. Major exhibitions of Curtis photographs were presented at The Morgan Library & Museum (1971),[19] the Philadelphia Museum of Art (1972),[20] and the University of California Irvine (1976).[21] His work was also featured in several anthologies on Native American photography published in the early 1970s.[22] Original printings of The North American Indian began to fetch high prices at auction. In 1972, a complete set sold for $20,000. Five years later, another set was auctioned for $60,500.[23] The revival of interest in Curtis's work can be seen as part of a larger increase in visibility of Native American issues during this period.[citation needed]

Critical reception[edit]

Little Plume with his son Yellow Kidney occupies the position of honor, the space at the rear opposite the entrance. Compare with the unretouched original below, which has a clock between Little Plume and Yellow Kidney.

A representative evaluation of The North American Indian comes from Mick Gidley, Emeritus Professor of American Literature, at Leeds University, in England, who has written a number of works related to the life of Edward S. Curtis: "The North American Indian—extensively produced and issued in a severely limited edition—could not prove popular. But in recent years anthropologists and others, even when they have censured what they have assumed were Curtis' methodological assumptions or quarrelled with the text's conclusions, have begun to appreciate the value of the project's achievement: exhibitions have been mounted, anthologies of pictures have been published, and The North American Indian has increasingly been cited in the researches of others... The North American Indian is not monolithic or merely a monument. It is alive, it speaks, if with several voices, and among those perhaps mingled voices are those of otherwise silent or muted Indian individuals.”[24]

Of the full Curtis opus N. Scott Momaday says: "Taken as a whole, the work of Edward S. Curtis is a singular achievement. Never before have we seen the Indians of North America so close to the origins of their humanity...Curtis' photographs comprehend indispensable images of every human being at every time in every place"[25]

Don Gulbrandsen, who wrote Edward Sheriff Curtis: Visions of the First Americans, puts it this way in his introductory essay on Curtis’ life: “The faces stare out at you, images seemingly from an ancient time and from a place far, far away…Yet as you gaze at the faces the humanity becomes apparent, lives filled with dignity but also sadness and loss, representatives of a world that has all but disappeared from our planet.”[citation needed]

In Shadow Catcher: The Life and Work of Edward S. Curtis, Laurie Lawlor reveals that “many Native Americans Curtis photographed called him Shadow Catcher. But the images he captured were far more powerful than mere shadows. The men, women, and children in The North American Indian seem as alive to us today as they did when Curtis took their pictures in the early part of the twentieth century. Curtis respected the Native Americans he encountered and was willing to learn about their culture, religion and way of life. In return the Native Americans respected and trusted him. When judged by the standards of his time, Curtis was far ahead of his contemporaries in sensitivity, tolerance, and openness to Native American cultures and ways of thinking.”[26]

U.S. President Theodore Roosevelt 1904, Orotone by Curtis

Theodore Roosevelt, who was one of Curtis' contemporaries and one of his most fervent supporters, wrote the following comments in the foreword to Volume I of The North American Indian:

In Mr. Curtis we have both an artist and a trained observer, whose work has far more than mere accuracy, because it is truthful. …because of his extraordinary success in making and using his opportunities, has been able to do what no other man ever has done; what, as far as we can see, no other man could do. Mr. Curtis in publishing this book is rendering a real and great service; a service not only to our own people, but to the world of scholarship everywhere.

Curtis has been praised as a gifted photographer but also criticized by some contemporary ethnologists for manipulating his images. Although the early twentieth century was a difficult time for most Native communities in America, not all natives were doomed to becoming a "vanishing race."[27] At a time when natives' rights were being denied and their treaties were unrecognized by the federal government, many natives were successfully adapting to western society. By reinforcing the native identity as the noble savage and a tragic vanishing race, some believe Curtis detracted attention from the true plight of American natives at the time when he was witnessing their squalid conditions on reservations first-hand and their attempt to find their place in Western culture and adapt to their changing world.[27]

In many of his images Curtis removed parasols, suspenders, wagons, and other traces of Western material culture from his pictures. In his photogravure In a Piegan Lodge, published in The North American Indian, Curtis retouched the image to remove a clock between the two men seated on the ground.[28]

He also is known to have paid natives to pose in staged scenes, wear historically inaccurate dress and costumes, dance and partake in simulated ceremonies.[29] In Curtis' picture Oglala War-Party, the image shows 10 Oglala men wearing feather headdresses, on horseback riding down hill. The photo caption reads, "a group of Sioux warriors as they appeared in the days of inter tribal warfare, carefully making their way down a hillside in the vicinity of the enemy's camp". In truth, headdresses would have only been worn during special occasions and, in some tribes, only by the chief of the tribe. The photograph was taken in 1907 when natives had been relegated onto reservations and warring between tribes had ended. Curtis paid natives to pose as warriors at a time when they lived with little dignity, rights, and freedoms. It is therefore suggested that he altered and manipulated his pictures to create an ethnographic simulation of native tribes untouched by Western society.

Image gallery[edit]


See also[edit]


  1. ^ a b c "Edward S. Curtis, internationally known authority on the history of the North American Indian, died today at the home of a daughter, Mrs. Bess Magnuson. His age was 84.". The New York Times. October 20, 1952. Mr. Curtis devoted his life to compiling Indian history. His research was done under the patronage of the late financier, J. Pierpont Morgan. The forward for the monumental set of Curtis books was written by President Theodore Roosevelt. Mr. Curtis was also widely known as a photographer. 
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h Makepeace, Anne (2001). Edward S. Curtis: Coming to Light. National Geographic Society. ISBN 0-7922-6404-5. 
  3. ^ a b c d Laurie Lawlor. Shadow Catcher: The Life and Work of Edward S. Curtis. New York: Walker, 1994.
  4. ^ a b c "Edward S. Curtis Collection". Library of Congress. Retrieved 2007-08-26. Although unknown for many years, Edward S. Curtis is today one of the most well-recognized and celebrated photographers of Native people. Born near White Water, Wisconsin, on February 16, 1868, he became interested in the emerging art of photography when he was quite young, building his first camera when he was still an adolescent. In Seattle, where his family moved in 1887, he acquired part interest in a portrait photography studio and soon became sole owner of the successful business, renaming it Edward S. Curtis Photographer and Photoengraver. 
  5. ^ a b "Shadow Catcher". American Masters. Retrieved 2007-08-26. 
  6. ^ "Edward S. Curtis and The North American Indian: a detailed chronological biography". Soul Catcher Studio. Retrieved December 10, 2012. 
  7. ^ Gidley, Mick. "Edward S. Curtis (1868–1952) and The North American Indian". Library of Congress American Memory. Retrieved December 10, 2012. 
  8. ^ a b c "American Indian in 'Photo History'". The New York Times. June 6, 1908. Retrieved 2012-08-07. 
  9. ^ a b c d Egan, Timothy (2012). Short nights of the Shadow Catcher : the epic life and immortal photographs of Edward Curtis. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Harcourt. p. 370. ISBN 0618969020. 
  10. ^ Vaughn, Chris (2009-09-21). "Fort Worth's Amon Carter Museum acquires a long-sought masterpiece of American Indian photography". Retrieved 2009-09-22. [dead link]
  11. ^ Glass, Aaron (2009). "A Cannibal in the Archive: Performance, Materiality, and (In)Visibility in Unpublished Edward Curtis Photographs of the Kwakwaka’wakw Hamats". Visual Anthropology Review 25: 128–149. doi:10.1111/j.1548-7458.2009.01038.x. 
  12. ^ a b "Web site for In the Land of the Head Hunters re-release, a joint project of U'mista and Rutgers University". Retrieved 2015-03-22. 
  13. ^ Arnold, William (July 9, 2008). "Edward Curtis' Landmark Film Returns To the Site of Its 1914 Premiere 'Head Hunters' Takes Another Bow". Seattle Post-Intelligencer. pp. D1. 
  14. ^ Martin, David M (March 3, 2008). "McBride, Ella E. (1862-1965)". HistoryLink.org- the Free Online Encyclopedia of Washington State History. HistoryLink.org Essay 8513. Retrieved 2014-03-26. 
  15. ^ certificate of death for Clara J. Curtis, Center for Health Statistics, Department of Health, State of Washington
  16. ^ http://curtis.library.northwestern.edu/
  17. ^ "The Master Prints of Edwards S. Curtis: Portraits of Native America". Peabody Essex Museum. Retrieved 2007-08-26. Edward Sheriff Curtis was just thirty-three years old in 1901 when he began his legendary effort to document the life and cultures of the North American Indian through photographs and interviews. By 1930 he had studied more than eighty tribes, taken more than 40,000 photographs, and earned the support of Theodore Roosevelt and J. P. Morgan, among others. 
  18. ^ Archives of Traditional Music
  19. ^ Thornton, Gene (1971-10-17). "Why Is Curtis Unknown to Photographic History?". The New York Times (New York). ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 2013-01-25. 
  20. ^ Curtis, Edward S. (1972). The North American Indians: a selection of photographs. New York: Aperture. ISBN 0912334347. 
  21. ^ "UC Irvine University Art Galleries". Retrieved 2013-01-24. 
  22. ^ McLuhan, T. C (1971). Touch the earth; a self-portrait of Indian existence. New York: Outerbridge & Dienstfrey. ISBN 9780876900383. 
  23. ^ Solis-Cohen, Lita (February 9, 1979). "Art Thieves Know the Product". Toledo Blade (Toledo, OH). p. 15. 
  24. ^ Gidley, Mick (2001). "Edward S. Curtis (1868–1952) and The North American Indian". Retrieved 12 January 2013. 
  25. ^ Momaday, N. Scott; Horse Capture, Joseph D.; Makepeace, Anne (2005). Sacred Legacy: Edward S. Curtis and the North American Indian. Burlington: Verve. ISBN 0976912716. 
  26. ^ Lawlor, Laurie; Edward S. Curtis (2005). Shadow Catcher: The Life and Work of Edward S. Curtis (Web) (Reprint ed.). University of Nebraska Press. p. 6. ISBN 0803280467. Retrieved 10 January 2014. 
  27. ^ a b "The Myth of the Vanishing Race". Library of Congress. Retrieved 2007-08-26. 
  28. ^ "Edward Curtis: Pictorialist and Ethnographic Adventurist". Library of Congress. Retrieved 2007-08-26. 
  29. ^ "The Shadow Catcher". Retrieved 2007-08-26. 
  30. ^ Description by Edward S. Curtis: A well-known Navaho medicine-man. While in the Cañon de Chelly the writer witnessed a very interesting four days' ceremony given by the Wind Doctor. Nesjaja Hatali was also assistant medicine-man in two nine days' ceremonies studied – one in Cañon del Muerto and the other in this portfolio (No. 39) is reproduced from one made and used by this priest-doctor in the Mountain Chant.
  31. ^ Description by Edward S. Curtis: This portrait of the historical old Apache was made in March, 1905. According to Geronimo's calculation he was at the time seventy-six years of age, thus making the year of his birth 1829. The picture was taken at Carlisle, Pennsylvania, the day before the inauguration of President Roosevelt, Geronimo being one of the warriors who took part in the inaugural parade at Washington.
  32. ^ Description by Edward S. Curtis: The Navaho might as well be called the "Keepers of Flocks". Their sheep are of the greatest importance to their existence, and in the care and management of their flocks they exhibit a thrift not to be found in the average tribe.
  33. ^ Description by Edward S. Curtis: One of the four elaborate dry-paintings or sand altars employed in the rites of the Mountain Chant, a Navaho medicine ceremony of nine days' duration.
  34. ^ Description by Edward S. Curtis: The Navaho-land blanket looms are in evidence everywhere. In the winter months they are set up in the hogans, but during the summer they are erected outdoors under an improvised shelter, or, as in this case, beneath a tree. The simplicity of the loom and its product are here clearly shown, pictured in the early morning light under a large cottonwood.
  35. ^ "Lives 22 Years with Indians to get Their Secrets.". The New York Times. April 16, 1911. With the aid of J. Pierpont Morgan, Edward S. Curtis has finished more than half of his monumental study of the American Indian. He has spent fourteen years among them in this work, and calculates that eight more years will see the completion of it. 
  36. ^ "Mount Tacoma". The New York Times. October 14, 1911. Many acres of forest land have been denuded in order to furnish the paper on which have been printed the voluminous and sometimes acrimonious discussion as to the meaning of the word "Tacoma". Edward S. Curtis, the Indian authority, who has been highly commended by The New York Times thus disposes of the question in the seventh volume of his great work, 'The North America Indian'. 
  37. ^ "The American Indian". The New York Times. September 7, 1913. The appearance of Volume IX. of "The North American Indian," a field research conducted under the patronage of the late Pierpont Morgan, brings before the public another section of this valuable and comprehensive study of a people who are rapidly disappearing or losing their aboriginal traits, and acquiring the manners and customs of the dominant white race. 
  38. ^ "Review: In the Land of the Head-Hunters.". The New York Times. March 28, 1915. Edward S. Curtis has for many years been identified with the North American Indian. To them and their customs and languages he has given the study of a lifetime, living as friend and brother with the men of different tribes, permitted to watch them in their everyday life as well as in the exercise of their ceremonies. 

Further reading[edit]

  • Cardozo, Christopher (2015). Edward S. Curtis: One Hundred Masterworks. New York: DelMonico Books - Prestel.
  • Cardozo, Christopher (1993). Native Nations: First Americans as Seen by Edward S. Curtis. Boston: Bullfinch Press. 
  • Cardozo, Christopher (2004). Edward S. Curtis: The Great Warriors. Boston: Bullfinch Press. 
  • Cardozo, Christopher (2005). Edward S. Curtis: The Women. Boston: Bullfinch Press. 
  • Curtis, Edward S (2005). The North American Indian (25th anniversary ed.). Cologne: Taschen. 
  • Curtis, Edward S.; Cardozo, Christopher (2000). Sacred Legacy: Edward S. Curtis and the North American Indian. New York: Simon & Schuster. 
  • Davis, Barbara A (1985). Edward S. Curtis: The Life and Times of a Shadow Catcher. San Francisco: Chronicle Books. 
  • Egan, Timothy (2012). Short Nights of the Shadow Catcher: The Epic Life and Immortal Photographs of Edward Curtis. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Harcourt. ISBN 0-618-96902-0. 
  • Gidley, Mick (1998). Edward S. Curtis and the North American Indian, Incorporated. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-77573-6. 
  • Gidley, Mick (2003). Edward S. Curtis and the North American Indian Project in the Field. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press. 
  • Makepeace, Anne (2002). Edward S. Curtis: Coming to Light (2nd ed.). Washington, D.C.: National Geographic. 
  • Scherer, Joanna Cohan (2008). Edward Sheriff Curtis. London: Phaidon. 
  • Touchie, Roger D (2010). Edward S. Curtis Above the Medicine Line: Portraits of Aboriginal Life in the Canadian West. Toronto: Heritage House. 
  • Zamir, Shamoon (2014). The Gift of the Face. Portraiture and Time in Edward S. Curtis's The North American Indian. Chapel Hill: UNC Press.

External links[edit]