Edward Elder Cooper
Cooper then launched The Colored American in Washington, D.C. starting in 1893. Cooper allied the newspaper with Booker T. Washington, Mary Church Terrell, and generally with the Republican Party. The newspaper fell into debt and shut down in 1904.
- Gatewood, W. B. (1 June 1978). "Edward E. Cooper, Black Journalist". Journalism & Mass Communication Quarterly. 55 (2): 269–324. doi:10.1177/107769907805500207.
- Taylor, Jr., Robert M. (1994). "Indianapolis Freeman". In David J. Bodenhamer. The Encyclopedia of Indianapolis. Robert Graham Barrows. Indiana UP. p. 781. ISBN 9780253312228. Retrieved 5 April 2012.
- Ratzlaff, Aleen J. (2009). "Illustrated African American Journalism: Political Cartooning in the Indianapolis Freeman". In Sachsman, David B. Seeking a voice: images of race and gender in the 19th century press. S. Kittrell Rushing, Roy Morris, Jr. West Lafayette: Purdue UP. pp. 131–140. ISBN 9781557535054.
- "About The colored American. (Washington, D.C.) 1893-19??". Library of Congress.
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