|Born||Edward Joseph Leonski
December 12, 1917
Kenvil, New Jersey, United States
|Died||November 9, 1942
Pentridge Prison, Coburg, Victoria, Australia
|Cause of death||Execution by hanging|
|Other names||The Brownout Strangler|
Span of killings
|May 3, 1942–May 18, 1942|
Edward Joseph Leonski (December 12, 1917 – November 9, 1942) was a United States Army soldier during World War II. He was also a serial killer responsible for the strangling murders of three women in Melbourne, Australia. Leonski was known as the "Brownout Strangler", given Melbourne's wartime status of keeping low lighting (not as stringent as a wartime blackout). He had a self-confessed motive for the killings of a twisted fascination with female voices, especially when they were singing, and his claim that he killed the women to "get at their voices."
Born into a Polish-American family in New Jersey, Leonski grew up in an abusive, alcoholic family, and one of his brothers was committed to a mental institution. According to a psychologist who interviewed Leonski during his trial, his mother had been overprotective and controlling. Leonski had been bullied by other neighborhood kids and called a mama's boy. Accordingly, the psychologist ruled that Leonski's crimes were born of his resentment and hatred of his mother and thus constituted "symbolic matricide."
He worked for a time as a delivery boy.
He was called up for the U.S. Army in February 1941 and arrived in Melbourne on February 2, 1942.
On May 3, 1942, Ivy Violet McLeod, 40, was found dead in Albert Park, Melbourne. She had been beaten and strangled, and because she was found to be in possession of her purse it was evident that robbery was not the motive.
Just six days later, 31-year-old Pauline Thompson was strangled after a night out. She was last seen in the company of a young man who was described as having an American accent.
Gladys Hosking, 40, was the next victim, murdered on May 18 while walking home from work at the Chemistry Library at Melbourne University. A witness said that, on the night of the killing, a disheveled American man had approached her asking for directions, seemingly out of breath and covered with mud. This description matched the individual Pauline Thompson was seen with on the night of her murder, as well as the descriptions given by several women who had survived recent attacks.
These survivors and other witnesses were able to pick 24-year-old Edward Leonski out of a line-up of American servicemen who were stationed in the city during World War II. A private in the 52nd Signal Battalion, Leonski was arrested and charged with three murders.
Trial and execution
Although Leonski's crimes were committed on Australian soil, the trial was conducted under American military law. Leonski confessed to the crimes and was convicted and sentenced to death at a United States Army general court-martial on July 17, 1942. Gen. Douglas MacArthur confirmed the sentence on October 14, 1942, and a Board of Review upheld the findings and sentence on October 28, 1942. General Court-Martial Order 1 promulgated Leonski's death sentence on November 1, 1942. In a departure from normal procedure, on November 4, 1942, MacArthur personally signed the order of execution (in subsequent executions, this administrative task was entrusted to MacArthur's Chief of Staff, Richard Sutherland). Leonski was hanged at Pentridge Prison on November 9, 1942.
Leonski's defense attorney, Ira C. Rothgerber, attempted to win an external review, even from the U.S. Supreme Court, but was unable to do so. Rothgerber kept the issue alive after the war, and Leonski's case contributed to the development of the Uniform Code of Military Justice (UCMJ).
Leonski was temporarily interred at several cemeteries in Australia. His remains were eventually permanently interred in Section 9, Row B, Site 8 at Schofield Barracks Post Cemetery (located between Wahiawa and Kunia) on the island of O'ahu, Hawaii. His grave is located in a section of the facility reserved for prisoners who died in military custody.
- "Leonski Hanged - Murderer of Three Women". The Age. Melbourne, Australia. 10 November 1942. p. 3. Retrieved 16 March 2017.
- "Melbourne Police hunt "Brownout" Strangler". The Sun. Sydney, NSW. 20 May 1942. p. 3. Retrieved 16 March 2017.
- "Leonski, Enigma In Life And In Death, Carries His Secret To Grave". Truth. Sydney, NSW. 15 November 1942. p. 14. Retrieved 16 March 2017.
- "Killed To Show His Strength". Mirror. Perth, WA. 19 April 1952. p. 8. Retrieved 16 March 2017.
- "Murderer's body will be brought to Brisbane". Truth. Brisbane. 27 May 1945. p. 18. Retrieved 16 March 2017.
- "Low type trick on killer's mother". Mirror. Perth, WA. 19 September 1942. p. 19. Retrieved 16 March 2017.
- Associated Press, "Killed 3, Charge", The Spokesman-Review, Spokane, Washington, Sunday 7 June 1942, Volume 60, Number 24, page 13.
- "The Brownout Killer". Brisbane Telegraph. 16 June 1950. p. 5. Retrieved 16 March 2017.
- "Leonski Guilty on all Charges - Sentenced to Death". The Age. Melbourne, Australia. 18 July 1942. p. 3. Retrieved 16 March 2017.
- biography of Ira C. Rothgerber