This is an old revision of this page, as edited by Eubulides at 00:26, 4 July 2008 (Remove quotes from infobox (it's already bolded).). The present address (URL) is a permanent link to this revision, which may differ significantly from the .
Edward in the prime of his studies
|Born||May 17, 1749|
|Died||26 January 1823 (aged 73)|
|Alma mater||St George's, University of London|
|Known for||smallpox vaccine|
|Doctoral advisor||John Hunter|
Edward Jenner, FRS, (May 17 1749 – January 26 1823) was an English scientist who studied his natural surroundings in Berkeley, Gloucestershire, England. He is famous as the first doctor to introduce and study the smallpox vaccine, although Benjamin Jesty, a farmer, earlier had vaccinated with cowpox to induce immunity to smallpox. It is believed that Jenner discovered it independently.
Jenner trained in Chipping Sodbury, Gloucestershire as an apprentice to Dr. Ludlow, a surgeon, for eight years from the age of 14. In 1770 Jenner went up to London to study surgery and anatomy under the surgeon John Hunter and others at St George's, University of London. Hunter was a noted experimentalist, and later a fellow of the Royal Society.
William Osler records that Jenner was a student to whom Hunter repeated William Harvey's advice, very famous in medical circles (and characteristically Enlightenment), "Don't think, try". Jenner therefore was early noticed by men famous for advancing the practice and institutions of medicine. Hunter remained in correspondence with him over natural history and proposed him for the Royal Society. Returning to his native countryside, by 1773 he became a successful general practitioner and surgeon, practicing in purpose-built premises at Berkeley.
Jenner and others formed a medical society in Rodborough, Gloucestershire, meeting to read papers on medical subjects and dine together. Jenner contributed papers on angina pectoris, ophthalmia and valvular disease of the heart and commented on cowpox. He also belonged to a similar society which met in Alveston, near Bristol.
He was elected Fellow of the Royal Society in 1788, following a careful study combining observation, experiment and dissection into a description of the previously misunderstood life of the cuckoo in the nest.
Jenner's description of the newly-hatched cuckoo pushing its host's eggs and fledglings from the nest was confirmed in the 20th century when photography became feasible. Having observed the behaviour, he demonstrated an anatomical adaptation for it—the baby cuckoo has a depression in its back which is not present after 12 days of life, in which it cups eggs and other chicks to push them out of the nest. It had been assumed that the adult bird did this, but the adult does not remain in the area for sufficiently long. His findings were published in the Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society in 1787.
He married Catherine Kingscote (died 1815 from tuberculosis) in March 1788 having met her when balloons were hot science, and he and other Fellows were experimenting with them. His trial balloon descended into Kingscote Park, owned by Anthony Kingscote, Catherine being one of his three daughters.
Around this time smallpox was greatly feared, as one in three of those who contracted the disease died, and those who survived were commonly badly disfigured. Voltaire, a few years later, recorded that 60% of people caught smallpox, with 20% of the population dying of it. In the years following 1770 there were at least six people in England and Germany (Sevel, Jensen, Jesty 1774, Rendall, Plett 1791) who had successfully tested the possibility of using the cowpox vaccine as an immunisation for smallpox in humans. For example, Dorset farmer, Benjamin Jesty, had successfully induced immunity in his wife and two children with cowpox during a smallpox epidemic in 1774, but it was not until Jenner's work some twenty years later that the procedure became widely understood. Indeed it is generally believed that Jenner was unaware of Jesty's success and arrived at his conclusions independently.
Noting the common observation that milkmaids did not generally get smallpox, Jenner theorized that the pus in the blisters which milkmaids received from cowpox (a disease similar to smallpox, but much less virulent) protected the milkmaids from smallpox. He may have had the advantage of hearing stories of Benjamin Jesty and perhaps others deliberately arranging cowpox infection of their families and of a reduced risk in those families.
On May 14, 1796, Jenner tested his theory by inoculating James Phipps, a young boy of 8 years old, with material from the cowpox blisters of the hand of Sarah Nelmes, a milkmaid who had caught cowpox from a cow called Blossom. Phipps was the 17th case described in Jenner's first paper on vaccination.
Jenner inoculated Phipps with cowpox pus in both arms on one day, by scraping the pus from Nelmes' blisters onto a piece of wood then transferring this to Phipps' arms. This produced a fever and some uneasiness but no great illness. Later, he injected Phipps with variolous material, which would have been the routine attempt to produce immunity at that time. No disease followed. Jenner reported that later the boy was again challenged with variolacious material and again showed no sign of infection.
He continued his research and reported it to the Royal Society, who did not publish the initial report. After improvement and further work, he published a report of twenty-three cases. Some of his conclusions were correct, and some erroneous—modern microbiological and microscopic methods would make this easier to repeat. The medical establishment, as cautious then as now, considered his findings for some time before accepting them. Eventually vaccination was accepted, and in 1840 the British government banned variolation and provided vaccination free of charge. (See Vaccination acts)
Jenner's continuing work on vaccination prevented his continuing his ordinary medical practice. He was supported by his colleagues and the King in petitioning Parliament and was granted £10,000 for his work on vaccination. In 1806 he was granted another £20,000 for his continuing work.
In 1803 in London he became involved with the Jennerian Institution, a society concerned with promoting vaccination to eradicate smallpox. In 1808, with government aid, this society became the National Vaccine Establishment. Jenner became a member of the Medical and Chirurgical Society on its foundation in 1805, and subsequently presented to them a number of papers. This is now the Royal Society of Medicine.
Returning to London in 1811 he observed a significant number of cases of smallpox after vaccination occurring. He found that in these cases the severity of the illness was notably diminished by the previous vaccination. In 1821 he was appointed Physician Extraordinary to King George IV, a considerable national honour, and was made Mayor of Berkeley and Justice of the Peace. He continued his interests in natural history. In 1823, the last year of his life, he presented his Observations on the Migration of Birds to the Royal Society.
He was found in a state of apoplexy on 25 January 1823, with his right side paralysed. He never rallied, and died of what was apparently a stroke (he had suffered a previous stroke) on 26 January 1823, aged 73. He was survived by one son and one daughter, his elder son having died of tuberculosis at the age of 21.
In 1980, the World Health Organization declared smallpox an eradicated disease. This was the result of coordinated public health efforts by many people, but vaccination was an essential component. Although it was declared eradicated, some samples still remain in laboratories in Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) in Atlanta, Georgia in the United States, and State Research Center of Virology and Biotechnology VECTOR in Koltsovo, Novosibirsk Oblast, Russia.
- Jenner's house is now a small museum housing among other things the horns of the cow Blossom. It lies in the Gloucestershire village of Berkeley.
- The word vaccination comes from the Latin vaccinia, cowpox, from vacca, cow.
- Jenner was buried in the chancel of the parish church of Berkeley.
- A statue, by Robert William Sievier, was erected in the nave of Gloucester Cathedral.
- A statue was erected in Trafalgar Square, later moved to Kensington Gardens.
- Near the small Gloucestershire village of Uley, Downham Hill is locally known as 'Smallpox Hill', with a possible connection to Jenner's local work with the disease.
- St George's, University of London has a wing named after him as well as a bust of him.
- A small grouping of villages in Somerset County, Pennsylvania, United States, were named in honour of Jenner by early 19th century English settlers, including what are now the towns of Jenners, Jenner Township, Jenner Crossroads and Jennerstown,ennsylvania. The towns collectively have a population of about 6000.
- 1798 An Inquiry Into the Causes and Effects of the Variolæ Vaccinæ
- 1799 Further Observations on the Variolœ Vaccinœ
- 1800 A Continuation of Facts and Observations relative to the Variolœ Vaccinœ 40pgs
- 1801 The Origin of the Vaccine Inoculation 12pgs
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Edward Jenner.|
- Papers at the Royal College of Physicians
- Baron, John M.D. F.R.S., "The Life of Edward Jenner MD LLD FRS", Henry Colburn, London, 1827.
- Edward Jenner, the man and his work. BMJ 1949 E Ashworth Underwood
- Cartwright, Keith (2005), "From Jenner to modern smallpox vaccines.", Occupational medicine (Oxford, England) (published 2005 Oct), 55 (7), p. 563, doi:10.1093/occmed/kqi163, PMID:16251374 Check date values in:
- Riedel, Stefan (2005), "Edward Jenner and the history of smallpox and vaccination.", Proceedings (Baylor University. Medical Center) (published 2005 Jan), 18 (1), pp. 21–5, PMID:16200144 Check date values in:
- Tan, S Y (2004), "Edward Jenner (1749-1823): conqueror of smallpox.", Singapore medical journal (published 2004 Nov), 45 (11), pp. 507–8, PMID:15510320 Check date values in:
- van Oss, C J (2000), "Inoculation against smallpox as the precursor to vaccination.", Immunol. Invest. (published 2000 Nov), 29 (4), pp. 443–6, PMID:11130785 Check date values in:
- Gross, C P; Sepkowitz, K A, "The myth of the medical breakthrough: smallpox, vaccination, and Jenner reconsidered.", Int. J. Infect. Dis., 3 (1), pp. 54–60, PMID:9831677
- Willis, N J (1997), "Edward Jenner and the eradication of smallpox.", Scottish medical journal (published 1997 Aug), 42 (4), pp. 118–21, PMID:9507590 Check date values in:
- Theves, G (1997), "[Smallpox: an historical review]", Bulletin de la Société des sciences médicales du Grand-Duché de Luxembourg, 134 (1), pp. 31–51, PMID:9303824
- Kempa, M E (1996), "[Edward Jenner (1749-1823)--benefactor to mankind (100th anniversary of the first vaccination against smallpox)]", Pol. Merkur. Lekarski (published 1996 Dec), 1 (6), pp. 433–4, PMID:9273243 Check date values in:
- Baxby, D (1996), "The Jenner bicentenary: the introduction and early distribution of smallpox vaccine.", FEMS Immunol. Med. Microbiol. (published 1996 Nov), 16 (1), pp. 1–10, PMID:8954347 Check date values in:
- Larner, A J (1996), "Smallpox.", N. Engl. J. Med. (published 1996 Sep 19), 335 (12), pp. 901, author reply 902, PMID:8778627 Check date values in:
- Aly, A; Aly, S (1996), "Smallpox.", N. Engl. J. Med. (published 1996 Sep 19), 335 (12), pp. 900–1, author reply 902, PMID:8778626 Check date values in:
- Magner, J (1996), "Smallpox.", N. Engl. J. Med. (published 1996 Sep 19), 335 (12), p. 900, PMID:8778624 Check date values in:
- Kumate-Rodríguez, J, "[Bicentennial of smallpox vaccine: experiences and lessons]", Salud pública de México, 38 (5), pp. 379–85, PMID:9092091
- Budai, J (1996), "[200th anniversary of the Jenner smallpox vaccine]", Orvosi hetilap (published 1996 Aug 25), 137 (34), pp. 1875–7, PMID:8927342 Check date values in:
- Rathbone, J (1996), "Lady Mary Wortley Montague's contribution to the eradication of smallpox.", Lancet (published 1996 Jun 1), 347 (9014), p. 1566, PMID:8684145 Check date values in:
- Baxby, D (1996), "The Jenner bicentenary; still uses for smallpox vaccine.", Epidemiol. Infect. (published 1996 Jun), 116 (3), pp. 231–4, PMID:8666065 Check date values in:
- Cook, G C (1996), "Dr William Woodville (1752-1805) and the St Pancras Smallpox Hospital.", Journal of medical biography (published 1996 May), 4 (2), pp. 71–8, PMID:11616267 Check date values in:
- Baxby, D, "Jenner and the control of smallpox.", Transactions of the Medical Society of London, 113, pp. 18–22, PMID:10326082
- Dunn, P M (1996), "Dr Edward Jenner (1749-1823) of Berkeley, and vaccination against smallpox.", Arch. Dis. Child. Fetal Neonatal Ed. (published 1996 Jan), 74 (1), pp. F77–8, PMID:8653442 Check date values in:
- Meynell, E (1995), "French reactions to Jenner's discovery of smallpox vaccination: the primary sources.", Social history of medicine : the journal of the Society for the Social History of Medicine / SSHM (published 1995 Aug), 8 (2), pp. 285–303, PMID:11639810 Check date values in:
- Bloch, H (1993), "Edward Jenner (1749-1823). The history and effects of smallpox, inoculation, and vaccination.", Am. J. Dis. Child. (published 1993 Jul), 147 (7), pp. 772–4, PMID:8322750 Check date values in:
- Roses, D F (1992), "From Hunter and the Great Pox to Jenner and smallpox.", Surgery, gynecology & obstetrics (published 1992 Oct), 175 (4), pp. 365–72, PMID:1411896 Check date values in:
- Turk, J L; Allen, E (1990), "The influence of John Hunter's inoculation practice on Edward Jenner's discovery of vaccination against smallpox.", Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine (published 1990 Apr), 83 (4), pp. 266–7, PMID:2187990 Check date values in:
- Poliakov, V E (1985), "[Edward Jenner and vaccination against smallpox]", Meditsinskaia sestra (published 1985 Dec), 44 (12), pp. 49–51, PMID:3912642 Check date values in:
- Hammarsten, J F; Tattersall, W; Hammarsten, J E (1979), "Who discovered smallpox vaccination? Edward Jenner or Benjamin Jesty?", Trans. Am. Clin. Climatol. Assoc., 90, pp. 44–55, PMID:390826
- Rodrigues, B A (1975), "Smallpox eradication in the Americas.", Bulletin of the Pan American Health Organization, 9 (1), pp. 53–68, PMID:167890
- Wynder, E L (1974), "A corner of history: Jenner and his smallpox vaccine.", Preventive medicine (published 1974 Mar), 3 (1), pp. 173–5, PMID:4592685 Check date values in:
- Andreae, H (1973), "[Edward Jenner, initiator of cowpox vaccination against human smallpox, died 150 years ago]", Das Offentliche Gesundheitswesen (published 1973 Jun), 35 (6), pp. 366–7, PMID:4269783 Check date values in:
- Friedrich, I (1973), "[A cure for smallpox. On the 150th anniversary of Edward Jenner's death]", Orvosi hetilap (published 1973 Feb 11), 114 (6), pp. 336–8, PMID:4567814 Check date values in:
- MacNalty, A S (1968), "The prevention of smallpox: from Edward Jenner to Monckton Copeman.", Medical history (published 1968 Jan), 12 (1), pp. 1–18, PMID:4867646 Check date values in:
- Udovitskaia, E F (1966), "[Edward Jenner and the history of his scientific achievement. (On the 170th anniversary of the discovery of smallpox vaccination)]", Vrachebnoe delo (published 1966 Nov), 11, pp. 111–5, PMID:4885910 Check date values in:
- VOIGT, K (1964), "[THE PHARMACY DISPLAY WINDOW. EDWARD JENNER DISCOVERED SMALLPOX VACCINATION.]", Pharmazeutische Praxis, 106, pp. 88–9, PMID:14237138
- "EDWARD JENNER." LoveToKnow 1911 Online Encyclopedia. © 2003, 2004 LoveToKnow.
- Jenner's papers on vaccination: http://www.bartleby.com/38/4/
- A digitized copy of An inquiry into the causes and effects of the variolµ vaccinµ (1798), from the Posner Memorial Collection at Carnegie Mellon
- The Jenner Museum: http://www.dursley-cotswolds-uk.com/Jenner%20museum.html
- The Jenner Museum: http://www.jennermuseum.com
- The Evolution of Modern Medicine. Osler, W
- "The First Vaccination" Painting by Georges Gaston Melingue