October 26, 1822 or October 26, 1823|
|Died||November 25, 1863
|Cause of death||epileptic seizure|
|Burial place||New Glenwood Cemetery
|Occupation||Explorer, artist, cartographer, topographer, and United States Army officer|
|Known for||Exploring, documenting and imaging the American West|
Edward Meyer Kern (born 26 Oct 1822 or 1823 – 25 Nov 1863) was an American artist, topographer, and explorer of California, the Southwest, and East Asia.
Kern was born in Philadelphia, the son of John Kern III and Mary Elizabeth Bignell. He was trained as an artist.
His brother Richard Kern (1821–1853) was also an accomplished artist, and his brother Benjamin Kern (1818–1849) was a doctor. They joined him on several expeditions.
In 1845/46 Edward Kern accompanied the famous explorer Captain John C. Frémont on his Third Expedition into Mexican Alta California. Kern received a daily salary of $3.00. He served as cartographer as well as documentation artist, and collected botanical and animal specimens on this journey. Each night of the trip Kern would draw a field map of the day's route with longitudes and latitudes and sketches of landmarks.
Just before they reached Klamath Lake, Klamath tribesmen attacked the expedition and several members were killed. A brutal counterattack by Frémont and his group upon a native village resulted in many Klamaths' deaths. Kern recorded the counterattack in an engraving, that was later published with Fremont's report.
Frémont then ordered his main party – which included Kern and Joseph Walker – to travel the southern Sierra route over the pass Walker had discovered a decade earlier, while Frémont and a few others left were to cross the northern Sierra at Donner Pass. Frémont named the pass that Walker led his party through Walker Pass. Accompanying Walker southward was Edward Kern, who as the cartographer mapped the (at that time "Rio de San Felipe" as named by the Spanish) Kern River. Later, Frémont named the river after his artist. Kern’s Campsite in the Kern River Valley – at the junction of the South and North Forks of the Kern River – now lies submerged below Lake Isabella reservoir. However a historical monument for Kern’s site was placed above the reservoir near its east shore on Highway 178.
During the 1846 Bear Flag Revolt against Mexico, 23 year old Kern was placed in command of Sutter's Fort and its company of dragoons in the Sacramento Valley by Frémont. That left John Sutter the assignment as lieutenant of the dragoons, and second in command of his own fort until 1847.
While in command there, news of the stranded Donner Party reached Kern, Sutter's Fort had been their destination. Kern vaguely promised the federal government would do something for a rescue party across the Sierra, but had no authority to pay anyone. He was later criticized for his mismanagement delaying the search.
In February 1847 Kern's forces were requested by several settlers who wished to intimidate Indians who had been involved in raids. Kern brought in 20 men, joined by 30 more led by John Sutter, and then proceeded on a series of attacks that killed 20 California Indians (see Kern and Sutter massacres).
In 1848−1849 Edward Kern and his brothers Richard and Benjamin joined Frémont's Fourth Expedition, to the Rocky Mountains in present-day southern Colorado and northern New Mexico. By the time the last surviving member of the expedition made it to Taos on February 12, 1849, 10 of the party had died. In order to move more quickly to safety, it had been necessary for the brothers hide their goods (including sketches) in a cave. After arriving in New Mexico Territory, Benjamin Kern and Frémont's guide Old Bill Williams returned for the hidden goods but were killed by a band of Utes.
In August 1849 Edward and Richard Kern joined the John M. Washington military reconnaissance expedition to the Navajos in 1849, to punish the Navajos for raids on the New Mexico settlements and to secure a treaty with them, in addition to surveying the country. The expedition brought both brothers back to New Mexico. Richard's role, as second assistant and artist, was to make portraits of Indian chiefs, costume, scenery, geological formations, ruins, and to copy ancient writings found on the sides of stone. Edward's role was as first assistant and topographer.
Edward and Richard stayed and lived in New Mexico for two years, working for the Corps of Topographical Engineers. The Kern brothers gave the American public some of its earliest authentic graphic images of the people and landscape of Arizona, New Mexico, and southern Colorado; with views of Canyon de Chelly, Chaco Canyon, and El Morro (Inscription Rock).
In 1853 Edward joined Lieutenant John Pope, who was looking for a better route between Santa Fe and Fort Leavenworth. His brother Richard Kern was killed in 1853, while on the Gunnison-Beckwith Expedition to survey a railroad route that would pass through the Rocky Mountains.
From 1853 to 1855, Edward Kern served on the ship USS Vincennes (1826) on an expedition to East Asia. The captain, Cadwalader Ringgold, was declared insane when they reached Hong Kong. Kern used both photography and drawing during this trip. The expedition landed on the eastern shores of Siberia, where Kern spent several weeks. They returned home via Tahiti and San Francisco.
Kern suffered from epilepsy, beginning at a young age. Late in life Kern established a studio in Philadelphia.
Kern's diaries were discovered under the floorboards in an old hotel in Delaware Water Gap, Pennsylvania, and provided source material for David Weber's book on Richard Kern (brother of Edward). The diary and papers are now in the Beinecke Rare Book and Manuscript Library at Yale University.
The Boston Museum of Fine Arts has over eighty of Kern's works.
- Hine, Robert V.; In the Shadow of Fremont: Edward Kern and the Art of Exploration, 1845-1860, University of Oklahoma, 1982.
- Sierranevadageotourism.org: "Walker's Pass (No. 99 California Historical Landmark)"
- Google Books: "Frémont, Explorer for a Restless Nation", by Ferol Egan, text pg. 305; Edward Kern drawings (Bancroft Library collection) pg.320.
- Siskiyous.edu: Fremont Expedition Artists − Edward Kern
- Californiamilitaryhistory.org: Historic California Posts: Sutter's Fort (Fort New Helvatia, Fort Sacramento)
- Google Books: "Desperate Passage: The Donner Party's Perilous Journey West", by Ethan Rarick, pg. 165.
- Xmission.com: The Donner Party: Rescuers and Others
- Xmission.com: The Donner Party: First Relief Diary; article about Kern's behavior as fund administrator for Donner Party relief.
- Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia.org: Kern Drawings of the American Southwest − 1849
- Google Books: "Edward M. Kern, Artist and Explorer", by William Joseph Hefferman; University of California, Berkeley, 1951.
- Kern, Richard H. Notes of a Military Reconnaissance of the Pais de los Navajos in the Months of Aug & Sep 1849. Huntington Library Manuscript 4274.
- Weber, David J. Richard H. Kern: expeditionary artist in the far southwest, 1848-1853. Albuquerque: Published for the Amon Carter Museum by the University of New Mexico Press, 1985.
- Campbell Grant (1978). Canyon De Chelly: Its People and Rock Art. p. 98. ISBN 9780816505234.
- Google Books: Pioneer Photographers of the Far West; by Peter E. Palmquist, Thomas R. Kailbourn.
- Edward Kern and American Expansion, by Robert V. Hine, Yale University Press, 1962
- In the Shadow of Fremont: Edward Kern and the Art of American Exploration, 1845-1860, by Robert V. Hine, University of Oklahoma Press, 1982.
- Indian Customs of California (Mar., 1853), in Archive of Aboriginal Knowledge, by Henry H. Schoolcraft (Philadelphia, 1865)
- Journal of an Exploration of the Mary's or Humboldt River, Carson Lake, and Owens River and Lake, in 1845, Appendix Q, in Report of Explorations across the Territory of Utah in 1859, by J. H. Simpson (Washington, DC, 1859)
- "Searching for New Sources in Western History"