|Born||Edward Joseph Snowden
June 21, 1983
Elizabeth City, North Carolina, U.S.
|Residence||Russia (temporary asylum)|
|Employer||Booz Allen Hamilton
Kunia, Hawaii, US
(until June 10, 2013)
|Known for||Revealing details of classified United States government surveillance programs|
|Title||Rector of the University of Glasgow|
|Term||February 18, 2014 – present|
|Criminal charge||Theft of government property, unauthorized communication of national defense information, and willful communication of classified intelligence to an unauthorized person (June 2013).|
|Awards||Sam Adams Award,
Right Livelihood Award (2014)
Stuttgart Peace Prize (2014)
|Part of a series on|
|G L O B A L
S U R V E I L L A N C E
National Security Agency surveillance
Edward Joseph "Ed" Snowden (born June 21, 1983) is an American computer professional, former CIA employee, and former government contractor who leaked classified information from the U.S. National Security Agency (NSA) in 2013. The information revealed numerous global surveillance programs, many run by the NSA and the Five Eyes with the cooperation of telecommunication companies and European governments.
Snowden was hired by Booz Allen Hamilton, an NSA contractor, in 2013 after previous employment with Dell and the CIA. On May 20, 2013, Snowden flew to Hong Kong after leaving his job at a NSA facility in Hawaii and in early June he revealed thousands of classified NSA documents to journalists Glenn Greenwald, Laura Poitras and Ewen MacAskill. Snowden came to international attention after stories based on the material appeared in The Guardian and The Washington Post. Further disclosures were made by other newspapers including Der Spiegel and The New York Times.
On June 21, 2013, the U.S. Department of Justice unsealed charges against Snowden of two counts of violating the Espionage Act and theft of government property. On June 23, he flew to Moscow, Russia, where he reportedly remained for over a month. Later that summer, Russian authorities granted him a one-year temporary asylum which was later extended to three years. As of 2015, he was still living in an undisclosed location in Russia while seeking asylum elsewhere.
A subject of controversy, Snowden has been variously called a hero, a whistleblower, a dissident, a patriot, and a traitor. His disclosures have fueled debates over mass surveillance, government secrecy, and the balance between national security and information privacy.
- 1 Background
- 2 Global surveillance disclosures
- 3 Flight from the United States
- 4 Criminal charges
- 5 Temporary asylum in Russia
- 6 Residency in Russia
- 7 Reaction
- 7.1 United States
- 7.2 International community
- 7.3 Public opinion polls
- 7.4 Accolades and honors conferred
- 7.5 Conference speaking engagements
- 7.6 The "Snowden Effect"
- 7.7 In popular culture
- 8 See also
- 9 Notes
- 10 References
- 11 Further reading
- 12 External links
Childhood, family, and education
Edward Joseph Snowden was born on June 21, 1983, in Elizabeth City, North Carolina. His maternal grandfather, Edward J. Barrett, was a rear admiral in the United States Coast Guard who became a senior official with the FBI and was in the Pentagon on September 11, 2001 when it was struck by an airliner hijacked by al-Qaeda terrorists. Edward's father, Lonnie Snowden, a resident of Pennsylvania, was also an officer in the Coast Guard, and his mother, Elizabeth B. Snowden, a resident of Ellicott City, Maryland, is chief deputy at the United States District Court for the District of Maryland. His older sister, Jessica, became a lawyer at the Federal Judicial Center in Washington. "Everybody in my family has worked for the federal government in one way or another," Snowden told James Bamford in a June 2014 interview published two months later in Wired. "I expected to pursue the same path." His parents divorced in 2001, and his father remarried. Friends and neighbors described Snowden as shy, quiet and nice. One longtime friend said that he was always articulate, even as a child. "We always considered Ed the smartest one in the family," said his father, who was not surprised when his son scored above 145 on two separate IQ tests. Snowden's father described his son as "a sensitive, caring young man" and "a deep thinker."
In the early 1990s, while still in grade school, Snowden moved with his family to Maryland. Mononucleosis caused him to miss high school for almost nine months. Rather than return, he passed the GED test and enrolled in Anne Arundel Community College. Although Snowden had no bachelor's degree, ABC News reported that he worked online toward a master's degree at the University of Liverpool in 2011. In 2010, while visiting India on official business at the U.S. embassy, Snowden trained for six days in core Java programming and advanced ethical hacking. Snowden was reportedly interested in Japanese popular culture, had studied the Japanese language, and worked for an anime company domiciled in the U.S. He also said he had a basic understanding of Mandarin Chinese and was deeply interested in martial arts; at age 20, he listed Buddhism as his religion on a military recruitment form, noting that the choice of agnostic was "strangely absent." Snowden told The Washington Post that he was an ascetic, rarely left the house and had few needs.
Before leaving for Hong Kong, Snowden resided in Waipahu, Hawaii, with his longtime girlfriend, Lindsay Mills. According to local real estate agents, they moved out of their home on May 1, 2013. Mills had reportedly blogged on March 15, 2013 that the couple had "received word that we have to move out of our house by May 1. E is transferring jobs." In October 2014, Glenn Greenwald reported at The Intercept that Mills had moved to Moscow in June 2014 to live with him and that Snowden was "now living in domestic bliss." Snowden's Russian lawyer Anatoly Kucherena added that the couple visits Russian cultural sights together but that Mills does not live in Russia full-time due to visa restrictions.
Snowden has said that in the 2008 presidential election, he voted for a third-party candidate. He has stated he had been planning to make disclosures about NSA surveillance programs at the time, but he decided to wait because he "believed in Obama's promises." He was later disappointed that President Barack Obama "continued with the policies of his predecessor."
A week after publication of his leaks began, technology news provider Ars Technica confirmed that Snowden, under the pseudonym "TheTrueHOOHA," had been an active participant at the site's online forum from 2001 through May 2012, discussing a variety of topics. In a January 2009 entry, TheTrueHOOHA exhibited strong support for the United States' security state apparatus and said he believed leakers of classified information "should be shot in the balls." However, in February 2010, TheTrueHOOHA wrote, "Did we get to where we are today via a slippery slope that was entirely within our control to stop? Or was it a relatively instantaneous sea change that sneaked in undetected because of pervasive government secrecy?"
In accounts published in June 2013, interviewers noted that Snowden's laptop displayed stickers supporting internet freedom organizations including the Electronic Frontier Foundation (EFF) and the Tor Project. Snowden considers himself "neither traitor nor hero. I'm an American."
In 2014 Snowden stated that "women have the right to make their own choices" and supported providing "a basic income for people who have no work, or no meaningful work".
On May 7, 2004, Snowden enlisted in the United States Army Reserve as a Special Forces candidate through its 18X enlistment option, but he did not complete the training. He said he wanted to fight in the Iraq War because he "felt like [he] had an obligation as a human being to help free people from oppression." Snowden said he was discharged after breaking both legs in a training accident. He was discharged on September 28, 2004.
He was then employed for less than a year in 2005 as a "security specialist" at the University of Maryland's Center for Advanced Study of Language, a non-classified facility. In June 2014, Snowden told Wired that this was "a top-secret facility" where his job as a security guard required a high-level security clearance, for which he passed a polygraph exam and underwent a stringent background check.
In 2006, after attending a job fair focused on intelligence agencies, Snowden was offered a position at the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA), which he joined. He was assigned to the global communications division at CIA headquarters in Langley, Virginia.
In May 2006, Snowden wrote in Ars Technica that he had no trouble getting work because he was a "computer wizard." After distinguishing himself as a junior employee on the top computer team, Snowden was sent to the CIA's secret school for technology specialists, where he lived in a hotel for six months while studying and training full-time.
In March 2007, the CIA stationed Snowden with diplomatic cover in Geneva, Switzerland, where he was responsible for maintaining computer network security. Assigned to the U.S. mission to the United Nations, Snowden was given a diplomatic passport and a four-bedroom apartment near Lake Geneva. According to Greenwald, while there Snowden was "considered the top technical and cybersecurity expert" in that country and "was hand-picked by the CIA to support the president at the 2008 NATO summit in Romania." Snowden described his CIA experience in Geneva as "formative," stating that the CIA deliberately got a Swiss banker drunk and encouraged him to drive home. Snowden said that when the latter was arrested, a CIA operative offered to help in exchange for the banker becoming an informant. Ueli Maurer, President of the Swiss Confederation for the year 2013, in June of that year publicly disputed Snowden's claims. "This would mean that the CIA successfully bribed the Geneva police and judiciary. With all due respect, I just can't imagine it," said Maurer. The revelations were said to have come at a sensitive time as the U.S. was pressing the Swiss government to increase banking transparency. In February 2009, Snowden resigned from the CIA.
In 2009, Snowden began work as a contractor for Dell, which manages computer systems for multiple government agencies. Assigned to an NSA facility at Yokota Air Base near Tokyo, Snowden instructed top officials and military officers on how to defend their networks from Chinese hackers. During his four years with Dell, he rose from supervising NSA computer system upgrades to working as what his résumé termed a "cyberstrategist" and an "expert in cyber counterintelligence" at several U.S. locations. In 2011, he returned to Maryland, where he spent a year as lead technologist on Dell's CIA account. In that capacity, he was consulted by the chiefs of the CIA's technical branches, including the agency's chief information officer and its chief technology officer. U.S. officials and other sources familiar with the investigation said Snowden began downloading documents describing the government's electronic spying programs while working for Dell in April 2012. Investigators estimated that of the 50,000 to 200,000 documents Snowden gave to Greenwald and Poitras, most were copied by Snowden while working at Dell.
In March 2012, Dell reassigned Snowden to Hawaii as lead technologist for the NSA's information-sharing office. At the time of his departure from the United States in May 2013, he had been employed for 15 months inside the NSA's Hawaii regional operations center, which focuses on the electronic monitoring of China and North Korea, the last three of which were with consulting firm Booz Allen Hamilton. While intelligence officials have described his position there as a "system administrator," Snowden has said he was an "infrastructure analyst," which meant that his job was to look for new ways to break into Internet and telephone traffic around the world. On March 15, 2013—three days after what he later called his "breaking point" of "seeing the Director of National Intelligence, James Clapper, directly lie under oath to Congress"—Snowden quit his job at Dell. Although he has stated that his "career high" annual salary was $200,000, Snowden said he took a pay cut to work at Booz Allen, where he sought employment in order to gather data and then release details of the NSA's worldwide surveillance activity. According to a Reuters story by Mark Hosenball, while in Hawaii, Snowden "may have persuaded between 20 and 25 fellow workers" to give him their logins and passwords "by telling them they were needed for him to do his job as a computer systems administrator." NBC News reported that the NSA sent a memo to Congress and "[w]hile the memo's account is sketchy, it suggests that, contrary to Snowden's statements, he used an element of trickery to retrieve his trove of tens of thousands of classified documents." This report was disputed, with Snowden himself saying in January 2014, "With all due respect to Mark Hosenball, the Reuters report that put this out there was simply wrong. I never stole any passwords, nor did I trick an army of co-workers." The day after Snowden publicly took responsibility for the NSA surveillance revelations, Booz Allen terminated his employment "for violations of the firm's code of ethics and firm policy."
A former NSA co-worker told Forbes that although the NSA was full of smart people, Snowden was "a genius among geniuses," who created a backup system for the NSA that was widely implemented and often pointed out security bugs to the agency. The former colleague said Snowden was given full administrator privileges, with virtually unlimited access to NSA data. Snowden was offered a position on the NSA's elite team of hackers, Tailored Access Operations, but turned it down to join Booz Allen.
A source "with detailed knowledge on the matter" told Reuters that hiring screeners for Booz Allen had found some details of Snowden's education that "did not check out precisely," but decided to hire him anyway; Reuters stated that the element which triggered these concerns, or the manner in which Snowden satisfied the concerns, were not known. The résumé stated that Snowden attended computer-related classes at Johns Hopkins University. A spokeswoman for Johns Hopkins said that the university did not find records to show that Snowden attended the university, and suggested that he may instead have attended Advanced Career Technologies, a private for-profit organization which operated as "Computer Career Institute at Johns Hopkins." The University College of the University of Maryland acknowledged that Snowden had attended a summer session at a UM campus in Asia. Snowden's résumé stated that he estimated that he would receive a University of Liverpool computer security master's degree in 2013. The university said that Snowden registered for an online master's degree program in computer security in 2011 but that "he is not active in his studies and has not completed the program."
Snowden said that, using "internal channels of dissent", he had told multiple employees and two supervisors about his concerns that the NSA programs were unconstitutional. An NSA spokeswoman responded, saying they had "not found any evidence to support Mr. Snowden's contention that he brought these matters to anyone's attention". Snowden elaborated in January 2014, saying "[I] made tremendous efforts to report these programs to co-workers, supervisors, and anyone with the proper clearance who would listen. The reactions of those I told about the scale of the constitutional violations ranged from deeply concerned to appalled, but no one was willing to risk their jobs, families, and possibly even freedom to go to through what [Thomas Andrews] Drake did." In March 2014, during testimony to the European Parliament, Snowden wrote that before revealing classified information he had reported "clearly problematic programs" to ten officials, who he said did nothing in response. In a May 2014 interview, Snowden told NBC News that after bringing his concerns about the legality of the NSA spying programs to officials, he was told to stay silent on the matter. Snowden said:
The NSA has records—they have copies of emails right now to their Office of General Counsel, to their oversight and compliance folks from me raising concerns about the NSA's interpretations of its legal authorities. I had raised these complaints not just officially in writing through email, but to my supervisors, to my colleagues, in more than one office. I did it in Fort Meade. I did it in Hawaii. And many, many of these individuals were shocked by these programs. They had never seen them themselves. And the ones who had, went, "You know, you're right. … But if you say something about this, they're going to destroy you".
In May 2014, U.S. officials released a single email that Snowden had written in April 2013 inquiring about legal authorities but said that they had found no other evidence that Snowden had expressed his concerns to someone in an oversight position. In June 2014, the NSA said it had not been able to find any records of Snowden raising internal complaints about the agency's operations. That same month, Snowden explained that he himself has not produced the communiqués in question because of the ongoing nature of the dispute, disclosing for the first time that "I am working with the NSA in regard to these records and we're going back and forth, so I don't want to reveal everything that will come out."
In his May 2014 interview with NBC News, Snowden accused the U.S. government of trying to use one position here or there in his career to distract from the totality of his experience, downplaying him as a "low level analyst." In his words, he was "trained as a spy in the traditional sense of the word in that I lived and worked undercover overseas—pretending to work in a job that I'm not—and even being assigned a name that was not mine." He said he'd worked for the NSA undercover overseas, and for the DIA had developed sources and methods to keep information and people secure "in the most hostile and dangerous environments around the world. So when they say I'm a low-level systems administrator, that I don't know what I'm talking about, I'd say it's somewhat misleading." In a June interview with Globo TV, Snowden reiterated that he "was actually functioning at a very senior level." In a July interview with The Guardian, Snowden explained that, during his NSA career, "I began to move from merely overseeing these systems to actively directing their use. Many people don’t understand that I was actually an analyst and I designated individuals and groups for targeting." Snowden subsequently told Wired that while at Dell in 2011, "I would sit down with the CIO of the CIA, the CTO of the CIA, the chiefs of all the technical branches. They would tell me their hardest technology problems, and it was my job to come up with a way to fix them.”
Of his time as an NSA analyst, directing the work of others, Snowden recalled a moment when he and his colleagues began to have severe ethical doubts. Snowden said 18 to 22-year-old analysts were suddenly "thrust into a position of extraordinary responsibility, where they now have access to all your private records. In the course of their daily work, they stumble across something that is completely unrelated in any sort of necessary sense—for example, an intimate nude photo of someone in a sexually compromising situation. But they're extremely attractive. So what do they do? They turn around in their chair and they show a co-worker … and sooner or later this person's whole life has been seen by all of these other people." As Snowden observed it, this behavior was routine, happening "probably every two months," but was never reported, being considered among "the fringe benefits of surveillance positions."
Global surveillance disclosures
The exact size of Snowden's disclosure is unknown, but Australian officials have estimated 15,000 or more Australian intelligence files and British officials estimate at least 58,000 British intelligence files. NSA Director Keith Alexander initially estimated that Snowden had copied anywhere from 50,000 to 200,000 NSA documents. Later estimates provided by U.S. officials were on the order of 1.7 million, a number that originally came from Department of Defense talking points. In July 2014, The Washington Post reported on a cache previously provided by Snowden from domestic NSA operations consisting of "roughly 160,000 intercepted e-mail and instant-message conversations, some of them hundreds of pages long, and 7,900 documents taken from more than 11,000 online accounts." In June 2015, Vice News reported that, according to a declassified U.S. Defense Intelligence Agency report obtained in response to a Freedom of Information Act lawsuit, Snowden took 900,000 Department of Defense files, more than he downloaded from the NSA.
In March 2014, Army General Martin Dempsey, Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, told the House Armed Services Committee, "The vast majority of the documents that Snowden … exfiltrated from our highest levels of security … had nothing to do with exposing government oversight of domestic activities. The vast majority of those were related to our military capabilities, operations, tactics, techniques and procedures." When retired NSA director Keith Alexander was asked in a May 2014 interview to quantify the number of documents Snowden stole, Alexander answered, "I don't think anybody really knows what he actually took with him, because the way he did it, we don't have an accurate way of counting. What we do have an accurate way of counting is what he touched, what he may have downloaded, and that was more than a million documents."
According to Snowden, he did not indiscriminately turn over documents to journalists, stating that "I carefully evaluated every single document I disclosed to ensure that each was legitimately in the public interest. There are all sorts of documents that would have made a big impact that I didn't turn over" and that "I have to screen everything before releasing it to journalists … If I have time to go through this information, I would like to make it available to journalists in each country."
In June 2014, the NSA's recently installed director, U.S. Navy Admiral Michael S. Rogers, stated that while some terrorist groups had altered their communications to avoid surveillance techniques revealed by Snowden, the damage done was not significant enough to conclude that "the sky is falling." Nevertheless, in February 2015, Rogers said that Snowden's disclosures has a "material impact" on the NSA's ability to "generate insights as to what counterterrorism, what terrorist groups around the world are doing."
In April 2015 the Henry Jackson Society, a British neoconservative think tank, published a report claiming that Snowden's intelligence leaks negatively impacted Britain's ability to fight terrorism and organized crime. Gus Hosein, executive director of Privacy International, criticized the report and said it "presumes that the public are idiots and that we only became concerned about privacy after Snowden."
Release of NSA documents
The New York Times' James Risen reported that Snowden's decision to leak NSA documents "developed gradually, dating back at least to his time working as a technician in the Geneva station of the CIA." Snowden first made contact with Glenn Greenwald, a journalist working at The Guardian, in late 2012. He contacted Greenwald anonymously as "Cincinnatus" and said he had "sensitive documents" that he would like to share. Greenwald found the measures that the source asked him to take to secure their communications, such as encrypting email, too annoying to employ. Snowden then contacted documentary filmmaker Laura Poitras in January 2013. According to Poitras, Snowden chose to contact her after seeing her New York Times documentary about NSA whistleblower William Binney. The Guardian reported that what originally attracted Snowden to both Greenwald and Poitras was a Salon article written by Greenwald detailing how Poitras' controversial films had made her a "target of the government."
Greenwald began working with Snowden in either February or April 2013, after Poitras asked Greenwald to meet her in New York City, at which point Snowden began providing documents to them. Barton Gellman, writing for The Washington Post, says his first "direct contact" was on May 16, 2013. According to Gellman, Snowden approached Greenwald after the Post declined to guarantee publication within 72 hours of all 41 PowerPoint slides that Snowden had leaked exposing the PRISM electronic data mining program, and to publish online an encrypted code allowing Snowden to later prove that he was the source.
According to Gellman, prior to their first meeting in person, Snowden wrote, "I understand that I will be made to suffer for my actions, and that the return of this information to the public marks my end." Snowden also told Gellman that until the articles were published, the journalists working with him would also be at mortal risk from the United States Intelligence Community "if they think you are the single point of failure that could stop this disclosure and make them the sole owner of this information."
In May 2013, Snowden was permitted temporary leave from his position at the NSA in Hawaii, on the pretext of receiving treatment for his epilepsy. In mid-May, Snowden gave an electronic interview to Poitras and Jacob Appelbaum which was published weeks later by Der Spiegel.
After disclosing the copied documents, Snowden promised that nothing would stop subsequent disclosures. In June 2013, he said, "All I can say right now is the US government is not going to be able to cover this up by jailing or murdering me. Truth is coming, and it cannot be stopped."
On May 20, 2013, Snowden flew to Hong Kong, where he was staying when the initial articles based on the leaked documents were published, beginning with The Guardian on June 5. Greenwald later said Snowden disclosed 9,000 to 10,000 documents. 
Within months, documents had been obtained and published by media outlets worldwide, most notably The Guardian (Britain), Der Spiegel (Germany), The Washington Post and The New York Times (U.S.), O Globo (Brazil), Le Monde (France), and similar outlets in Sweden, Canada, Italy, Netherlands, Norway, Spain, and Australia. In 2014, NBC broke its first story based on the leaked documents. In February 2014, for reporting based on Snowden's leaks, journalists Glenn Greenwald, Laura Poitras, Barton Gellman and The Guardian′s Ewen MacAskill were honored as co-recipients of the 2013 George Polk Award, which they dedicated to Snowden. The NSA reporting by these journalists also earned The Guardian and The Washington Post the 2014 Pulitzer Prize for Public Service for exposing the "widespread surveillance" and for helping to spark a "huge public debate about the extent of the government's spying". The Guardian's chief editor, Alan Rusbridger, credited Snowden, saying "The public service in this award is significant because Snowden performed a public service."
The ongoing publication of leaked documents has revealed previously unknown details of a global surveillance apparatus run by the United States' NSA in close cooperation with three of its Five Eyes partners: Australia (ASD), the United Kingdom (GCHQ), and Canada (CSEC).
Media reports documenting the existence and functions of classified surveillance programs and their scope began on June 5, 2013, and continued throughout the entire year. The first program to be revealed was PRISM, with reports from both The Washington Post and The Guardian published an hour apart. PRISM allows for court-approved direct access to Americans' Google and Yahoo accounts. The Post's Barton Gellman was the first journalist to report on Snowden's documents. He said the U.S. government urged him not to specify by name which companies were involved, but Gellman decided that to name them "would make it real to Americans." Reports also revealed details of Tempora, a British black-ops surveillance program run by the NSA's British partner, GCHQ. The initial reports included details about NSA call database, Boundless Informant, and of a secret court order requiring Verizon to hand the NSA millions of Americans' phone records daily, the surveillance of French citizens' phone and internet records, and those of "high-profile individuals from the world of business or politics." XKeyscore, an analytical tool that allows for collection of "almost anything done on the internet," was described by The Guardian as a program that "shed light" on one of Snowden's most controversial statements: "I, sitting at my desk [could] wiretap anyone, from you or your accountant, to a federal judge or even the president, if I had a personal email."
It was revealed that the NSA was harvesting millions of email and instant messaging contact lists, searching email content, tracking and mapping the location of cell phones, undermining attempts at encryption via Bullrun and that the agency was using cookies to "piggyback" on the same tools used by internet advertisers "to pinpoint targets for government hacking and to bolster surveillance." The NSA was shown to be "secretly" tapping into Yahoo and Google data centers to collect information from "hundreds of millions" of account holders worldwide by tapping undersea cables using the MUSCULAR surveillance program.
The NSA, the U.S. CIA and GCHQ spied on users of Second Life and World of Warcraft by creating make-believe characters as a way to "hide in plain sight." Leaked documents showed NSA agents spied on their "love interests," a practice NSA employees termed LOVEINT. The NSA was also shown to be tracking the online sexual activity of people they termed "radicalizers," in order to discredit them. The NSA was accused of going "beyond its core mission of national security" when articles were published showing the NSA's intelligence-gathering operations had targeted Brazil's largest oil company, Petrobras. The NSA and the GCHQ were also shown to be surveilling charities including UNICEF and Médecins du Monde, as well as allies such as the EU chief and the Israeli Prime Minister.
By October 2013, Snowden's disclosures had created tensions between the U.S. and some of its close allies after they revealed that the U.S. had spied on Brazil, France, Mexico, Britain, China, Germany, and Spain, as well as 35 world leaders, most notably German Chancellor Angela Merkel, who said "spying among friends" was "unacceptable" and compared the NSA with the Stasi. Leaked documents published by Der Spiegel in 2014 appeared to show that the NSA had targeted 122 "high ranking" leaders.
The NSA's top-secret "black budget," obtained from Snowden by The Washington Post, exposed the "successes and failures" of the 16 spy agencies comprising the U.S. intelligence community, and revealed that the NSA was paying U.S. private tech companies for "clandestine access" to their communications networks. The agencies were allotted $52 billion for the 2013 fiscal year.
An NSA mission statement titled "SIGINT Strategy 2012-2016" affirmed that the NSA plans for continued expansion of surveillance activities. Their stated goal was to "dramatically increase mastery of the global network" and "acquire the capabilities to gather intelligence on anyone, anytime, anywhere." Leaked slides revealed in Greenwald's book No Place to Hide, released in May 2014, showed that the NSA's stated objective was to "Collect it All," "Process it All," "Exploit it All," "Partner it All," "Sniff it All" and "Know it All."
Snowden stated in a January 2014 interview with German television that the NSA does not limit its data collection to national security issues, accusing the agency of conducting industrial espionage. Using the example of German company Siemens, he stated, "If there's information at Siemens that's beneficial to US national interests—even if it doesn't have anything to do with national security—then they'll take that information nevertheless." In August 2014, German national newspaper Die Welt reported that, in the wake of Snowden's revelations and in response to an inquiry from the Left Party, Germany's domestic security agency Bundesamt für Verfassungsschutz (BfV) investigated and found no "concrete evidence" (Konkrete Belege) that the U.S. conducted economic or industrial espionage in Germany.
In February 2014, during testimony to the European Union, Snowden said of the remaining "undisclosed programs": "I will leave the public interest determinations as to which of these may be safely disclosed to responsible journalists in coordination with government stakeholders."
In March 2014, documents disclosed by Glenn Greenwald writing for The Intercept showed the NSA, in cooperation with the GCHQ, has plans to infect millions of computers with malware using a program called "Turbine." Revelations included information about "QUANTUMHAND," a program through which the NSA set up a fake Facebook server to intercept connections.
According to a report in The Washington Post in July 2014, relying on information furnished by Snowden, 90% of those placed under surveillance in the U.S. are ordinary Americans, and are not the intended targets. The newspaper said it had examined documents including emails, message texts, and online accounts, that support the claim.
In an August 2014 interview, Snowden for the first time disclosed a cyberwarfare program in the works, codenamed MonsterMind. The program would "automate the process of hunting for the beginnings of a foreign cyberattack". The software would constantly look for traffic patterns indicating known or suspected attacks. What sets MonsterMind apart was that it would add a "unique new capability: instead of simply detecting and killing the malware at the point of entry, MonsterMind would automatically fire back, with no human involvement". Snowden expressed concern that often initial attacks are routed through computers in innocent third countries. "These attacks can be spoofed. You could have someone sitting in China, for example, making it appear that one of these attacks is originating in Russia. And then we end up shooting back at a Russian hospital. What happens next?"
Snowden's identity was made public by The Guardian at his request on June 9, 2013. He explained: "I have no intention of hiding who I am because I know I have done nothing wrong." He added that by revealing his identity he hoped to protect his colleagues from being subjected to a hunt to determine who had been responsible for the leaks. According to Poitras, who filmed the interview with Snowden in Hong Kong, he had initially not wanted to be seen on camera, because "he didn't want the story to be about him." Poitras says she convinced him it was necessary to have him give an account of the leaked documents' significance on film: "I knew that the mainstream media interpretation would be predictable and narrow, but because to have somebody who understands how this technology works, who is willing to risk their life to expose it to the public, and that we could hear that articulated, would reach people in ways that the documents themselves wouldn't." Snowden explained his actions saying: "I don't want to live in a society that does these sort of things [surveillance on its citizens] … I do not want to live in a world where everything I do and say is recorded … My sole motive is to inform the public as to that which is done in their name and that which is done against them." In a later interview Snowden declared:
For me, in terms of personal satisfaction, the mission's already accomplished. I already won. As soon as the journalists were able to work, everything that I had been trying to do was validated. Because, remember, I didn't want to change society. I wanted to give society a chance to determine if it should change itself. All I wanted was for the public to be able to have a say in how they are governed.
Snowden said that in the past, whistleblowers had been "destroyed by the experience," and that he wanted to "embolden others to step forward" by demonstrating that "they can win." In October, Snowden spoke out again on his motivations for the leaks in an interview with The New York Times, saying that the system for reporting problems does not work. "You have to report wrongdoing to those most responsible for it," Snowden explained, and pointed out the lack of whistleblower protection for government contractors, the use of the 1917 Espionage Act to prosecute leakers, and his belief that had he used internal mechanisms to "sound the alarm," his revelations "would have been buried forever."
In December 2013, upon learning that a U.S. federal judge had ruled the collection of U.S. phone metadata conducted by the NSA as likely unconstitutional, Snowden stated: "I acted on my belief that the NSA's mass surveillance programs would not withstand a constitutional challenge, and that the American public deserved a chance to see these issues determined by open courts … today, a secret program authorized by a secret court was, when exposed to the light of day, found to violate Americans' rights. It is the first of many."
In January 2014, Snowden said his "breaking point" was "seeing the Director of National Intelligence, James Clapper, directly lie under oath to Congress." This referred to testimony on March 12, 2013—three months after Snowden first sought to share thousands of NSA documents with Greenwald, and nine months after the NSA says Snowden made his first illegal downloads during the summer of 2012—in which Clapper denied to the U.S. Senate Select Committee on Intelligence that the NSA wittingly collects data on millions of Americans. Snowden said, "There’s no saving an intelligence community that believes it can lie to the public and the legislators who need to be able to trust it and regulate its actions. Seeing that really meant for me there was no going back. Beyond that, it was the creeping realization that no one else was going to do this. The public had a right to know about these programs." In May 2014, Vanity Fair reported that Snowden said he first contemplated leaking confidential documents around 2008, but that "Snowden held back, in part because he believed Barack Obama, elected that November, might introduce reforms." Snowden stated that he had reported policy or legal issues related to spying programs to more than 10 officials, but as a contractor had no legal avenue to pursue further whistleblowing.
Flight from the United States
In May 2013 Snowden took a leave of absence, telling his supervisors he was returning to the mainland for epilepsy treatment, but instead left Hawaii for Hong Kong where he arrived on May 20. Snowden told Guardian reporters in June that he had been in his room at the Mira Hotel since his arrival in the city, rarely going out. On June 10, correspondent Ewen MacAskill said "He's stuck in his hotel every day; he never goes out. I think he's only been out about three times since May 20th and that was only briefly." Mira staff told Wall Street Journal reporters, however, that Snowden did not check in to the hotel until June 1.
Snowden vowed to challenge any extradition attempt by the U.S. government, and engaged a Canadian, Hong Kong-based human rights lawyer Robert Tibbo, as his legal adviser. Snowden told the South China Morning Post that he planned to remain in Hong Kong until "asked to leave," adding that his intention was to let the "courts and people of Hong Kong" decide his fate. While in Hong Kong Snowden told the Post that "the United States government has committed a tremendous number of crimes against Hong Kong. The PRC as well," going on to identify Chinese Internet Protocol addresses that the NSA monitored and stating that the NSA collected text-message data for Hong Kong residents. Glenn Greenwald explained the leak as reflecting "a need to ingratiate himself to the people of Hong Kong and China."
In late August, the Russian newspaper Kommersant reported that Snowden was living at the Russian consulate shortly before his departure from Hong Kong to Moscow. Ben Wizner, a lawyer with the American Civil Liberties Union (ACLU) and legal adviser to Snowden, said in January 2014, "Every news organization in the world has been trying to confirm that story. They haven't been able to, because it's false." Likewise rejecting the Kommersant story was Anatoly Kucherena, who became Snowden's lawyer in July 2013, when Snowden asked him for help with seeking temporary asylum in Russia. Kucherena stated that Snowden "did not enter into any communication with our diplomats when he was in Hong Kong." In early September 2013, however, Russian president Vladimir Putin said that, a few days before boarding a plane to Moscow, "Mr. Snowden first appeared in Hong Kong and met with our diplomatic representatives." In June 2014, investigative journalist Edward Jay Epstein wrote that a U.S. official had told him that on three occasions in June 2013, Snowden had been observed on CCTV cameras entering the Hong Kong tower where the Russian consulate is located.
On June 22 (18 days after publication of Snowden's NSA documents began), U.S. officials revoked his passport. On June 23, Snowden boarded the commercial Aeroflot flight SU213 to Moscow, accompanied by Sarah Harrison of WikiLeaks. Hong Kong authorities said that Snowden had not been detained as requested by the United States, because the United States' extradition request had not fully complied with Hong Kong law, and there was no legal basis to prevent Snowden from leaving.[Notes 1] On June 24, U.S. State Department spokesman Patrick Ventrell said "we're just not buying that this was a technical decision by a Hong Kong immigration official. This was a deliberate choice by the government to release a fugitive despite a valid arrest warrant … though the Privacy Act prohibits me from talking about Mr. Snowden's passport specifically, I can say that the Hong Kong authorities were well aware of our interest in Mr. Snowden and had plenty of time to prohibit his travel." That same day, Julian Assange said that WikiLeaks had paid for Snowden's lodging in Hong Kong and his flight out.
In October 2013, Snowden said that before flying to Moscow, he gave all the classified documents he had obtained to journalists he met in Hong Kong, and did not keep any copies for himself. In January 2014, he told a German TV interviewer that he gave all of his information "to American journalists who are reporting on American issues." During his first American TV interview, in May 2014, Snowden said he had protected himself from Russian leverage "by destroying the material that I was holding before I transited through Russia."
On June 23, 2013, Snowden landed at Moscow's Sheremetyevo international airport. WikiLeaks stated that he was "bound for the Republic of Ecuador via a safe route for the purposes of asylum." Snowden had a seat reserved to continue to Cuba but did not board that onward flight, saying in a January 2014 interview that he was "stopped en route" despite an intention to be "only transiting through Russia." He stated, "I was ticketed for onward travel via Havana—a planeload of reporters documented the seat I was supposed to be in—but the State Department decided they wanted me in Moscow, and cancelled my passport." He said the U.S. wanted him there so "they could say, 'He's a Russian spy.'" Greenwald's account differs on the point of Snowden being already ticketed. According to Greenwald, Snowden's passport was valid when he departed Hong Kong but was revoked during the hours he was in transit to Moscow, meaning "he could no longer get a ticket and leave Russia." Snowden was thus, Greenwald says, forced to stay in Moscow and seek asylum.
According to one Russian report, Snowden planned to fly from Moscow through Havana to Latin America; however, Cuba informed Moscow it would not allow the Aeroflot plane carrying Snowden to land. Anonymous Russian sources claimed that Cuba had a change of heart after receiving pressure from U.S. officials, leaving him stuck in the transit zone because at the last minute Havana told officials in Moscow not to allow him on the flight. Fidel Castro called claims that Cuba would have blocked Snowden's entry to his country a "lie" and a "libel." The Washington Post said "[t]hat version stands in contrast to widespread speculation that the Russians never intended to let the former CIA employee travel onward." Russian president Putin said that Snowden's arrival in Moscow was "a surprise" and "like an unwanted Christmas gift." Putin said that Snowden remained in the transit area of Sheremetyevo, noted that he had not committed any crime in Russia, and declared that Snowden was free to leave and should do so. He denied that Russia's intelligence agencies had worked or were working with Snowden.
Following Snowden's arrival in Moscow, the White House expressed disappointment in Hong Kong's decision to allow him to leave, with press secretary Jay Carney stating, "We very clearly believe that Mr. Snowden ought to be returned to the United States to face the charges that have been set against him," and the director of the State Department's press office concurred: "We are deeply disappointed by the decision of the authorities in Hong Kong to permit Mr. Snowden to flee despite a legally valid U.S. request to arrest him for purposes of his extradition under the U.S.-Hong Kong Surrender Agreement. We hope that the Russian Government will look at all available options to return Mr. Snowden back to the U.S. to face justice for the crimes with which he's charged." An anonymous U.S. official not authorized to discuss the passport matter told AP Snowden's passport had been revoked before he left Hong Kong, and that although it could make onward travel more difficult, "if a senior official in a country or airline ordered it, a country could overlook the withdrawn passport." In a July 1 statement, Snowden said, "Although I am convicted of nothing, [the US government] has unilaterally revoked my passport, leaving me a stateless person. Without any judicial order, the administration now seeks to stop me exercising a basic right. A right that belongs to everybody. The right to seek asylum."
After Snowden received asylum in Russia, international criminal defense lawyer Douglas McNabb commented that "absent of Mr. Snowden attempting to travel to Latin America, as long as he stays in Russia, he’s apparently safe." Julian Assange agreed with this assessment, saying in a December 2013 Rolling Stone interview, "While Venezuela and Ecuador could protect him in the short term, over the long term there could be a change in government. In Russia, he's safe, he's well-regarded, and that is not likely to change. That was my advice to Snowden, that he would be physically safest in Russia." According to Snowden, "the CIA has a very powerful presence [in Latin America] and the governments and the security services there are relatively much less capable than, say, Russia.... they could have basically snatched me...."
Four countries offered Snowden permanent asylum: Ecuador, Nicaragua, Bolivia, and Venezuela. ABC News reported that no direct flights between Moscow and Venezuela, Bolivia or Nicaragua exist, and that "the United States has pressured countries along his route to hand him over." Snowden explained in July 2013 that he decided to bid for asylum in Russia because he did not feel there was any safe travel route to Latin America. Snowden said he remained in Russia because "when we were talking about possibilities for asylum in Latin America, the United States forced down the Bolivian President’s plane", citing the Morales plane incident. On the issue, he said "some governments in Western European and North American states have demonstrated a willingness to act outside the law, and this behavior persists today. This unlawful threat makes it impossible for me to travel to Latin America and enjoy the asylum granted there in accordance with our shared rights." He said that he would travel from Russia if there was no interference from the U.S. government.
In an October 2014 interview with The Nation magazine, Snowden reiterated that he had originally intended to travel to Latin America: "A lot of people are still unaware that I never intended to end up in Russia." According to Snowden, the U.S. government "waited until I departed Hong Kong to cancel my passport in order to trap me in Russia." Snowden added, "If they really wanted to capture me, they would've allowed me to travel to Latin America, because the CIA can operate with impunity down there. They did not want that; they chose to keep me in Russia."
Morales plane incident
On July 1, 2013, president Evo Morales of Bolivia, who had been attending a conference of gas-exporting countries in Russia, suggested during an interview with Russia Today that he would be "willing to consider a request" by Snowden for asylum. The following day, Morales' plane en route to Bolivia was rerouted to Austria and reportedly searched there after France, Spain and Italy denied access to their airspace. U.S. officials had raised suspicions that Snowden may have been on board. Morales blamed the U.S. for putting pressure on European countries, and said that the grounding of his plane was a violation of international law.
In April 2015, Bolivia's ambassador to Russia, María Luisa Ramos Urzagaste, accused WikiLeaks' Julian Assange of putting Morales's life at risk by intentionally providing to the United States false rumors that Snowden was on the Morales's plane. Assange responded that the plan "was not completely honest, but we did consider that the final result would have justified our actions. We can only regret what happened."
Snowden applied for political asylum to 21 countries. A statement attributed to him contended that the U.S. administration, and specifically Vice President Joe Biden, had pressured the governments to refuse his asylum petitions. Biden had telephoned President Rafael Correa days prior to Snowden's remarks, asking the Ecuadorian leader not to grant Snowden asylum. Ecuador had initially offered Snowden a temporary travel document but later withdrew it; on July 1, President Rafael Correa said the decision to issue the offer had been "a mistake."
In a July 1 statement published by WikiLeaks, Snowden accused the U.S. government of "using citizenship as a weapon" and using what he described as "old, bad tools of political aggression." Citing Obama's promise to not allow "wheeling and dealing" over the case, Snowden commented, "This kind of deception from a world leader is not justice, and neither is the extralegal penalty of exile." Several days later, WikiLeaks announced that Snowden had applied for asylum in six additional countries, which WikiLeaks declined to name "due to attempted U.S. interference."
The French interior ministry rejected Snowden's request for asylum, saying, "Given the legal analysis and the situation of the interested party, France will not agree." Poland refused to process his application because it did not conform to legal procedure. Brazil's Foreign Ministry said the government "does not plan to respond" to Snowden's asylum request. Germany, Finland and India rejected Snowden's application outright, while Austria, Ecuador, Norway and Spain said he must be on their territory to apply. Italy cited the same reason in rejecting his request, as did the Netherlands. In November 2014, Germany announced that Snowden had not renewed his previously denied request and was not being considered for asylum.
Putin said on July 1, 2013, that if Snowden wanted to be granted asylum in Russia, he would be required to "stop his work aimed at harming our American partners." A spokesman for Putin subsequently said that Snowden had withdrawn his asylum application upon learning of the conditions.
In a July 12 meeting at Sheremetyevo Airport with representatives of human rights organizations and lawyers, organized in part by the Russian government, Snowden said he was accepting all offers of asylum that he had already received or would receive in the future, noting that his Venezuela's "asylee status was now formal." He also said he would request asylum in Russia until he resolved his travel problems. Russian Federal Migration Service officials confirmed on July 16 that Snowden had submitted an application for temporary asylum. On July 24, Kucherena said his client "wants to find work in Russia, travel and somehow create a life for himself." He said Snowden had already begun learning Russian.
Amid media reports in early July 2013 attributed to U.S. administration sources that Obama's one-on-one meeting with Putin, ahead of a G20 meeting in St Petersburg scheduled for September, was in doubt due to Snowden's protracted sojourn in Russia, top U.S. officials repeatedly made it clear to Moscow that Snowden should immediately be returned to the United States to, in the words of White House press secretary Jay Carney, "face the charges that have been brought against him for the unauthorized leaking of classified information." Snowden needed asylum, according to his Russian lawyer, because "he faces persecution by the U.S. government and he fears for his life and safety, fears that he could be subjected to torture and capital punishment."
In a letter to Russian Minister of Justice Alexander Konovalov dated July 23, U.S. Attorney General Eric Holder sought to eliminate the "asserted grounds for Mr. Snowden's claim that he should be treated as a refugee or granted asylum, temporary or otherwise." Holder asserted that the theft and espionage charges against Snowden do not carry the possibility of a death penalty and that the United States would not seek the death penalty "even if Mr. Snowden were charged with additional death penalty-eligible crimes." Holder said Snowden is free to travel from Moscow despite the June 22 revocation of his U.S. passport. He is, Holder explained, immediately eligible for a "limited validity passport" good for direct return to the United States. Holder also assured Konovalov that Snowden would not be tortured. "Torture is unlawful in the United States," Holder wrote. "If he returns to the United States, Mr. Snowden would promptly be brought before a civilian court convened under Article III of the United States Constitution and supervised by a United States District Judge. … Mr. Snowden would be appointed (or if so chose, could retain) counsel." The same day, the Russian president's spokesman reiterated the Kremlin's position that it would "not hand anyone over"; he also noted that Putin was not personally involved in the matter as Snowden "has not made any request that would require examination by the head of state" and that the issue was being handled through talks between the FSB and the FBI.
In March 2015, journalist Glenn Greenwald reported at The Intercept that Sigmar Gabriel, Vice-Chancellor of Germany, told him the U.S. government had threatened to stop sharing intelligence if Germany offered Snowden asylum or arranged for his travel there.
On June 14, 2013, United States federal prosecutors filed a criminal complaint against Snowden, charging him with theft of government property, and two counts of violating the Espionage Act through unauthorized communication of national defense information and "willful communication of classified communications intelligence information to an unauthorized person." Each of the three charges carries a maximum possible prison term of ten years. The charge was initially secret and was unsealed a week later.
Snowden was asked in a January 2014 interview about returning to the U.S. to face the charges in court, as Obama had suggested a few days prior. Snowden explained why he rejected the request: "What he doesn't say are that the crimes that he's charged me with are crimes that don't allow me to make my case. They don't allow me to defend myself in an open court to the public and convince a jury that what I did was to their benefit. … So it's, I would say, illustrative that the President would choose to say someone should face the music when he knows the music is a show trial." Snowden's legal representative, Jesselyn Radack, wrote that "the Espionage Act effectively hinders a person from defending himself before a jury in an open court, as past examples show," referring to Thomas Drake, John Kiriakou and Chelsea Manning. Radack said that the "arcane World War I law" was never meant to prosecute whistleblowers, but rather spies who sold secrets to enemies for profit. Under this law, she states, "no prosecution of a non-spy can be fair or just."
Temporary asylum in Russia
Snowden left the Moscow airport on August 1 after 39 days in the transit section. He had been granted temporary asylum in Russia for one year; the asylum grant can be extended indefinitely on an annual basis. According to his Russian lawyer, Snowden went to an undisclosed location kept secret for security reasons. In response to the asylum grant, the White House stated that it was "extremely disappointed," and cancelled a previously scheduled meeting with Russian President Vladimir Putin. Additionally, Republican U.S. Senator Lindsey Graham urged President Obama to boycott the 2014 Winter Olympics in Sochi, but House Speaker John Boehner, also a Republican, rejected that idea as "dead wrong."
In late July 2013, Lon Snowden said he believed his son would be better off staying in Russia, and didn't believe he would receive a fair trial in the U.S. In mid-October, he visited his son in Moscow, later telling the press that he was pleased with Edward's situation, and still believed Russia was the best choice for his asylum, saying he wouldn't have to worry about people "rushing across the border to render him." Snowden commented that his son found living in Russia "comfortable," and Moscow "modern and sophisticated." Snowden's Russian lawyer, Anatoly Kucherena, announced on October 31 that his client had found a website maintenance job at one of Russia's largest websites, but refused to identify the site for "security reasons." Jesselyn Radack, one of Snowden's American lawyers, said she was "not aware" of any new job. Asked about this by The Moscow Times in June 2014, The Guardian correspondent Luke Harding replied, "Kucherena is completely unreliable as a source. We [The Guardian] did the rounds of Russian IT companies when he made that claim last year and none of them—none of the big ones, at least—confirmed this."
Former CIA analyst Ray McGovern, who had traveled to Russia to give Snowden a whistleblower award, said that Snowden did not give any storage devices such as hard drives or USB flash drives to Russia or China, and that the four laptops he carried with him "were a 'diversion' and contained no secrets." U.S. officials said they assumed that any classified materials downloaded by Snowden had fallen into the hands of China and Russia, though they acknowledged they had no proof of this. In an October 2013 interview, Snowden maintained that he did not bring any classified material into Russia "because it wouldn't serve the public interest." He added, "There's a zero percent chance the Russians or Chinese have received any documents." In June 2015, however, The Sunday Times reported that British government officials anonymously claimed to the paper that Russia and China had cracked an encrypted cache of files taken by Snowden, forcing the withdrawal of British spies from live operations. The BBC also stated that their sources told them British intelligence assets had been moved as a precaution after the Snowden leaks. Several prominent media outlets and persons have disputed the validity of The Sunday Times's story. The Intercept's Greenwald said the report had "retraction-worthy fabrications," and "does [...] nothing other than quote anonymous British officials," and notes that parts of the Times's report was removed from the original post without the Times saying it did so; The Washington Post's Erik Wemple stated that CNN reporter George Howell may have unknowingly damaged the report's credibility in an on-air interview with the story's lead author Tom Harper "by asking obvious questions about the story."
WikiLeaks released video of Snowden on October 11 taken during the Sam Adams Award reception in Moscow, his first public appearance in three months. Former U.S. government officials attending the ceremony said they saw no evidence Snowden was under the control of Russian security services. The whistleblower group said he was in good spirits, looked well, and still believes he was right to release the NSA documents. In the video, Snowden said "people all over the world are coming to realize" that the NSA's surveillance programs put people in danger, hurt the U.S. and its economy, and "limit our ability to speak and think and live and be creative, to have relationships and associate freely" as well as putting people "at risk of coming into conflict with our own government."
On October 31, German lawmaker Hans-Christian Ströbele traveled to Moscow to meet with Snowden, whom he invited to testify before the German parliament to assist investigations into NSA surveillance of German Chancellor Angela Merkel's phone since 2002. After the visit, Snowden indicated a willingness to testify, though not from Moscow as Germany requested. Snowden said he would rather give testimony before the U.S. Congress, his second choice being Berlin.
Also in October, journalist Glenn Greenwald commented on Snowden's Russian asylum: "[Snowden] didn't choose to be there. He was trying to get transit to Latin America, and then the U.S. revoked his passport and threatened other countries out of offering Snowden safe passage." WikiLeaks representative Sarah Harrison, who accompanied Snowden from Hong Kong to Moscow, left Russia in early November after waiting until she felt confident he had "established himself and was free from the interference of any government."
On December 17, 2013, Snowden wrote an open letter to the people of Brazil offering to assist the Brazilian government in investigating allegations of U.S. spying, and added that he continued to seek, and would require, asylum. Snowden wrote, "Until a country grants permanent political asylum, the U.S. government will continue to interfere with my ability to speak … going so far as to force down the Presidential Plane of Evo Morales to prevent me from traveling to Latin America!" Brazil had been in an uproar since Snowden revealed that the U.S. was spying on Brazilian President Dilma Rousseff, her senior advisors, and Brazil's national oil company, Petrobras. Rousseff and officials of the Brazilian foreign ministry said in response that they could not consider asylum for Snowden because they had not received any formal request. A representative of the foreign ministry said that a fax requesting asylum had been sent to the Brazilian embassy in Moscow in July but it had not been signed and could not be authenticated. David Miranda, the Brazilian partner of Glenn Greenwald, launched an internet petition urging the Brazilian president to consider offering Snowden asylum.
Snowden met with Barton Gellman of The Washington Post six months after the disclosure for an exclusive interview spanning 14 hours, his first since being granted temporary asylum. Snowden talked about his life in Russia as "an indoor cat," reflected on his time as an NSA contractor, and discussed at length the revelations of global surveillance and their reverberations. Snowden said, "In terms of personal satisfaction, the mission's already accomplished … I already won. As soon as the journalists were able to work, everything that I had been trying to do was validated." He commented "I am not trying to bring down the NSA, I am working to improve the NSA … I am still working for the NSA right now. They are the only ones who don't realize it." On the accusation from former CIA and NSA director Michael Hayden that he had defected, Snowden stated, "If I defected at all, I defected from the government to the public." In 2014, Snowden said that he lives "a surprisingly open life" in Russia and that he is recognized when he goes to computer stores.
According to BuzzFeed, in January 2014 an anonymous Pentagon official said that he wanted to kill Snowden, claiming that “By [Snowden] showing who our collections partners were, the terrorists have dropped those carriers and email addresses." Other intelligence analysts expressed their anger to BuzzFeed as well, with an Army intelligence officer complaining that Snowden's leaks had increased his "blindness" and expressing his hope that Snowden would be killed in a covert way. When asked about the BuzzFeed story, State Department spokeswoman Marie Harf said death threats were "totally inappropriate" and had “no place in our discussion of these issues."
On Meet the Press in late January 2014, speculation arose from top U.S. officials in the House and Senate Intelligence Committees that Snowden might have been assisted by Russian intelligence, prompting a rare interview during which Snowden spoke in his defense. He told The New Yorker "this 'Russian spy' push is absurd," adding that he "clearly and unambiguously acted alone, with no assistance from anyone, much less a government." The New York Times reported that investigations by the NSA and the FBI "have turned up no evidence that Mr. Snowden was aided by others." Days later, Feinstein stated that she had seen no evidence that Snowden is a Russian spy. Germany's Der Spiegel suggested the accusations were part of a "smear campaign" by U.S. officials. For Snowden, the smears did not "mystify" him; he said that "outlets report statements that the speakers themselves admit are sheer speculation."
In late January 2014, US attorney general, Eric Holder in an interview with MSNBC indicated that the U.S. could allow Snowden to return from Russia under negotiated terms, saying he was prepared to engage in conversation with him, but that full clemency would be going too far.
Snowden's first television interview aired January 26, 2014 on Germany's NDR. In April 2014, he appeared on video from an undisclosed location during President Putin's live annual Q&A exchange with the public. Snowden asked, "Does Russia intercept, store, or analyze—in any way—the communications of individuals?" Putin replied, "Russia uses surveillance techniques for spying on individuals only with the sanction of a court order. This is our law, and therefore there is no mass surveillance in our country." Reactions were split. Critics said it looked like a "highly-scripted propaganda stunt for Vladimir Putin" and that Snowden is "bought and paid for entirely by the Russians." Snowden insisted his question was designed to hold the Russian president accountable. In an op-ed for The Guardian, Snowden said his question was intended "to mirror the now infamous exchange in US Senate intelligence committee hearings between senator Ron Wyden and the director of national intelligence, James Clapper, about whether the NSA collected records on millions of Americans, and to invite either an important concession or a clear evasion." Snowden called Putin's response "evasive". A few days later, The Daily Beast reported that Snowden himself "instantly regretted" asking Putin the "softball question", which was crafted with several of his key advisers, and that he was mortified by the reaction. Ben Wizner, one of Snowden's legal advisers, told the Beast that Snowden hadn't realized how much his appearance with Putin would be seen as a Kremlin propaganda victory. "I know this is hard to believe," Wizner acknowledged. "I know if I was just watching from afar, I'd think, 'Wow, they forced him to do this.' But it's not true. He just fucking did it." Asked six months later about the incident, Snowden conceded, "Yeah, that was terrible! Oh, Jesus, that blew up in my face. … And in the United States, what I did appearing at that Putin press conference was not worth the price."
In March 2014, the international advocacy group European Digital Rights (EDRi) reported that the European Parliament, in adopting a Data Protection Reform Package, rejected amendments that would have dropped charges against Snowden and granted him asylum or refugee status.
In May 2014, NBC's Brian Williams presented the first interview for American television. In June, The Washington Post reported that during his first year of Russian asylum, Snowden had received "tens of thousands of dollars in cash awards and appearance fees from privacy organizations and other groups," fielded inquiries about book and movie projects, and was considering taking a position with a South African foundation that would support work on security and privacy issues. "Any moment that he decides that he wants to be a wealthy person," said Snowden's attorney Ben Wizner, "that route is available to him," although the U.S. government could attempt to seize such proceeds.
Also in May, the German Parliamentary Committee investigating the NSA spying scandal unanimously decided to invite Snowden to testify as a witness. In September, opposition parties in the German parliament filed constitutional complaints to force the government to let Snowden testify in Berlin. Snowden had refused a proposed video conference from Moscow, saying he wants to testify only in Berlin and asking for safe conduct.
On July 13, 2014, The Guardian published its first story based on an exclusive, seven-hour interview newly conducted with Snowden in a Moscow city centre hotel. Snowden condemned the Data Retention and Investigatory Powers Bill announced to the UK's House of Commons on July 10 bolstering the state's right to keep personal data held by Internet and phone companies. Snowden said it was very unusual for a public body to pass such emergency legislation except during total war. "I mean we don't have bombs falling. We don't have U-boats in the harbor. It defies belief." The Daily Mail reported that Snowden had "caused fury" by attacking Britain. "His critics said the new surveillance Bill was being pushed through Parliament today largely because of his treachery in leaking Britain's spy secrets." On July 13 and 17, The Guardian posted video clips, of about 2 minutes and 14 minutes in length, excerpted from the full interview. On July 18, The Guardian published a nearly 10,000-word "edited transcript" of their Snowden interview. A year after arriving in Moscow, Snowden said he is still learning Russian. He keeps late and solitary hours, effectively living on U.S. time. He does not drink, cooks for himself but doesn't eat much. "I don't live in absolute secrecy," he says. "I live a pretty open life—but at the same time I don't want to be a celebrity." He does not work for a Russian organization, yet is financially secure thanks to substantial savings from his years as a well-paid contractor and more recently numerous awards and speaking fees from around the world.
Residency in Russia
On August 7, 2014, six days after Snowden's one-year temporary asylum expired, his Russian lawyer announced that Snowden had received a three-year residency permit. "He will be able to travel freely within the country and go abroad," said Anatoly Kucherena. "He'll be able to stay abroad for not longer than three months." Kucherena explained that Snowden had not been granted political asylum, which would allow him to stay in Russia permanently but requires a separate process. "In the future," he added, "Edward will have to decide whether to continue to live in Russia and become a citizen or to return to the United States." In May 2015, The New York Times reported, "Snowden's main source of income is speaking fees, which have sometimes exceeded $10,000 for an appearance."
A subject of controversy, Snowden has been variously called a hero, a whistleblower, a dissident, a patriot, and a traitor. His release of NSA material was called the most significant leak in U.S. history by Pentagon Papers leaker Daniel Ellsberg, who said, "Snowden's disclosures are a true constitutional moment" enabling the press to hold the Executive branch of the U.S. federal government accountable, while the legislative and judiciary branch refused to do so. On January 14, 2014, Ellsberg posted to his Twitter page: "Edward Snowden has done more for our Constitution in terms of the Fourth and First Amendment than anyone else I know."
On June 9, 2013, Director of National Intelligence James Clapper condemned Snowden's actions as having done "huge, grave damage" to U.S. intelligence capabilities. On June 27, 2013, The Monterey Herald reported that the United States Army had barred its personnel from access to parts of the website of The Guardian after that site's revelations of Snowden's information about global surveillance. The entire Guardian website was blocked for personnel stationed throughout Afghanistan, the Middle East, and South Asia.
Journalist Naomi Wolf in June 2013 questioned the authenticity of Snowden's story. She elucidated her "creeping concern that the NSA leaker is not who he purports to be, and that the motivations involved in the story may be more complex than they appear to be", and in what was called a "conspiracy theory", presented a series of questions concerning the official narrative. "From the standpoint of the police state and its interests," she asks, "why have a giant Big Brother apparatus spying on us at all times unless we know about it?"
A We the People petition was launched on June 9 via the whitehouse.gov website seeking "a full, free and absolute pardon for any crimes [Snowden] has committed or may have committed related to blowing the whistle on secret NSA surveillance programs." The petition attained 100,000 signatures within two weeks, thus meeting the threshold and requiring an official response from the White House. In March 2014, the Administration still had not responded to the petition, but gave no reason for the nine-month delay. The White House finally answered on July 28, 2015. In a response written by Lisa Monaco, Obama’s homeland security and terrorism advisor, the White House declined to pardon Snowden. It said his disclosures had "serious consequences" for national security and that he should "accept the consequences of his actions."
Ex-CIA director James Woolsey said in December 2013 that if Snowden was convicted of treason, he should be hanged. One of Snowden's legal advisers, Jesselyn Radack, said that Snowden "has concerns for his safety" based on this and joking remarks between Hayden and House Intelligence Committee chairman Mike Rogers about putting Snowden on a "kill list."
According to Mike Rogers and ranking member Dutch Ruppersberger, a classified Pentagon report written by military intelligence officials contends that Edward Snowden's leaks had put U.S. troops at risk and prompted terrorists to change their tactics, and that "most files copied" were related to current U.S. military operations. Glenn Greenwald and Ben Wizner, an ACLU lawyer representing Snowden, disputed these claims, stating that Snowden's leaks overwhelmingly relate to NSA activities and noting that similar claims were made about the Pentagon Papers.
On January 1, 2014, the editorial board of The New York Times praised Snowden as a whistleblower and wrote in favor of granting him clemency or "at least a substantially reduced punishment," arguing that while Snowden may have broken the law, he had "done his country a great service" by bringing the abuses of the NSA to light. "When someone reveals that government officials have routinely and deliberately broken the law," they wrote, "that person should not face life in prison at the hands of the same government." The Times further criticized James Clapper for lying to Congress about the NSA's surveillance activities and cast doubt on the claim made by Snowden's critics that he had damaged national security. The editorial concluded with a request to President Obama to discontinue the "vilification" of Snowden and to offer Snowden "an incentive to return home." The article garnered an unusual amount of "heat" for an editorial, with responses from multiple media outlets. The editorial board of The Guardian called for a pardon in an article coincidentally published on the same day. The board asked President Obama to "use his executive powers to treat [Snowden] humanely and in a manner that would be a shining example about the value of whistleblowers and of free speech itself."
In his article dated January 4, 2014, "Moves to Curb Spying Help Drive the Clemency Argument for Snowden," Peter Baker of The New York Times laid out the polarization of opinions throughout the U.S. and the impetus toward clemency gained by the public reaction to the revelations of the surveillance. He noted that officials in the intelligence establishment "warn that letting Mr. Snowden off the hook would set a dangerous precedent" and contrasted that with the statement of attorney Bruce Fein about the protections afforded by the First Amendment, "It prohibits government from punishing communications that expose government lawlessness whether or not the illegality is classified. Calling government to account for breaking the law is a compelling civic duty of all citizens." The author also noted that similar polarization has arisen in judicial review, citing one federal judge's ruling that the surveillance program in question "was probably unconstitutional," implying that laws passed to enable such programs could be struck down.
In January 2014, U.S. President Barack Obama mentioned Snowden in a speech covering proposed reforms to the NSA's surveillance program and said that "our nation's defense depends in part on the fidelity of those entrusted with our nation's secrets. If any individual who objects to government policy can take it into their own hands to publicly disclose classified information, then we will not be able to keep our people safe, or conduct foreign policy." Obama also objected to the "sensational" way the leaks had been reported, saying the reporting often "shed more heat than light." He went on to assert that the disclosures had revealed "methods to our adversaries that could impact our operations."
The Republican Party in January 2014 voted unanimously to pass a "Resolution To Renounce The National Security Agency's Surveillance Program" which called for a "special committee to investigate, report, and reveal to the public the extent of this domestic spying." They said that Snowden's revelations had uncovered "an invasion into the personal lives of American citizens that violates the right of free speech and association afforded by the First Amendment of the United States Constitution" and that "the mass collection and retention of personal data is in itself contrary to the right of privacy protected by the Fourth Amendment of the United States Constitution." The resolution endorses legislation proposed by Congressman Justin Amash.
In February 2014, former congressman Ron Paul began a petition urging the Obama Administration to grant Snowden clemency. Paul released a video on his website saying, "Edward Snowden sacrificed his livelihood, citizenship, and freedom by exposing the disturbing scope of the NSA's worldwide spying program. Thanks to one man's courageous actions, Americans know about the truly egregious ways their government is spying on them."
Speaking at The Wall Street Journal's CIO Network on February 4, 2014, Mike McConnell—former NSA Director and current Vice Chairman at Booz Allen Hamilton—said that Snowden was motivated by revenge when the NSA did not offer Snowden the job he wanted. "At this point," said McConnell, "he being narcissistic and having failed at most everything he did, he decides now I'm going to turn on them."
In March 2014, former U.S. president Jimmy Carter said that if he were still president today he would "certainly consider" giving Snowden a pardon were he to be found guilty and imprisoned for his leaks.
In April 2014, former U.S. Secretary of State Hillary Clinton insinuated that she found Snowden's motives suspicious, saying "[W]e have all these protections for whistle-blowers. If he were concerned and wanted to be part of the American debate, he could have been...it struck me as...sort of odd that he would flee to China, because Hong Kong is controlled by China, and that he would then go to Russia—two countries with which we have very difficult cyberrelationships...turning over a lot of that material—intentionally or unintentionally—drained, gave all kinds of information, not only to big countries, but to networks and terrorist groups and the like. So I have a hard time thinking that somebody who is a champion of privacy and liberty has taken refuge in Russia, under Putin's authority." Supporters and advisers of Snowden called Clinton's remarks unrealistic and pointed out several misunderstandings, telling Politico that Snowden could not have availed himself of whistleblower protections because he was a contractor, not a government employee, and because his claims would not have been seen as exposing impropriety, since the NSA telephone program was legal. On July 4, 2014, Hillary Clinton said that if Snowden wished to return to the U.S., "knowing he would be held accountable," he would have the right "to launch both a legal defense and a public defense, which can of course affect the legal defense."
In May 2014, U.S. Secretary of State John Kerry said Snowden had "damaged his country very significantly" and "hurt operational security" by telling terrorists how to evade detection. "The bottom line," Kerry added, "is this man has betrayed his country, sitting in Russia where he has taken refuge. You know, he should man up and come back to the United States."
In June 2014, interviewed at the Southland technology conference in Nashville, Tennessee, former U.S. Vice President Al Gore said Snowden "clearly violated the law so you can't say OK, what he did is all right. It's not. But what he revealed in the course of violating important laws included violations of the U.S. constitution that were way more serious than the crimes he committed. In the course of violating important law, he also provided an important service. … Because we did need to know how far this has gone."
In December 2014, President Obama nominated former Deputy Defense Secretary Ashton Carter to succeed outgoing Secretary of Defense Chuck Hagel. During a May 2014 panel discussion at Harvard University, Carter had called cybersecurity an "obvious" national security challenge, and said, "We had a cyber Pearl Harbor. His name was Edward Snowden." Carter charged that U.S. security officials "screwed up spectacularly in the case of Snowden. And this knucklehead had access to destructive power that was much more than any individual person should have access to."
In the U.S., Snowden's actions precipitated an intense debate on privacy and warrantless domestic surveillance. President Obama was initially dismissive of Snowden, saying "I'm not going to be scrambling jets to get a 29-year-old hacker." In August, Obama rejected the suggestion that Snowden was a patriot, and in November said that "the benefit of the debate he generated was not worth the damage done, because there was another way of doing it."
In June 2013, U.S. Senator Bernie Sanders of Vermont wrote on his blog, "Love him or hate him, we all owe Snowden our thanks for forcing upon the nation an important debate. But the debate shouldn't be about him. It should be about the gnawing questions his actions raised from the shadows."
Snowden said in December 2013 that he was "inspired by the global debate" ignited by the leaks, and stated that NSA's "culture of indiscriminate global espionage … is collapsing."
At the end of 2013, The Washington Post noted that the public debate, lawsuits, "presidential task forces, and attempts at legislative remedy" had not brought about any "meaningful policy change." They printed: "… the status quo continues, if with forced disclosures and administration arguments that the public just doesn't understand how difficult it is to prevent the next 9/11—even though there's been no evidence publicly revealed so far that these measures have prevented the next 9/11."
In February 2014, Intelligence Squared held an "Oxford style" debate in New York City titled "Snowden Was Justified" addressing the opposing, widely held views that Snowden was a "whistleblower," and alternately, a "traitor." Ex-CIA director R. James Woolsey and former federal prosecutor Andrew C. McCarthy argued against the motion, while ACLU lawyer representing Snowden, Ben Wizner, and Pentagon Papers leaker Daniel Ellsberg argued in favor. Prior to arguments, the audience was split on the matter at 29 percent. After the debate, 54 percent found that Snowden was justified and 35 percent were against.
In August 2013, President Obama said that he had called for a review of U.S. surveillance activities even before Snowden had begun revealing details of the NSA's operations. Obama announced that he was directing DNI James Clapper "to establish a review group on intelligence and communications technologies" that would brief and later report to Obama. In December, the task force issued 46 recommendations that, if adopted, would subject the NSA to additional scrutiny by the courts, Congress, and the president, and would strip the NSA of the authority to infiltrate American computer systems using "backdoors" in hardware or software. Panel member Geoffrey R. Stone said there was no evidence that the bulk collection of phone data had stopped any terror attacks. In July 2014, The Washington Post reported that, according to a large cache of NSA-intercepted conversations provided by Edward Snowden, months of tracking by the NSA of communications across more than 50 alias Internet accounts "led directly to the 2011 capture in Abbottabad of Muhammad Tahir Shahzad, a Pakistan-based bomb builder, and Umar Patek, a suspect in a 2002 terrorist bombing on the Indonesian island of Bali." The Post said that, at the request of CIA officials, it was "withholding other examples that officials said would compromise ongoing operations."
On June 6, 2013, in the wake of Snowden's leaks, conservative public interest lawyer and Judicial Watch founder Larry Klayman filed a lawsuit claiming that the federal government had unlawfully collected metadata for his telephone calls and was harassing him. In Klayman v. Obama, Judge Richard J. Leon referred to the NSA's "almost-Orwellian technology" and ruled the bulk telephony metadata program to be probably unconstitutional. Snowden later described Judge Leon's decision as "vindication."
On June 11, the ACLU filed a lawsuit against James Clapper, Director of National Intelligence, alleging that the NSA's phone records program was unconstitutional. In December 2013, ten days after Judge Leon's ruling, Judge William H. Pauley III came to the opposite conclusion. In ACLU v. Clapper, although acknowledging that privacy concerns are not trivial, Pauley found that the potential benefits of surveillance outweigh these considerations and ruled that the NSA's collection of phone data is legal.
Gary Schmitt, former staff director of the Senate Select Committee on Intelligence, wrote that "The two decisions have generated public confusion over the constitutionality of the NSA's data collection program—a kind of judicial 'he-said, she-said' standoff."
On May 7, 2015, in the case of ACLU v. Clapper, the United States Court of Appeals for the Second Circuit said that Section 215 of the Patriot Act did not authorize the NSA to collect Americans' calling records in bulk, as exposed by Snowden in 2013. The decision voided U.S. District Judge William Pauley's December 2013 finding that the NSA program was lawful, and remanded the case to him for further review. The appeals court did not rule on the constitutionality of the bulk surveillance, and declined to enjoin the program, noting the pending expiration of relevant parts of the Patriot Act. Circuit Judge Gerard E. Lynch wrote that, given the national security interests at stake, it was "prudent" to give Congress an opportunity to debate and decide the matter.
USA Freedom Act
On June 2, 2015 the U.S. Senate passed, and President Obama signed, the USA Freedom Act which restored in modified form several provisions of the Patriot Act that had expired the day before, while for the first time imposing some limits on the bulk collection of telecommunication data on U.S. citizens by American intelligence agencies. The new restrictions were widely seen as stemming from Snowden's revelations.
Crediting the Snowden leaks, the United Nations General Assembly unanimously adopted Resolution 68/167, a symbolic "anti-spying resolution" to "protect the right to privacy against unlawful surveillance" in the wake of reports that 35 foreign leaders were subjects of U.S. eavesdropping. The non-binding resolution "unequivocally states that the same rights that people have off-line must also be protected online."
The European Parliament invited Snowden to make a pre-recorded video appearance to aid their NSA investigation. Snowden gave written testimony in which he said that he was seeking asylum in the EU, but that he was told by European Parliamentarians that the U.S. would not allow EU partners to make such an offer. He told the Parliament that the NSA was working with the security agencies of EU states to "get access to as much data of EU citizens as possible." The NSA's Foreign Affairs Division, he claimed, lobbies the EU and other countries to change their laws, allowing for "everyone in the country" to be spied on legally.
In July 2014, Navi Pillay, UN High Commissioner for Human Rights, told a news conference in Geneva that the U.S. should abandon its efforts to prosecute Snowden, since his leaks were in the public interest.
Public opinion polls
Surveys conducted by news and professional polling organizations originally found public opinion more supportive of Snowden outside the United States than within. In a June 2013 Emnid survey, 50 percent of Germans polled considered Snowden a hero, and 35 percent would hide him in their homes. In October 2013, 67 percent of Canadians polled considered Snowden a hero, as did 60 percent of UK respondents. In an April 2014 UK YouGov poll, 46 percent of British people thought that newspapers reporting on the materials given to them by Snowden was good for society, while 22 percent thought it was bad for society and 31 percent didn't know.
Rasmussen Reports held a poll in June 2013 where Americans were asked to describe Snowden in a single word. Twelve percent said he was a hero, 21 percent called him a traitor, 34 percent said he falls somewhere in between, and 29 percent said it was too early to tell. Six months later, 8 percent said hero and 23 percent traitor. When Americans were asked for their general impression in June 2013, 40 percent felt favorably and 39 percent unfavorably towards Snowden. Six months later, 43 percent responded favorably and 41 percent unfavorably. Asked specifically whether his disclosures were beneficial or detrimental, in June 2013, 49 percent said Snowden had served the public interest, and 44 percent thought he'd harmed national security. Six months later, 40 percent believed the leaks had been helpful, and 46 percent said they'd been bad for the country. In June 2013, Americans were split when asked if Snowden was right or wrong to leak the NSA documents to the press, with 44 percent saying he was right and 42 percent that he was wrong. Americans saying Snowden was wrong to leak reached a high of 55 percent in November 2013. Asked whether or not the U.S. government ought to pursue a criminal case against Snowden, in June 2013, 54 percent said he should be prosecuted and 38 percent disagreed. By March 2014, those favoring prosecution had declined to 45 percent, with 34 percent opposed.
A 2014 Pew/USA Today poll revealed that 18- to 29-year-old Americans were significantly more supportive than those over 65, and were the only age group where a majority did not favor prosecution, being evenly split 42 percent to 42 percent on whether Snowden should be tried. Fifty-seven percent of 18- to 29-year-olds thought he had served rather than harmed public interest. A YouGov survey at the end of May 2014 found that 55 percent of Americans thought Snowden was right to leak details of the PRISM program. Twenty percent of Americans aged 16–34 thought Snowden’s actions were wrong, while 41 percent of those 55 and over held this view. On May 20, NBC News asked viewers to weigh in via Twitter on whether they thought Snowden was a "patriot" or "traitor." Prior to airing its Snowden interview, viewers were closely split on the matter; after the program aired, 60 percent said they considered him a "patriot". A subsequent NBC News poll of registered voters, published on June 1, found that 34 percent opposed Snowden's leaks, 24 percent backed him and another 40 percent had no opinion. Among those who closely followed the story, 49 percent opposed his actions and 33 percent supported them. "These overall numbers," said NBC News, "are essentially unchanged from a January 2014 NBC News/Wall Street Journal [poll], when 23 percent of registered voters said they supported Snowden's actions, versus 38 percent who opposed them."
In July 2014, the Pew Research Center released the results of its Spring 2014 Global Attitudes Survey, which found widespread worldwide opposition to U.S. eavesdropping and a decline in the view that the U.S. respects the personal freedoms of its own people, but "little evidence this opposition has severely harmed America's overall image." While the majority of Americans and others around the world condoned spying on suspected terrorists, they agreed it is unacceptable to spy on American citizens.
In August 2014, Vanity Fair published the results of a poll conducted in June on behalf of CBS News that asked a random sample of 1,017 adult Americans nationwide, "Did Edward Snowden act ethically?" In response, 54% said no, 27% said yes, and 19% didn't know.
Accolades and honors conferred
Conference speaking engagements
In March 2014, Snowden spoke at the South by Southwest (SXSW) Interactive technology conference in Austin, Texas, in front of 3,500 attendees. He participated by teleconference carried over multiple routers running the Google Hangouts platform. On-stage moderators were Christopher Soghoian and Snowden's legal counsel Wizner, both from the ACLU. Snowden said that the NSA was "setting fire to the future of the internet," and that the SXSW audience was "the firefighters." Attendees could use Twitter to send questions to Snowden, who answered one by saying that information gathered by corporations was much less dangerous than that gathered by a government agency, because "governments have the power to deprive you of your rights." Representative Mike Pompeo of the House Intelligence Committee had tried unsuccessfully to get the SXSW management to cancel Snowden's appearance; instead, SXSW director Hugh Forrest said that the NSA was welcome to respond to Snowden at the 2015 conference.
Later that month, Snowden appeared by teleconference at the TED conference in Vancouver, British Columbia. Represented on stage by a robot with a video screen, video camera, microphones and speakers, Snowden conversed with TED curator Chris Anderson, and told the attendees that online businesses should act quickly to encrypt their websites. He described the NSA's PRISM program as the U.S. government using businesses to collect data for them, and that the NSA "intentionally misleads corporate partners" using, as an example, the Bullrun decryption program to create backdoor access. Snowden said he would gladly return to the U.S. if given immunity from prosecution, but that he was more concerned about alerting the public about abuses of government authority. Anderson invited internet pioneer Tim Berners-Lee on stage to converse with Snowden, who said that he would support Berners-Lee's concept of an "internet Magna Carta" to "encode our values in the structure of the internet."
On September 15, 2014, Snowden appeared via remote video link, along with Julian Assange, on Kim Dotcom's Moment of Truth town hall meeting held in Auckland. He made a similar video link appearance on February 2, 2015, along with Greenwald, as the keynote speaker at the World Affairs Conference at Upper Canada College in Toronto.
In March 2015, while speaking at the FIFDH (international human rights film festival) he made a public appeal for Switzerland to grant him asylum, saying he would like to return to live in Geneva, where he once worked undercover for the Central Intelligence Agency.
The "Snowden Effect"
In July 2013, media critic Jay Rosen defined The Snowden Effect as "Direct and indirect gains in public knowledge from the cascade of events and further reporting that followed Edward Snowden’s leaks of classified information about the surveillance state in the U.S." In The Nation, the Snowden effect was described thusly: "[Snowden's] actions have sparked a debate about the intersection of national security and individual privacy that we weren't having six months ago, but should have been." The Economist speculated that "the big consequence" of the "Snowden Effect" will be that "countries and companies will erect borders of sorts in cyberspace." In Forbes, the effect was seen as evidenced by a rare bipartisan movement in the U.S. Congress: "a divided, intransigent Congress seems nearly united over the idea that the massive domestic intelligence gathering system that grew after 9/11 has simply gone too far." In its Spring 2014 Global Attitudes Survey, the Pew Research Center attributed to the Snowden effect their finding that "The image of the United States has been tarnished by Snowden's revelations about National Security Agency monitoring of communications around the world, especially in Europe and Latin America."
In August 2014, Government Executive reported that "among the many actions the Obama administration took in the 'post-Snowden' era" was to appoint William Evanina, a former FBI special agent with a counter-terrorism specialty, as the new government-wide National Counterintelligence Executive in May 2014. "Instead of getting carried away with the concept of leakers as heroes," said Evanina, "we need to get back to the basics of what it means to be loyal. Undifferentiated, unauthorized leaking is a criminal act. … We need to ensure that both the employees and the individuals doing the background checks are solid." While dealing with insider threats had been an intelligence community priority since WikiLeaks published Chelsea Manning's disclosures in 2010, Evanina said that in the aftermath of Snowden's June 2013 revelations, the process "sped up from a regional railway to the Acela train." A year later, 100,000 fewer people had security clearances. "That's a lot," said Evanina.
In September 2014, Director of National Intelligence James Clapper said Snowden's leaks created a "perfect storm", degrading the intelligence community's capabilities. Snowden's leaks, said Clapper, damaged relationships with foreign and corporate stakeholders, restrained budget resources, and caused the U.S. to discontinue collecting intelligence on certain targets, putting the United States at greater risk.
In October 2014, former Director of the National Counterterrorism Center Matthew G. Olsen told CNN that Snowden's disclosures had made it easier for terrorist groups to evade U.S. surveillance by changing their encryption methods. "We've lost collection against some individuals, people that we were concerned about," said Olsen. "We are no longer collecting their communications. We lost insight into what they were doing." By July 2015 the Islamic State had studied Snowden's disclosures and, U.S. officials said, its leaders were using couriers or encrypted communications that Western analysts could not crack.
In February 2015, National Counterterrorism Center director Nicholas J. Rasmussen told Congress that Snowden's leaks had damaged U.S. intelligence capabilities. Rasmussen cited "specific examples of terrorists who have adopted greater security measures such as using various new types of encryption, terrorists who have dropped or changed email addresses, and terrorists who have simply stopped communicating in ways they had before, in part because they understand how we collected."
Reflecting on the effect of his leaks, Snowden stated in February 2015 that "the biggest change has been in awareness. Before 2013, if you said the NSA was making records of everybody's phonecalls and the GCHQ was monitoring lawyers and journalists, people raised eyebrows and called you a conspiracy theorist. Those days are over."
In March 2015, USA Today reported that the Snowden effect had hit The Guardian. Journalist Michael Wolff, who wrote for The Guardian for many years, asserted that the recent selection of Katharine Viner as editor-in-chief "can be read as, in part, a deeply equivocal response on the part of the paper's staff, with its unusual power in the process of selecting a new editor, to the Snowden story." According to Wolff, there had developed "a sense of journalistic queasiness around Snowden, difficult to express at the party-line Guardian. Questioning Snowden's retreat to Russia and his protection by Vladimir Putin was internally verboten."
In the technology industry, the Snowden effect had a profound impact after it was revealed that the NSA was tapping into the information held by some U.S. cloud-based services. Google, Cisco, and AT&T lost business internationally due to the "outcry" over their roles in NSA spying. It has been estimated that the cloud-based computing industry could lose up to $35 billion in the next three years. The Wall Street Journal reported that the "Snowden effect" was the top tech story of 2013, saying the Snowden leaks "taught businesses that the convenience of the cloud cuts both ways." The Journal predicted the "effect" would top 2014 news as well, given the number of documents yet to be revealed. In China, the most profitable country for U.S. tech companies, all are "under suspicion as either witting or unwitting collaborators" in the NSA spying, and are "on the defensive", according to the director of the Research Center for Chinese Politics and Business at Indiana University. The effect was also seen in changes to investment in the industry, with security "back on the map."
On August 8, 2013, Lavabit, a secure email provider that Snowden used, discontinued service after being asked for encryption keys that would have exposed to U.S. government prosecutors the emails of all 410,000 Lavabit users. The next day, a similar provider called Silent Circle announced that it too would shut down because the company could "see the writing on the wall" and felt it was not possible to sufficiently secure email. In October 2013, the two companies joined forces and announced a new email service, "Dark Mail Alliance", designed to withstand government surveillance.
Following on the initial revelations in the summer of 2013, a discussion about pervasive surveillance of the Internet started in the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF). It was given a formal home starting in August 2013 under the label “perpass” (for pervasive passive surveillance). This discussion led to the publication, in May 2014, of RFC 7258, Pervasive Monitoring Is an Attack. This document states that “Pervasive monitoring is a technical attack that should be mitigated in the design of IETF protocols, where possible.” The consequence is that designers of future Internet protocols will be required to show that they have considered countering such attacks in their designs.
After revelations that German Chancellor Angela Merkel's mobile was being tapped, the tech industry rushed to create a secure cell phone. According to TechRepublic, revelations from the NSA leaks have "rocked the IT world" and have had a "chilling effect". The three biggest impacts were seen as increased interest in encryption, business leaving U.S. companies, and a reconsideration of the safety of cloud technology.
The Blackphone, which The New Yorker called "a phone for the age of Snowden"—described as "a smartphone explicitly designed for security and privacy", created by the makers of GeeksPhone, Silent Circle, and PGP, provided encryption for phone calls, emails, texts, and Internet browsing.
Since Snowden's disclosures, Americans used the Internet less for things like email, online shopping and banking, according to an April 2014 poll. Also in April 2014, former NSA deputy director Col. Cedric Leighton told the Bloomberg Enterprise Technology Summit in New York City that Snowden's leaks had performed a "significant disservice" to the worldwide health of the Internet by leading Brazil and other countries to reconsider the Internet's decentralized nature. Leighton suggested that nation states' efforts to create their own versions of the Internet were the beginning of the end for the Internet as we know it. "When you have a situation where all of a sudden, everyone goes into 'tribal' mode—a German cloud, a Swiss cloud, or any other separate Internet—they are significant nationalistic attempts," said Leighton. "What happened with Snowden, it's more of an excuse than a policy, it's more of an excuse to re-nationalize the Internet."
In March 2014, The New York Times reported that economic fallout from Snowden's leaks had been a boon for foreign companies, to the detriment of U.S. firms. "It's clear to every single tech company that this is affecting their bottom line," said Daniel Castro, a senior analyst at the Information Technology and Innovation Foundation, who predicted that the United States cloud computing industry could lose $35 billion by 2016. Matthias Kunisch, a German software executive who spurned U.S. cloud computing providers for Deutsche Telekom, said, "Because of Snowden, our customers have the perception that American companies have connections to the NSA." Security analysts estimated that U.S. tech companies had since Snowden collectively spent millions and possibly billions of dollars adding state-of-the-art encryption features to consumer services and to the cables that link data centers.
In July 2014, the nonpartisan New America Foundation summarized the impact of Snowden's revelations on U.S. businesses. The erosion of trust, said the report, has had serious consequences for U.S. tech firms. IT executives in France, Hong Kong, Germany, the UK, and the U.S. confirmed that Snowden's leaks directly impacted how companies around the world think about information and communication technologies, particularly cloud computing. A quarter of British and Canadian multinational companies surveyed were moving their data outside the U.S. Among U.S. companies attributing drops in revenue to, in part, fallout from Snowden's leaks were Cisco Systems, Qualcomm, IBM, Microsoft, and Hewlett-Packard. Proposed laws in more than a dozen foreign countries, including Germany, Brazil, and India, would make it harder for U.S. firms to do business there. The European Union is considering stricter domestic privacy legislation that could result in fines and penalties costing U.S. firms billions of dollars.
In August 2014, Massachusetts-based web intelligence firm Recorded Future announced it had found a direct connection between Snowden's leaks and dramatic changes in how Islamist terrorists interacted online. (In 2010, the privately held Recorded Future received an investment from In-Q-Tel, a nonprofit venture capital firm whose primary partner is the CIA.) Just months after Snowden's 2013 leaks, said Recorded Future, operatives of al-Qaeda and associated groups completely overhauled their 7-year-old encryption methods, which included "homebrewed" algorithms, adopting instead more sophisticated open-source software and newly available downloads that enabled encryption on cellphones, Android products, and Macs, to help disguise their communications.
In September 2014, Seattle-based Deep Web and Dark Web monitoring firm Flashpoint Global Partners published a report that found "very little open source information available via jihadi online social media" indicating that Snowden's leaks impelled al-Qaeda to develop more secure digital communications. "The underlying public encryption methods employed by online jihadists," the report concluded, "do not appear to have significantly changed since the emergence of Edward Snowden. Major recent technological advancements have focused primarily on expanding the use of encryption to instant messenger and mobile communications mediums."
In May 2015, The Nation reported, "The fallout from the Edward Snowden fiasco wasn't just political—it was largely economic. Soon after the extent of the NSA's data collection became public, overseas customers (including the Brazilian government) started abandoning U.S.-based tech companies in droves over privacy concerns. The dust hasn't settled yet, but tech-research firm Forrester estimated the losses may total 'as high as $180 billion,' or 25 percent of industry revenue."
In September 2014, The New York Times credited Apple Inc.'s update of iOS 8, which encrypts all data inside it, as demonstrating how Snowden's impact had begun to work its way into consumer products. His revelations, said The Times, "not only killed recent efforts to expand the law, but also made nations around the world suspicious that every piece of American hardware and software—from phones to servers made by Cisco Systems—have 'back doors' for American intelligence and law enforcement." As its CEO Tim Cook explained, Apple "sell[s] devices to people, [which] distinguishes Apple from companies that make a profit from collecting and selling users' personal data to advertisers." The Times situated this development within a "Post Snowden Era" in which Apple would no longer comply with NSA and law enforcement requests for user data, instead maintaining that Apple doesn't possess the key to unlock data on the iPhone. However, since the new security protects information stored on the device itself, but not data stored on Apple’s iCloud service, Apple will still be able to obtain some customer information stored on iCloud in response to government requests. The Times added that Google's Android (operating system) would have encryption enabled by default in upcoming versions "so you won’t even have to think about turning it on," according to Google.
In popular culture
Snowden's passage through Hong Kong inspired a local production team to produce a low-budget five-minute film entitled Verax. The film, depicting the time Snowden spent hiding in the Mira Hotel while being unsuccessfully tracked by the CIA and China's Ministry of State Security, was uploaded to YouTube on June 25, 2013.
A dramatic thriller, Classified: The Edward Snowden Story, was scheduled for release on September 19, 2014. The feature-length film, which was crowdfunded to be offered as a free download, was directed by Jason Bourque and produced by Travis Doering. Actor Kevin Zegers played Edward Snowden, Michael Shanks played Glenn Greenwald and Carmen Aguirre played Laura Poitras.
In September 2013, the TV series South Park parodied the Snowden revelations, with Eric Cartman standing in for Snowden. The episode, titled "Let Go, Let Gov," received the highest ratings for the show in two years.
In the District of Columbia, the Partnership for Civil Justice Fund (PCJF), a free speech advocacy group, crowdfunded an ad saying "Thank You Edward Snowden" that was featured on the sides of a D.C. city bus for four weeks in late 2013. The PCJF said they received enough support from around the world to sponsor partial ads on five more buses in 2014.
Snowden has been featured in video games and has an action figure made in his image. Although not endorsed by Snowden, proceeds from the $99 doll are donated to Freedom of the Press Foundation, where he serves on the board of directors. In May 2014, Beyond: Edward Snowden, a graphic novel by Marvel Comics writer Valerie D'Orazio, illustrated by Dan Lauer, appeared in both print and digital editions as part a new series from Bluewater Productions, which the publisher said would reveal "stories about the secret and suppressed, the stories 'They' don't want you to know!"
In June 2014, The Guardian reported that film director Oliver Stone had bought the rights to Time of the Octopus, a forthcoming novel based on Snowden's life and written by his Russian lawyer, Anatoly Kucherena. Stone said he would use both Kucherena's book and Luke Harding's nonfiction The Snowden Files for the screenplay of his movie, which began production later in 2014. Snowden will be portrayed by American actor Joseph Gordon-Levitt in the biopic Snowden, which is due for release in December 2015.
On October 10, 2014, Citizenfour, a documentary about Snowden, received its world premiere at the New York Film Festival. Earlier that year, director Laura Poitras told Associated Press she was editing the film in Berlin because she feared her source material would be seized by the government inside the U.S. The two-hour film was shot in various countries, tracing Snowden's time in Hong Kong and including Moscow, where he is currently living with his girlfriend Lindsay Mills. The film was released in the U.S. and Europe to positive reviews, and won the 2015 Academy Award for Best Documentary Feature. During a Reddit "AMA" (Ask Me Anything) in February 2015, Snowden declared, "I don't have a commercial interest in the film."
In October 2014, Killswitch, a film that features Edward Snowden as well as Aaron Swartz, Lawrence Lessig, and Tim Wu received its world premiere at the Woodstock Film Festival, where it won the award for Best Editing. It has since played alongside Citizenfour at the International Documentary Film Festival Amsterdam and has continued an international film festival run. The film probes the efforts of big business to control the Internet, the efforts of government to regulate it, the efforts of hacktivists to free up information worldwide and the consequences.
In October 2014, Realscreen magazine revealed that a second Edward Snowden documentary, entitled Snowden's Great Escape, was in the works. The film is being coproduced by Germany's Norddeutscher Rundfunk and Denmark’s DR TV, and incorporates two new interviews with Snowden, filmed in Moscow. The film is set to be released in 2015.
On February 9, 2015, electronic pop producer Big Data released a song called "Snowed In" that featured vocals from Weezer frontman Rivers Cuomo from his debut album, 2.0. The song's lyrics, inspired by Snowden, are told from the perspective of the NSA, alternating between inner dialogue and statements made to the press.
On the April 5, 2015 episode of Last Week Tonight with John Oliver, John Oliver interviewed Snowden in Moscow. The next day, a bust of Snowden was briefly attached to the Prison Ship Martyrs' Monument in Fort Greene Park in Brooklyn, New York City, before being taken down by city officials. The guerrilla artists responsible are currently unknown. Hours after the statue was removed, it was replaced by an ephemeral hologram image of Snowden.
- Criticism of the United States government
- 2013 global surveillance disclosures
- NSA warrantless surveillance (2001–07)
- Classified information in the United States
- Operation Socialist (code name)
- Information sensitivity
- List of people granted asylum
- List of people who have lived at airports
- List of United States extradition treaties
- List of whistleblowers
- Mass surveillance in the United States
- NSA whistleblowers
- Stellar Wind (code name)
- Terrorist Surveillance Program
- Russian influence operations in the United States
- Philip Agee
- Killswitch (film)
- Hong Kong's Secretary for Justice Rimsky Yuen argued that government officials did not issue a provisional arrest warrant for Snowden due to "discrepancies and missing information" in the paperwork sent by U.S. authorities. Yuen explained that Snowden's full name was inconsistent, and his U.S. passport number was also missing. Hong Kong also wanted more details of the charges and evidence against Snowden to make sure it was not a political case. Secretary for Justice Rimsky Yuen said he spoke to U.S. Attorney General Eric Holder by phone to reinforce the request for details "absolutely necessary" for detention of Snowden. Yuen said "As the US government had failed to provide the information by the time Snowden left Hong Kong, it was impossible for the Department of Justice to apply to a court for a temporary warrant of arrest. In fact, even at this time, the US government has still not provided the details we asked for."
- "Former U.S. officials give NSA whistleblower Snowden award in Russia". Haaretz. October 10, 2013. Retrieved April 11, 2015.
- "Snowden Honored With 'Alternative Nobel'". ABC News. September 24, 2014.
- "Edward Snowden Receives Stuttgart Peace Prize 2014". Fars News Agency. November 24, 2014.
- Suzanna Andrews, Bryan Burrough & Sarah Ellison (May 2014), "The Snowden Saga: A Shadowland of Secrets and Light" Vanity Fair
- Finn, Peter; Horwitz, Sari (June 21, 2013). "U.S. charges Snowden with espionage". The Washington Post. Retrieved April 11, 2015.
- Hunt, Gordon (June 5, 2015). "Edward Snowden: I’ve applied for asylum in 21 countries". siliconrepublic.
- Ackerman, Spencer (June 10, 2013). "Edward Snowden failed in attempt to join US army's elite special forces unit". The Guardian (London). Retrieved April 11, 2015.
The army did confirm Snowden's date of birth: June 21, 1983.
- "Report: Snowden has document to enter Russia". WVEC. July 24, 2013. "Edward Snowden, who was born in Elizabeth City, NC, is wanted in the U.S. for espionage."
- "NSA leaker Edward Snowden has ties to North Carolina". The News & Observer. August 1, 2013.[dead link]
- "Retired U. S. Coast Guard Flag Officers". United States Coast Guard. May 15, 2014.
- Cole, Matthew; Esposito, Richard; Dedman, Bill; Schone, Mark (May 28, 2014). "Edward Snowden's Motive Revealed: He Can 'Sleep at Night'". NBC News.
- Itkowitz, Colby; Sheehan, Daniel Patrick (June 10, 2013). "Edward Snowden's father, stepmother plan to make public statement". The Morning Call (Allentown, PA).
- Tracy, Connor (June 10, 2013). "What we know about NSA leaker Edward Snowden". NBC News.
- Toppo, Greg (June 10, 2013). "Former neighbor remembers Snowden as 'nice kid'". USA Today (Washington, D.C.).
- "Court Information". United States District Court for the District of Maryland. Retrieved March 10, 2015.
- Bamford, James (August 13, 2014). "Edward Snowden: The untold story of the most wanted man in the world". Wired.
- Cole, Matthew; Brunker, Mike (May 26, 2014). "Edward Snowden: A Timeline". NBC News.
- "Edward Snowden's father, a Lehigh County resident, tells network he's concerned for son's well-being". Leheigh Vally Express Times.
- "Edward Snowden's Father Speaks Out To Fox About Media 'Misinformation,' Asks Son To Stop Leaking". Mediaite. May 26, 2013.
- Dedman, Bill; Brunker, Mike; Cole, Matthew (May 26, 2014). "Who Is Edward Snowden, the Man Who Spilled the NSA's Secrets?". NBC News. Retrieved April 11, 2015.
- Greenwald, Glenn; MacAskill, Ewen; Poitras, Laura (June 9, 2013). "Edward Snowden: the whistleblower behind the NSA surveillance revelations". The Guardian (London).
- "Booz Allen hired Snowden despite discrepancies in his résumé." (print title: "Snowden hired despite discrepancies in résumé"). Reuters. South China Morning Post (Hong Kong). June 22, 2013. – Alternate link under title: "Exclusive: NSA contractor hired Snowden despite concerns about resume discrepancies" by Hosenball, Mark (Editing by David Lindsey and Stacey Joyce).
- "U.S. Fears Edward Snowden May Defect to China: Sources". ABC News. June 13, 2013. p. 3.
- Rusbridger, Alan; MacAskill, Ewen (July 18, 2014). "I, spy: Edward Snowden in exile". The Guardian.
- Phadnis, Shilpa (December 4, 2013). "Edward Snowden sharpened his hacking skills in Delhi". The Times of India.
- "Snowden's Life Surrounded By Spycraft". Associated Press. June 15, 2013.
- Cooke, Kristina; Shiffman, Scott (June 12, 2013). "Exclusive: Snowden as a teen online: anime and cheeky humor". Reuters.
- Yoshida, Reiji (June 15, 2013). "Snowden Web manga profile still online". Japan Times (Tokyo).
- Broder, John M.; Scott, Shane (June 15, 2013). "For Snowden, a Life of Ambition, Despite the Drifting". The New York Times. Archived from the original on June 15, 2013.
- Gellmann, Barton (December 24, 2013). "Edward Snowden, after months of NSA revelations, says his mission's accomplished". The Washington Post. Retrieved January 4, 2014.
- Malkin, Bonnie (June 12, 2013). "Edward Snowden's girlfriend lost and alone after whistleblower flees to Hong Kong". The Daily Telegraph (London). Retrieved April 11, 2015.
- "Profile: Edward Snowden". BBC News. June 10, 2013.
- Paul Lewis (June 11, 2013), Edward Snowden's girlfriend Lindsay Mills: At the moment I feel alone The Guardian
- Greenwald, Glenn. "Edward Snowden's Girlfriend, Lindsay Mills, Moved to Moscow to Live with Him". The Intercept. Retrieved October 10, 2014.
- Briquelet, Kate (October 11, 2014). "Girlfriend Snowden ‘left’ lives with him in Moscow". New York Post. Retrieved October 12, 2014.
- Kucherena ready to help Snowden's friend obtain a residence permit in Russia October 11, 2014
- MacAskill, Ewen (June 9, 2013). "NSA whistleblower Edward Snowden: 'I do not expect to see home again'". The Guardian (London). Retrieved April 11, 2015.
- Mullin, Joe (June 13, 2013). "NSA leaker Ed Snowden's life on Ars Technica". Ars Technica. Retrieved April 11, 2015.
- Mullin, Joe (June 26, 2013). "In 2009, Ed Snowden said leakers "should be shot." Then he became one.". Ars Technica.
- Harding, Luke (January 31, 2014). "How Edward Snowden went from loyal NSA contractor to whistleblower". The Guardian.
- Lam, Lana (June 13, 2013). "Whistle-blower Edward Snowden talks to South China Morning Post". South China Morning Post (Hong Kong). Retrieved April 11, 2015.
- Edward Snowden: A ‘Nation’ Interview
- "Army Enlisted Job Descriptions and Qualification Factors: 18X – Special Forces Enlistment Option". Retrieved April 11, 2015.
- Gaskell, Stephanie (June 10, 2013). "Records show Army discharged Edward Snowden after five months". Politico.
- Ackerman, Spencer. "Edward Snowden did enlist for special forces, US army confirms". The Guardian.
- Finn, Peter; Miller, Greg; Nakashima, Ellen (June 10, 2013). "Investigators looking into how Snowden gained access at NSA". The Washington Post. Retrieved April 11, 2015.
University spokesman Brian Ullmann confirmed that in 2005, Snowden worked for less than a year as a 'security specialist' for the school's Center for Advanced Study of Language. The university-affiliated center, founded in 2003, is not a classified facility.
- Jacob Jijo (October 11, 2013). "Edward Snowden Scandal: CIA Sent Him Home But NSA Hired Him Later". International Business Times. Retrieved January 30, 2014.
- Memmott, Mark (June 10, 2013). "Who Is Edward Snowden, The Self-Styled NSA Leaker?". NPR.
- Greenwald, Glenn (2014). No Place to Hide. Metropolitan Books. p. 43. ISBN 978-1627790734.
- Bütikofer, Christian (June 10, 2013). "Wie die CIA sich in Genf Bankdaten beschaffte" [How the CIA acquired bank data in Geneva]. Handelszeitung (in German) (Zürich).
- Miles, Tom (June 16, 2013). "Swiss president would back criminal probe against NSA leaker". Reuters.
- Drew, Christopher; Scott Shane (July 4, 2013). "Résumé Shows Snowden Honed Hacking Skills". The New York Times. Retrieved April 11, 2015.
- Hosenball, Mark (August 15, 2013). "Snowden downloaded NSA secrets while working for Dell, sources say". Reuters.
- See also Edward Jay Epstein interview at 1:25
- Greenberg, Andy (June 18, 2013). "NSA Implementing 'Two-Person' Rule To Stop The Next Edward Snowden". Forbes (New York). Retrieved April 11, 2015.
- Gertz, Bill (June 13, 2013). "Officials Worried Snowden Will Pass Secrets to Chinese". Washington Free Beacon. Archived from the original on June 14, 2013.
- Shane, Scott; Sanger, David E. (June 30, 2013). "Job Title Key to Inner Access Held by Snowden". The New York Times. Archived from the original on July 4, 2014.
- "Transcript: ARD interview with Edward Snowden". The Courage Foundation. January 27, 2014.
- Epstein, Edward Jay (June 29, 2014). "Revisiting Snowden's Hong Kong Getaway". The Wall Street Journal.
- "Edward Snowden: NSA whistleblower answers reader questions". The Guardian (London). June 14, 2013.
- Greenwald, Glenn (June 17, 2013). "Edward Snowden Q&A: Dick Cheney traitor charge is 'the highest honor'". London: The Guardian.
- Lam, Lana (June 24, 2013). "Snowden sought Booz Allen job to gather evidence on NSA surveillance." South China Morning Post (Hong Kong).
- Mark Hosenball and Warren Strobel (November 7, 2013), Snowden persuaded other NSA workers to give up passwords – sources Reuters
- Michael, Isikoff (February 12, 2014). "Exclusive: Snowden Swiped Password From NSA Coworker". nbcnews.com. NBC News.
- Nicks, Denver (February 13, 2014). "NSA Memo Says Snowden Tricked Colleague to Get Password". time.com (Time Inc.). Retrieved February 14, 2014.
- See also Edward Jay Epstein interview at 7:57 "three people said he tricked them in that way"
- Andy Greenberg (December 16, 2013), An NSA Coworker Remembers The Real Edward Snowden: 'A Genius Among Geniuses' Forbes
- Miller, Greg (January 23, 2014). "Snowden denies stealing passwords to access secret files". The Washington Post. Retrieved April 11, 2015.
- Snowden, Edward (January 23, 2014). "Live Q&A with Edward Snowden". Courage Foundation. Archived from the original on January 11, 2015.
- Bacon, John (June 11, 2013). "Contractor fires Snowden from $122,000 per-year job". USA Today.
- Greenberg, Andy (December 16, 2013). "An NSA Coworker Remembers The Real Edward Snowden: 'A Genius Among Geniuses'". Forbes. Retrieved April 11, 2015.
- Cassidy, John (January 23, 2014). "A Vindicated Snowden Says He'd Like to Come Home". The New Yorker. Retrieved April 11, 2015.
- Peterson, Andrea. "Snowden: I raised NSA concerns internally over 10 times before going rogue". The Washington Post. Retrieved March 10, 2014.
- Ellen Nakashima and Barton Gellman (May 29, 2014) U.S. officials, Snowden clash over e-mail records Washington Post
- Hattem, Julian (June 25, 2014). "NSA says it has no record of Snowden challenging spying". The Hill. Retrieved April 11, 2015.
- "Edward Snowden speaks to the Council of Europe on improving the protection of whistleblowers". The Courage Foundation. June 25, 2014.
- 'Se o Brasil me oferecer asilo, aceito', diz Edward Snowden at 3:03 Rede Globo June 1, 2014
- Rusbridger, Alan; MacAskill, Ewen (July 18, 2014). "Edward Snowden interview – the edited transcript". The Guardian. Retrieved April 11, 2015.
- Mazzetti, Mark and Schmidt, Michael S. (December 14, 2013) Officials Say U.S. May Never Know Extent of Snowden's Leaks. The New York Times
- Cameron Stewart and Paul Maley (December 5, 2013). "Edward Snowden stole up to 20,000 Aussie files". The Australian. Retrieved February 1, 2014.
- "David Miranda row: Seized files 'endanger agents'". BBC. August 30, 2013. Retrieved February 1, 2014.
- Hosenball, M. (November 14, 2013). NSA chief says Snowden leaked up to 200,000 secret documents. Reuters.
- Chris Strohm and Del Quentin Wilber (January 10, 2014). "Pentagon Says Snowden Took Most U.S. Secrets Ever: Rogers". Bloomberg News. Retrieved February 1, 2014.
- Leopold, Jason (June 4, 2015). "Exclusive: Inside Washington's Quest to Bring Down Edward Snowden". Vice News. Retrieved June 4, 2015.
- Gellman, Barton; Tate, Julie; Soltani, Ashkan (July 5, 2014). "In NSA-intercepted data, those not targeted far outnumber the foreigners who are". The Washington Post.
- Capra, Tony (March 6, 2014). "Snowden Leaks Could Cost Military Billions: Pentagon". NBC News. Retrieved April 11, 2015.
- "Interview transcript: former head of the NSA and commander of the US cyber command, General Keith Alexander". Australian Financial Review. Retrieved May 30, 2014.
- Greenwald, Glenn; MacAskill, Ewen; Poitras, Laura (June 10, 2013). "Edward Snowden: the whistleblower behind the NSA surveillance revelations". The Guardian. Archived from the original on August 1, 2013.
- Sanger, David E. (June 29, 2014) New N.S.A. Chief Calls Damage From Snowden Leaks Manageable. The New York Times
- Cooper, Aaron (February 23, 2015). "NSA: Snowden leaks hurt ability to track terrorists". CNN.
- Haynes, Deborah. "Full damage of Snowden leaks revealed". thetimes.co.uk. The Times.(subscription required)
- Simcox, Robin. "Surveillance after Snowden:Effective Espionage in an Age of Transparency" (PDF). henryjacksonsociety.org. Henry Jackson Society.
- "Snowden leaks: undermining security or defending privacy?". Channel 4. May 26, 2015.
- Risen, James (October 17, 2013). "Snowden Says He Took No Secret Files to Russia". The New York Times. Retrieved January 20, 2014.
- Maass, Peter (August 13, 2013). "How Laura Poitras Helped Snowden Spill His Secrets". The New York Times.
- Kevin Poulsen (May 21, 2014) Snowden’s First Move Against the NSA Was a Party in Hawaii WIRED
- How Edward Snowden led journalist and film-maker to reveal NSA secrets. The Guardian.
- Carmon, Irin (June 10, 2013). "How we broke the NSA story". Salon.
- Poitras, Laura (August 22, 2012). "The Program". The New York Times.
- U.S. filmmaker repeatedly detained at border. Salon. (April 8, 2012).
- Weinger, Mackenzie (June 10, 2013). "Barton Gellman, Glenn Greenwald feud over NSA leaker". Politico. Retrieved April 11, 2015.
- Gellman, Barton (June 10, 2013). "Code name 'Verax': Snowden, in exchanges with Post reporter, made clear he knew risks". The Washington Post. Retrieved April 11, 2015.
- "Interview with Whistleblower Edward Snowden on Global Spying". Der Spiegel. July 8, 2013. Retrieved December 18, 2013. (Page 1 Archive, Page 2, Page 2 Archive) – Originally published in German in Issue 28/2013, July 8, 2013. Snowden interview originally conducted in English, with English version of the article using the original English interview
- Bengali, Shashank; Dilanian, Ken (June 17, 2013). "Edward Snowden vows more disclosures about U.S. surveillance". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved April 11, 2015.
- Yang, Jia Lynn (June 10, 2013). "Edward Snowden faces strong extradition treaty if he remains in Hong Kong". The Washington Post. Retrieved April 11, 2015.
- "Timeline of Edward Snowden's revelations | Al Jazeera America". Al Jazeera.
- Greenwald: 'Explosive' NSA Spying Reports Are Imminent Der Spiegel 19 July 2013
- "NSA Primary Sources". Electronic Frontier Foundation. Retrieved December 14, 2013.
- Esposito, Richard; Cole, Matthew; Schone, Mark; Greenwald, Glenn. "Snowden docs reveal British spies snooped on YouTube and Facebook". NBC. Retrieved January 29, 2014.
- "Journalists who broke NSA story in Guardian dedicate award to Snowden". The Guardian. Retrieved April 25, 2014.
- "Edward Snowden's prize". Politico. Retrieved April 25, 2014.
- Mirkinson, Jack (April 14, 2014). "The Pulitzer Prizes Just Demolished The Idea That Edward Snowden Is A Traitor". The Huffington Post. Retrieved April 17, 2014.
- Gellman, Barton; Soltani, Ashkan (November 1, 2013). "NSA infiltrates links to Yahoo, Google data centers worldwide, Snowden documents say". The Washington Post. Retrieved April 11, 2015.
- Gellman, Barton (November 4, 2013). "How we know the NSA had access to internal Google and Yahoo cloud data". The Washington Post.
- Greenwald, Glenn and Ewen MacAskill (June 8, 2013). "Boundless Informant: the NSA's secret tool to track global surveillance data". The Guardian (London). Retrieved June 12, 2013.
- Tim Leslie and Mark Corcoran. "Explained: Australia's involvement with the NSA, the US spy agency at heart of global scandal". Australian Broadcasting Corporation. Retrieved December 18, 2013.
- Julian Borger. "GCHQ and European spy agencies worked together on mass surveillance". The Guardian. Retrieved December 18, 2013.
- Greg Weston, Glenn Greenwald, Ryan Gallagher (December 10, 2013). "Snowden document shows Canada set up spy posts for NSA". Canadian Broadcasting Corporation. Retrieved December 13, 2013.
- BBC News – Only 1% of Snowden files published – Guardian editor. BBC.co.uk (December 3, 2013).
- Snowden spy leaks: worst yet to come, says Defence Minister David Johnston. The Sydney Morning Herald.
- Walt, Vivienne. (October 14, 2013) Greenwald on Snowden Leaks: The Worst Is Yet to Come. Time.
- Greenwald, Glenn; MacAskill, Ewen (June 6, 2013). "NSA Prism program taps in to user data of Apple, Google and others". The Guardian (London).
- "NSA slides explain the PRISM data-collection program". The Washington Post. July 10, 2013. Retrieved April 11, 2015.
- Levy, Steven (January 7, 2014). "How the NSA Almost Killed the Internet | Threat Level". Wired.
- Shane, Scott; Somaiya, Ravi (June 16, 2013). "New Leak Indicates U.S. and Britain Eavesdropped at '09 World Conferences". The New York Times.
- Greenwald, Glenn. "NSA collecting phone records of millions of Verizon customers daily". The Guardian.
- AFP/The Local (firstname.lastname@example.org). "US spy agency 'taped millions of French calls'". Thelocal.fr.
- Chrisafis, Angelique; Jones, Sam. "Snowden leaks: France summons US envoy over NSA surveillance claims". The Guardian.
- France in the NSA's crosshair : phone networks under surveillance. Le Monde.
- Greenwald, Glenn. "XKeyscore: NSA tool collects 'nearly everything a user does on the internet'". The Guardian.
- Gellman, Barton; Soltani, Ashkan (November 1, 2013). "NSA collects millions of e-mail address books globally". The Washington Post. Retrieved April 11, 2015.
- Savage, Charlie (August 8, 2013). "N.S.A. Said to Search Content of Messages to and From U.S.". The New York Times.
- Gellman, Barton; Soltani, Ashkan (December 12, 2013). "NSA tracking cellphone locations worldwide, Snowden documents show". The Washington Post.
- Nicole Perlroth; Jeff Larson; Scott Shane (September 5, 2013). "N.S.A. Able to Foil Basic Safeguards of Privacy on Web". The New York Times.
- Ball, James; Borger, Julian; Greenward, Glenn (September 5, 2013). "U.S. and UK spy agencies defeat privacy and security on the internet". The Guardian.
- "The Switch". The Washington Post.
- Elliott, Justin (December 9, 2013). "World of Spycraft: NSA and CIA Spied in Online Games". ProPublica. Retrieved April 11, 2015.
- Peterson, Andrea (December 31, 2013). "Here's what we learned about the NSA's spying programs in 2013". The Washington Post.
- Gorman, Siobhan (August 23, 2013). "NSA Officers Spy on Love Interests – Washington Wire". The Wall Street Journal.
- Greenwald, Glenn (November 26, 2013). "Top-Secret Document Reveals NSA Spied on Porn Habits As Part of Plan To Discredit 'Radicalizers'". Huffington Post.
- Jonathan Watts. "NSA accused of spying on Brazilian oil company Petrobras". The Guardian.
- James Ball and Nick Hopkins. "GCHQ and NSA targeted charities, Germans, Israeli PM and EU chief". The Guardian.
- Allam, Hannah. (October 25, 2013) WASHINGTON: Worlds anger at Obama policies goes beyond Europe and the NSA | Europe. McClatchy DC.
- Weisberg, Timothy. (October 23, 2013) Snowden's Paper Trail: Where in the World Is the NSA?. NBC Bay Area.
- "NSA Hacked Email Account of Mexican President – SPIEGEL ONLINE". Der Spiegel. October 20, 2013. Retrieved April 11, 2015.
- British spy agency taps cables, shares with NSA – Guardian. Reuters.
- Bradsher, Keith (June 14, 2013) Snowden's Leaks on China Could Affect Its Role in His Fate. The New York Times
- Privacy Scandal: NSA Can Spy on Smart Phone Data – SPIEGEL ONLINE. Der Spiegel.de (September 7, 2013).
- Report: US spied on millions of phone calls in Spain over one month[dead link]. NBC News.
- NSA monitored calls of 35 world leaders after US official handed over contacts | World news. The Guardian.
- Baker, Luke (October 24, 2013). "Merkel frosty on the U.S. over 'unacceptable' spying allegations". Reuters.
- Traynor, Ian; Lewis, Paul. "Merkel compared NSA to Stasi in heated encounter with Obama". The Guardian.
- Poitras, Laura. "'A' for Angela Merkel: GCHQ and NSA Targeted Private German Companies". Der Spiegel. Retrieved March 31, 2014.
- Gellman, Barton; Miller, Greg (September 5, 2013). "'Black budget' summary details U.S. spy network's successes, failures and objectives". The Washington Post. Retrieved April 11, 2015.
- Timberg, Craig (May 17, 2011). "NSA paying U.S. companies for access to communications networks". The Washington Post.
- "Snowden leaks intelligence 'black budget' to Washington Post | Al Jazeera America". Al Jazeera. August 29, 2013.
- Risen, James and Poitras, Laura (November 22, 2013) N.S.A. Report Outlined Goals for More Power. The New York Times
- Cole, David (May 12, 2014). "‘No Place to Hide’ by Glenn Greenwald, on the NSA’s sweeping efforts to ‘Know it All’". The Washington Post. Retrieved May 18, 2014.
- "Snowden: NSA conducts industrial espionage too". CBS News. January 26, 2014. Retrieved March 31, 2014.
- "Spähangriffe auf deutsche Firmen". Die Welt. August 11, 2014.
- Nelson, Steven. "Snowden Says 'Many Other' Spy Programs Remain Secret, For Now". US News. Retrieved March 13, 2014.
- Greenwald, Glenn. "How the NSA Plans to Infect 'Millions' of Computers with Malware". The Intercept. Retrieved March 31, 2014.
- "Vast majority of NSA spy targets are mistakenly monitored". Philadelphia News.Net. Retrieved July 7, 2014.
- MacAskill, Ewen (June 12, 2013). "Edward Snowden: how the spy story of the age leaked out". The Guardian (London). Retrieved April 11, 2015.
- Cornell, Lauren (October–November 2013). "Primary Documents". Mousse 40: 62–73.
- NSA whistleblower Edward Snowden: 'I don't want to live in a society that does these sort of things' (video). The Guardian (London). June 9, 2013.
- Gellman, Barton. (June 9, 2013) "Code name 'Verax': Snowden, in exchanges with Post reporter, made clear he knew risks". The Washington Post.
- Edward Snowden: US would have buried NSA warnings forever. The Guardian. (October 18, 2013).
- Savage, Charlie (December 16, 2013). "Federal Judge Rules Against N.S.A. Phone Data Program". The New York Times. Retrieved April 11, 2015.
- Greenberg, Andy (June 6, 2013). "Watch Top U.S. Intelligence Officials Repeatedly Deny NSA Spying On Americans Over The Last Year (Videos)". Forbes. Retrieved April 11, 2015.
- "Snowden-Interview: Transcript". Retrieved January 28, 2014.[dead link]
- Peterson, Andrea. "Snowden: I raised NSA concerns internally over 10 times before going rogue." Washington Post. March 7, 2014. Retrieved on March 8, 2014.
- Janet Reitman (December 4, 2013), Snowden and Greenwald: The Men Who Leaked the Secrets Rolling Stone
- CNN NEWSROOM Transcripts CNN June 10, 2013
- Te-ping Chen (June 13, 2013), Snowden's Whereabouts Remain Unclear The Wall Street Journal
- Pomfret, James (June 24, 2013). "Behind Snowden's Hong Kong exit: fear and persuasion". Reuters. Retrieved May 2, 2015.
- Hodge, Katya (December 2013). "Snowden's Canadian lawyer". National Magazine. Retrieved May 2, 2015.
- Bryan Burrough Sarah, Ellison, Suzanna Andrews (May 2014). "Snowden Speaks: A Vanity Fair Special Report". Vanity Fair. Retrieved May 2, 2015.
- Lam, Lana (June 12, 2013). "Whistle-blower Edward Snowden tells SCMP: 'Let Hong Kong people decide my fate'". South China Morning Post (Hong Kong).
- Lam, Lana (June 13, 2013). "Whistleblower Edward Snowden talks to South China Morning Post". South China Morning Post.
He vowed to fight any extradition attempt by the U.S. government, saying: 'My intention is to ask the courts and people of Hong Kong to decide my fate. I have been given no reason to doubt your system.'
- Lana Lam (June 12, 2014) Edward Snowden in Hong Kong South China Morning Post
- Eli Lake (June 25, 2013) Greenwald: Snowden's Files Are Out There if 'Anything Happens' to Him The Daily Beast
- Englund, Will (August 26, 2013). "Report: Snowden stayed at Russian consulate while in Hong Kong". The Washington Post. Retrieved April 11, 2015.
- Mayer, Jane. "Snowden Calls Russian-Spy Story "Absurd"". The New Yorker. Archived from the original on August 7, 2014. Retrieved January 22, 2014.
- Luhn, Alec. "Edward Snowden passed time in airport reading and surfing internet". The Guardian. Retrieved May 29, 2014.
- Angela Shunina (September 6, 2013), Snowden "asked Russian diplomats in Hong Kong for help" – Putin Russia Beyond the Headlines
- Snowden is in 'safe place' waiting for his father to discuss future Information Telegraph Agency of Russia August 31, 2013
- Putin Admits Early Snowden Contact The Wall Street Journal September 4, 2013
- US revokes NSA leaker Edward Snowden's passport, as he reportedly seeks asylum in Ecuador Fox News Channel June 23, 2013
- Shane, Scott (June 23, 2013). "Offering Snowden Aid, WikiLeaks Gets Back in the Game". The New York Times. Retrieved April 11, 2015.
- Makinen, Julie (June 23, 2013). "Snowden leaves Hong Kong; final destination unclear". Los Angeles Times.
- Perlez, Jane; Bradsher, Keith (June 24, 2013). "China Said to Have Made Call to Let Leaker Depart". The New York Times. p. A9 (US edition).
- "HKSAR Government issues statement on Edward Snowden" (Press release). Hong Kong Government. June 23, 2013.
- "Snowden left HK lawfully: CE". Hong Kong Information Services Department. June 24, 2013.
- "No delay in Snowden case: SJ". Hong Kong Information Services Department. June 25, 2013.
- "Hong Kong did not assist Snowden's departure". Global Post. Agence France-Presse. June 25, 2013.
Yuen also said there were discrepancies and missing information in documents used to identify Snowden. 'On the diplomatic documents, James was used as the middle name, on the record upon entering the border, Joseph was used as the middle name, on the American court documents sent to us by the American Justice department, it only said Edward J Snowden,' he said. Hong Kong authorities also noticed that documents produced by the U.S. did not show Snowden's American passport number.
- Luk, Eddie (June 26, 2013). "Justice chief spells it out". The Standard (Hong Kong).
- Daily Press Briefing United States Department of State June 24, 2013
- Pomfret, James; Torode, Greg (June 24, 2013). "Behind Snowden's Hong Kong exit: fear and persuasion". Reuters.
- Sergei L. Loiko (June 23, 2013). "Snowden stopping in Moscow en route to Cuba, Russian says". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved April 11, 2015.
- Edward Snowden lands in Moscow, likely bound for Ecuador. CBS News (June 23, 2013).
- Fidel Castro labels libelous report Cuba blocked Snowden travel Reuters August 28, 2013
- 'Se o Brasil me oferecer asilo, aceito', diz Edward Snowden Rede Globo June 1, 2014
- "United States of Secrets". Frontline. PBS. Retrieved May 21, 2014.
- "Snowden "asked Russian diplomats in Hong Kong for help" - Putin". Asia Pacific. Retrieved May 29, 2014.
- "Russian media report: How Snowden missed his flight to Cuba". Christian Science Monitor. August 26, 2013.
- "Snowden got stuck in Russia after Cuba blocked entry: newspaper". Reuters. August 26, 2013. Retrieved May 29, 2014.
- Will Englund (August 26, 2013), Snowden stayed at Russian Consulate while in Hong Kong, report says The Washington Post
- "Путин признал: Сноуден – в Москве. И посоветовал США не "стричь поросенка"". NEWSru. June 25, 2013.
- "Putin says Snowden at Russian airport, signals no extradition". Reuters. June 25, 2013.
- Baker, Peter; Barry, Ellen (June 23, 2013). "N.S.A. 'Leaker Leaves Hong Kong, Local Officials Say'". The New York Times. Retrieved April 11, 2015.
- "Daily Briefing by Press Secretary Jay Carney, 6/24/2013". The White House. June 24, 2013.
- "AP Source: NSA leaker Snowden's passport revoked". Associated Press. Retrieved May 27, 2014.
- Statement from Edward Snowden in Moscow. Wikileaks.org (July 1, 2013).
- "Did Edward Snowden just evade the US justice system?". MSNBC. Retrieved May 21, 2014.
- The Virtual Interview: Edward Snowden at -50:23 The New Yorker October 11, 2014
- Radia, Kirit. "Edward Snowden Makes No-Leak Promise in Asylum Bid: Lawyer". ABC. Retrieved May 29, 2014.
- Black, Phil. "Snowden meets with rights groups, seeks temporary asylum in Russia". CNN. Retrieved May 29, 2014.
- Vanden Heuvel, Katrina; Cohen, Stephen F. (October 28, 2014). "Edward Snowden: A 'Nation' Interview". The Nation. Retrieved April 11, 2015.
- "Evo Morales se abre a ceder asilo a Edward Snowden si lo solicita" [Evo Morales prepared to give asylum to Edward Snowden if requested]. El Mercurio (in Spanish) (Santiago). EFE. July 1, 2013. Retrieved April 11, 2015.
- Fisher, Max (July 3, 2013). "Evo Morales's controversial flight over Europe, minute by heavily disputed minute". The Washington Post.
- "Spain 'told Edward Snowden was on Bolivia president's plane'". BBC News. July 5, 2013.
- Rerouted Morales plane has South American leaders irate. USA Today. (July 5, 2013).
- "Bolivia Accuses Assange of Putting Evo Morales' Life at Risk". teleSUR. April 13, 2015.
- "Edward Snowden asylum: countries approached and their responses". The Guardian. Retrieved May 5, 2014.
- Gladstone, Rick (July 1, 2013). "Snowden Is Said to Claim U.S. Is Blocking Asylum Bids". The New York Times.
- Carroll, Rory; Holpuch, Amanda (June 28, 2013). "Ecuador cools on Edward Snowden asylum as Assange frustration grows". The Guardian (London).
- Carroll, Rory (July 3, 2013). "Ecuador says it blundered over Snowden travel document". The Guardian (London).
- Alleged Snowden Statement: Obama Administration 'Using Citizenship As A Weapon' « CBS DC. Washington.cbslocal.com (July 1, 2013).
- Galeno, Luis. "Venezuela, Nicaragua offer asylum to NSA leaker Snowden". Reuters. Retrieved April 11, 2015.
- "France rejects Snowden asylum request". United States: Fox News Channel. July 4, 2013.
- "Poland, India, Brazil snub Snowden asylum application". Polish Radio English Section. July 3, 2013.
- "Edward Snowden seeks asylum in 20 nations, but gets no immediate takers". CBS News. July 2, 2013.
- "Italy rejects Snowden asylum request". Reuters. July 4, 2013.
- "Teeven: geen asiel voor Snowden" (in Dutch). Novum Nieuws. July 2, 2013.[dead link]
- "Snowden gives up Germany asylum hopes". The Local. November 6, 2014.
- "Vladimir Putin: Edward Snowden must stop leaking secrets to stay in Russia". Politico. Associated Press. July 1, 2013. Retrieved April 11, 2015.
- Elder, Miriam (July 2, 2013). "Edward Snowden withdraws Russian asylum request". The Guardian.
- Herszenhorn, David M. (July 16, 2013). Leaker Files for Asylum to Remain in Russia The New York Times
- "Edward Snowden's statement to human rights groups in full". The Daily Telegraph (London). July 12, 2013. Retrieved April 11, 2015.
- Stanglin, Doug (July 12, 2013). "Snowden has 'no regrets,' seeks asylum in Russia". USA Today. Retrieved April 11, 2015.
- "Fugitive Edward Snowden applies for asylum in Russia". BBC. July 16, 2013. Retrieved April 11, 2015.
- Gabbatt, Adam (July 26, 2013). "US will not seek death penalty for Edward Snowden, Holder tells Russia". The Guardian.
- Neuman, William; Herszenhorn, David M. (July 5, 2013). "Venezuela Offers Asylum to Snowden". The New York Times. Retrieved April 11, 2015.
- Mohammed, Arshad (July 24, 2013). "U.S. says allowing Snowden to leave airport would be disappointing". Reuters.
- "U.S. vague on whether Obama will go to Moscow amid Snowden flap". Reuters. July 17, 2013.
- "Press Briefing by Press Secretary Jay Carney, 7/12/2013". The White House. July 12, 2013.
- Edward Snowden requests temporary asylum in Russia in compromise – Los Angeles Times. Los Angeles Times. (July 16, 2013).
- "US attorney general's letter to Russian justice minister" (PDF). BBC. July 26, 2013. Retrieved April 11, 2015.
- Horwitz, Sari (July 26, 2013). "U.S. won't seek death penalty for Snowden, Holder says in letter to Russian official". The Washington Post.
- "Russia and US security services 'in talks' over Snowden". BBC. July 26, 2013.
- Greenwald, Glenn (March 19, 2015). "US Threatened Germany Over Snowden, Vice Chancellor Says". The Intercept. Retrieved March 26, 2015.
- Transcript corrected from "to my benefit" to "to their benefit" per video at 29:20
- Radack, Jesselyn (January 22, 2014). "Jesselyn Radack: Why Edward Snowden Wouldn't Get a Fair Trial". WSJ (The Wall Street Journal). Retrieved February 19, 2014.
- "Snowden out of airport, still in Moscow". CNN. August 2, 2013. Retrieved April 11, 2015.
- Loiko, Sergie (August 1, 2013). "Edward Snowden granted asylum, leaves Moscow airport in taxi". LA Times.
- Richter, Paul and Loiko, Sergei L. (August 1, 2013). "Snowden asylum may presage rocky period in U.S.-Russia ties". Los Angeles Times.[dead link]
- "Edward Snowden asylum: US 'disappointed' by Russian decision". The Guardian.
- "Statement by the Press Secretary on the President's Travel to Russia". The White House (USA). August 7, 2013.
- "House leader John Boehner rejects Olympic boycott over Snowden". USA Today. July 17, 2013. Retrieved November 21, 2014.
- "Edward Snowden better off in Russia than US, his father says." Associated Press at The Guardian. July 27, 2013.
- Edward Snowden's father pleased with son's Moscow life. CNN.
- "NSA Leaker Edward Snowden Has New Job in Russia, Lawyer Says". ABC News. October 31, 2013. Retrieved April 11, 2015.
- "Snowden Book and Upcoming Film Chronicle Exile". The Moscow Times. June 9, 2014.
- Hosenball, Mark (October 11, 2013). "Laptops Snowden took to Hong Kong, Russia were a 'diversion'". Reuters. Retrieved April 11, 2015.
- Harper, Tom; Kerbaj, Richard; Shipman, Tim (June 14, 2015). "British spies betrayed to Russians and Chinese". The Sunday Times.(subscription required)
- [Sunday Times reporter on Snowden story: We don’t have a clue! "British spies 'moved after Snowden files read'"]. BBC. June 14, 2015. Retrieved July 31, 2015.
- Greenwald, Glenn (June 14, 2015). "The Sunday Times' Snowden Story is Journalism at its Worst — and Filled with Falsehoods". The Intercept. Retrieved July 31, 2015.
- Wemple, Erik (June 15, 2015). "Sunday Times reporter on Snowden story: We don’t have a clue!". The Washington Post. Retrieved July 31, 2015.
- Edward Snowden back in the limelight? Father, US whistleblowers visit Moscow (+video). The Christian Science Monitor. (October 10, 2013).
- "Edward Snowden says NSA surveillance programmes 'hurt our country'". The Guardian. October 12, 2013. Retrieved April 11, 2015.
- Obama knew of NSA spying on Merkel and approved it, report says. Fox News (October 27, 2013).
- German MP meets Snowden, says he is willing to come to Germany for inquiry. Reuters.
- Eshchenko, Alla (November 1, 2013). "Edward Snowden gets website job in Russia, lawyer says". CNN. Retrieved April 11, 2015.
- Snowden may aid Germany on US spying details. Is Berlin visit in the cards?. The Christian Science Monitor. (November 1, 2013).
- Vargas, Natasha. (October 24, 2013) Enemy of the State. Advocate.com.
- WikiLeaks: Snowden ally Sarah Harrison leaves Russia, won't return to UK over prosecution fear. Fox News (November 6, 2013).
- "Snowden's open letter to Brazil: Read the text". The Washington Post. December 17, 2013. Retrieved April 11, 2015.
- "Snowden's open letter offers to help Brazil look into NSA surveillance". CNN. December 18, 2013.
- "As Brazil's fury over NSA mounts, U.S. vows to work through tensions". CNN. September 12, 2013.
- "Brazil says not considering Snowden asylum". Reuters. December 17, 2013.
- "Brazilian Senator Urges Asylum For Snowden". Associated Press. December 18, 2013.
- "Brazil says it is not considering asylum for Edward Snowden". CBS News. Reuters. December 17, 2013.
- Johnson, Benny. "America’s Spies Want Edward Snowden Dead". Buzzfeed. Retrieved January 21, 2014.
- Daily Press Briefing -January 21, 2014 United States Department of State
- Gregory, David. "January 19: Dianne Feinstein, Mike Rogers, Alexis Ohanian, John Wisniewski, Rudy Giuliani, Robert Gates, Newt Gingrich, Andrea Mitchell, Harold Ford Jr., Nia-Malika Henderson". Meet The Press. MSNBC. Retrieved January 23, 2014.
- Savage, Charlie (January 21, 2014). "Snowden Denies Suggestions That He Was a Spy for Russia". The New York Times. Retrieved January 23, 2014.
- Serwer, Adam. "Feinstein: No evidence Snowden is a Russian spy". MSNBC. Retrieved January 29, 2014.
- Knight, Ben. "Snowden's battles with the US media". Der Spiegel. Retrieved January 29, 2014.
- "US hints at Edward Snowden plea bargain to allow return from Russia". The Guardian. January 23, 2014. Retrieved January 24, 2014.
- "Snowden exklusiv – Das Interview | NDR (English) (January 26, 2014)". Internet Archive. Retrieved January 28, 2014.
- (April 17, 2014), Snowden Asks Putin: Do You Spy? The Daily Beast
- Wittes, Benjamin. "Edward Snowden Is Russia's Puppet Now". New Republic. Retrieved April 18, 2014.
- Eli Lake (April 17, 2014), Sorry, Snowden: Putin Lied to You About His Surveillance State—And Made You a Pawn of It The Daily Beast
- Pilkington, Ed. "Edward Snowden defends decision to question Vladimir Putin on surveillance". Guardian. Retrieved April 18, 2014.
- Snowden, Edward. "Vladimir Putin must be called to account on surveillance just like Obama". Guardian. Retrieved April 18, 2014.
- Noah Shachtman (April 20, 2014), Snowden's Camp: Staged Putin Q&A Was a Screw-Up The Daily Beast
- (March 12, 2014) European Parliament votes on the Data Protection Reform and the report on Mass surveillance. EDRi.
- Jardin, Zeni. "NBC airs Edward Snowden's first US TV interview". BoingBoing. Retrieved May 28, 2014.
- Miller, Greg (June 14, 2014). "U.S. officials scrambled to nab Snowden, hoping he would take a wrong step. He didn't.". The Washington Post.
- NSA-Ausschusschef will Snowden in Schweizer Botschaft befragen, zeit.de, May 11, 2014
- Grüne und Linke klagen gegen NSA-Untersuchungsauss, September 26, 2014. Website FAZ, accessed September 26, 2014
- SPIEGEL ONLINE, Hamburg, Germany (September 28, 2014). "NSA Spähaffäre: Opposition verklagt Merkel wegen Snowden". SPIEGEL ONLINE. Retrieved April 11, 2015.
- "Dieser Zeuge braucht Schutz", Heribert Prantl, Süddeutsche Zeitung, April 11, 2014
- "The Data Retention and Investigatory Powers Bill". Home Office. Retrieved July 13, 2014.
- MacAskill, Ewen (July 13, 2014). "Edward Snowden condemns Britain's emergency surveillance bill". The Guardian. Retrieved April 11, 2015.
- Drury, Ian (July 13, 2014). "Snowden attacks the terror Bill prompted by his treason: Fugitive says plans to monitor communications 'defies belief'". Daily Mail (London).
- Rusbridger, Alan; MacAskill, Ewen; Healey, Alex; Sprenger, Richard; Khalili, Mustafa (July 17, 2014). "Edward Snowden: 'If I end up in chains in Guantánamo I can live with that' – video interview". The Guardian.
- "Edward Snowden Can Stay in Russia for Three Years, Lawyer Says". NBC News. August 7, 2014. Retrieved August 7, 2014.
- "Russia extends Snowden residency by three years". BBC News. August 7, 2014.
- Shane, Scott (May 19, 2015). "Snowden Sees Some Victories, From a Distance". The New York Times. Retrieved May 20, 2015.
- Gabbatt, Adam (November 25, 2013). "Edward Snowden a 'hero' for NSA disclosures, Wikipedia founder says". The Guardian. Archived from the original on March 29, 2014.
- Why Edward Snowden Is a Hero. The New Yorker.
- Oliver Stone defends Edward Snowden over NSA revelations. The Guardian. (July 5, 2013).
- Editorial Board of The New York Times (January 1, 2014). "Edward Snowden, Whistle-Blower". The New York Times.
- Mirkinson, Jack (July 8, 2013). "Daniel Ellsberg: Edward Snowden Was Right To Leave The U.S.". Huffington Post.
- Amash: Snowden a whistle-blower, 'told us what we need to know'. Fox News (August 4, 2013).
- "As Edward Snowden Receives Asylum in Russia, Poll Shows Americans Sympathetic to NSA 'Whistle-Blower' – Washington Whispers". usnews.com. August 1, 2013.
- "В Госдуме Э.Сноудена назвали новым диссидентом и борцом с системой ("Some in State Duma has called E. Snowden a dissident and fighter against the system")". RBC Daily. July 26, 2013.
Head of the State Duma Committee on International Affairs, Alexei Pushkov, has called Edward Snowden, whistleblower on the US intelligence services, a new dissident fighting the system.
- Klein, Ezra. "Edward Snowden, patriot". The Washington Post.
- Timm, Trevor. "Edward Snowden is a patriot". Politico.
- Goodman, Amy. ""Edward Snowden is a Patriot": Ex-NSA CIA, FBI and Justice Whistleblowers Meet Leaker in Moscow". Democracy Now. Retrieved January 20, 2014.
- LoGiurato, Brett (June 11, 2013). "John Boehner: Edward Snowden Is A 'Traitor'". San Francisco Chronicle.
- Etpatko, Larisa. "Former Defense Secretary Gates calls NSA leaker Snowden a 'traitor'". NewsHour. Retrieved January 20, 2014.
- Dann, Carrie (May 28, 2014). "Kerry: Snowden a "Coward" and "Traitor"". NBC News.
- Belvedere, Matthew J. (June 5, 2014). "Snowden a 'traitor': Andreessen". CNBC.
- Mirkinson, Jack (June 10, 2013). "Daniel Ellsberg Calls Edward Snowden A 'Hero,' Says NSA Leak Was Most Important in American History". Huffington Post. Retrieved April 11, 2015.
- Ellsberg, Daniel (June 10, 2013). "Edward Snowden: saving us from the United Stasi of America". The Guardian (London).
- Board of Directors (January 14, 2014). "Edward Snowden To Join Daniel Ellsberg, Others on Freedom of the Press Foundation's Board of Directors". Freedom of the Press Foundation. Retrieved January 15, 2014.
- "Daniel Ellsberg on Twitter". Twitter.
- Blake, Aaron. "Clapper: Leaks are 'literally gut-wrenching,' leaker being sought". The Washington Post. Retrieved April 11, 2015.
- "Restricted Web access to the Guardian is Armywide, say officials", Philipp Molnar, Monterey Herald, June 27, 2013. Retrieved October 15, 2014.
- Ackerman, Spencer (July 1, 2013). "US military blocks entire Guardian website for troops stationed abroad". The Guardian (London).
- Coscarelli, Joe. "Naomi Wolf Thinks Edward Snowden and His Sexy Girlfriend Might Be Government Plants". NYMag.com. Retrieved June 26, 2015.
- Wolf, Naomi. "My creeping concern that the NSA leaker is not who he purports to be ...". Way Back Machine. Facebook. Retrieved June 27, 2015.
- Wolf, Naomi. "Some Aspects of Snowden's Presentation That I Find Worthy of Further Inquiry – An Aupdate". Way Back Machine. Naomi Wolf dot org. Retrieved June 26, 2015.
- Zabarenko, Deborah (June 10, 2013). "'Pardon Edward Snowden' petition seeks White House response". Reuters. Retrieved April 11, 2015.
- "Petition to Pardon Snowden to Receive White House Response". ABC News. June 24, 2013.
- Nelson, Steven. "9 Months, No Response for 'Pardon Edward Snowden' White House Petition". U.S. News & World Report.
- Froomkin, Dan (July 28, 2015). "After Two Years, White House Finally Responds to Snowden Pardon Petition — With a "No"". The Intercept.
- "Ex-CIA director: Snowden should be 'hanged' if convicted for treason". Fox News Channel. December 17, 2013.
- "Face the Nation transcripts December 29, 2013: Hayden, Drake, Radack, Gellman – Page 3". CBS News. December 29, 2013.
- Sasso, Brendan (October 3, 2013). "Ex-NSA chief jokes about putting Edward Snowden on kill list". The Hill.
- Dilanian, Ken (January 9, 2014). "Snowden leaks severely hurt U.S. security, two House members say". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved April 11, 2015.
- "Lawmakers: Snowden's leaks may endanger US troops". Yahoo! News. Associated Press. Retrieved September 6, 2014.
- "Rieder: Why Edward Snowden should get clemency". USA Today. January 2, 2014. Retrieved April 11, 2015.
- Sullivan, Margaret (January 2, 2014). "Weeks in the Making, an Editorial on Snowden May Go ‘Beyond What Is Realistic'". The New York Times.
- "Snowden affair: the case for a pardon". The Guardian. May 17, 2013.
- Satter, Raphael. "2 newspapers call for clemency for Edward Snowden". Associated Press.
- Baker, Peter, "Moves to Curb Spying Help Drive the Clemency Argument for Snowden," The New York Times, January 5, 2014, page A16
- Transcript Of President Obama's Speech On NSA Reforms NPR January 17, 2014
- Sarlin, Benjy. "RNC condemns NSA spying in huge turnaround". MSNBC. Retrieved January 29, 2014.
- Weigel, David. "The New, Snowden-Loving Republican Party". Slate. Retrieved January 29, 2014.
- "Ron Paul starts Snowden clemency petition". Yahoo. Associated Press. Retrieved February 19, 2014.
- Lee, Timothy. "The Switchboard: Ron Paul starts petition for Snowden clemency". The Washington Post. Retrieved February 19, 2014.
- Hartmann, Margaret (February 5, 2014). "Booz Allen Exec Describes How Snowden Deceived His Former Employer". New York (magazine). Retrieved April 11, 2015.
- "Jimmy Carter: If I Were President, I Would Consider Pardoning Snowden". Medialite. April 3, 2014. Retrieved April 4, 2014.
- "Hillary Clinton: Edward Snowden's Leaks Helped Terrorists". NationalJournal.com. April 25, 2014. Retrieved April 11, 2015.
- "Hillary Clinton faults Edward Snowden for fleeing". Politico. Retrieved April 26, 2014.
- Greenwood, Phoebe (July 4, 2014). "Edward Snowden should have right to legal defence in US, says Hillary Clinton". The Guardian.
- "Kerry: Edward Snowden should "man up" and come home". CBS News. May 28, 2014. Retrieved April 11, 2015.
- MacAskill, Ewen. "Edward Snowden's NSA leaks 'an important service', says Al Gore". The Guardian. Retrieved June 11, 2014.
- Whitlock, Craig (December 5, 2014). "Ashton Carter, passed over before, gets picked by Obama to be defense secretary". The Washington Post. Retrieved April 11, 2015.
- Rieder: Snowden's NSA bombshell sparks debate. USA Today. (June 12, 2013).
- Spy chief lauds Snowden-sparked debate .. The Australian (August 29, 2013).
- Pecquet, Julian (June 27, 2013). "US won't 'scramble jets' to capture 'hacker' Snowden, Obama says". The Hill. Retrieved April 11, 2015.
- "Obama refuses to barter for Edward Snowden". BBC News. June 27, 2013. Retrieved January 20, 2014.
- "Obama downplays Snowden case, says US not 'scrambling jets' to get 'hacker'". Fox News Channel. June 27, 2013.
- Wolf, Z. Byron (August 13, 2013). "Fact-checking Obama's claims about Snowden". CNN.
- David Remnick (January 2014) Going the Distance: On and off the road with Barack Obama The New Yorker
- "Why I Don't Care About Edward Snowden". Sen. Bernie Sanders. June 12, 2013. Retrieved April 11, 2015.
- Snowden: NSA's indiscriminate spying 'collapsing' – The Washington Post[dead link]
- "Snowden Was Justified". Intelligence Squared Debates. Retrieved February 19, 2014.
- "Debate: Was Edward Snowden Justified?". NPR. Retrieved February 19, 2014.
- MacAskill, Ewen (August 13, 2013). "White House insists James Clapper will not lead NSA surveillance review". The Guardian. Retrieved April 11, 2015.
- Farivar, Cyrus (August 23, 2013). "Obama's 'outside experts' surveillance review panel has deep ties to gov't". Ars Technica.
- Sanger, David E.; Savage, Charlie (December 18, 2013). "Obama panel recommends new limits on N.S.A. spying". The New York Times.
- "NSA program stopped no terror attacks, says White House panel member – Investigations". NBC News.[dead link]
- Nakashima, Ellen (December 17, 2013). "Judge: NSA's collecting of phone records is probably unconstitutional". The Washington Post. Retrieved March 13, 2014.
- Byers, Dylan. "Edward Snowden looms over Pulitzer Prizes". Politico. Retrieved March 13, 2014.
- Liptak, Adam (December 27, 2013). "Judge Upholds NSA's Bulk Collection of Data on Calls". The New York Times (The New York Times). Retrieved March 13, 2014.
- "A Tale of Two Judges". The Weekly Standard. January 13, 2014. Retrieved April 11, 2015.
- "U.S. NSA's phone spying program ruled illegal by appeals court". Reuters. May 7, 2015. Retrieved May 7, 2015.
- Daimond, Jeremy. "NSA surveillance bill passes after weeks-long showdown". CNN. Retrieved June 12, 2015.
The bill's passage is the culmination of efforts to reform the NSA that blossomed out of NSA leaker Edward Snowden's 2013 revelations.
- "United Nations Resolution 68/167M". United Nations. Retrieved February 10, 2014.
- Williams, Carol J. (December 19, 2013). "U.N. votes to protect online privacy; Edward Snowden leaks credited". Los Angeles Times.
- Brazil, Germany Drafting UN Anti-Spying Resolution To General Assembly To Curb U.S. Surveillance By NSA. Huffington Post.
- UN advances digital privacy resolution after reports of US eavesdropping. Fox News (November 26, 2013).
- NSA spying: Germany and Brazil produce draft UN resolution | World news. The Guardian. (November 2, 2013).
- "European parliament invites Edward Snowden to testify via video". The Guardian. Associated Press (Brussels). January 9, 2014. Retrieved April 11, 2015.
- Peter, Gregor (December 12, 2013). "Edward Snowden to Make Video Appearance to European Parliament". Der Spiegel.
- Peralta, Eyder (March 7, 2014). "Edward Snowden Tells EU Parliament He Wants Asylum In Europe". NPR.
- Essers, Loek. "NSA created 'European bazaar' to spy on EU citizens, Snowden tells European Parliament". PSWorld. Retrieved March 10, 2014.
- Doctorow, Cory. "Edward Snowden's magnificent testimony to the EU". BoingBoing. Retrieved March 10, 2014.
- Pop, Valentina (July 8, 2013). "Germany defends intelligence co-operation with US". EUobserver. Retrieved July 9, 2013.
- Edwardslevy, Ariel (October 30, 2013). "Americans Still Can't Decide Whether Edward Snowden Is A 'Traitor' Or A 'Hero,' Poll Finds". The Huffington Post. Retrieved April 6, 2014.
- "Snowden revelations 'good for society'". Retrieved April 24, 2014.
- "12% See NSA Leaker Snowden As Hero, 21% As Traitor". Rasmussen Reports. June 19, 2013. Retrieved April 11, 2015.
- "Poll: Most think Edward Snowden should stand trial in U.S.". CBS News. January 22, 2014.
- "As Snowden Stays In Russia, He Slips In Public Opinion". YouGov. July 3, 2013.
- "Poll Results: Snowden". YouGov. January 22, 2014.
- "Public Split over Impact of NSA Leak, But Most Want Snowden Prosecuted". Pew Research Center. June 17, 2013.
- Newport, Frank (June 12, 2013). "Americans Disapprove of Government Surveillance Programs". Gallup.
- "Snowden and the NSA – November 2013". The Washington Post. November 20, 2013.
- "Poll Results: Snowden". YouGov. March 28, 2014.
- "Most young Americans say Snowden has served the public interest". Pew Research Center. Retrieved April 6, 2014.
- Wilson, Tim. "A Year Later, Most Americans Think Snowden Did The Right Thing". Dark Reading.
- "Edward Snowden: #Traitor or #Patriot". NBC. Retrieved May 31, 2014.
- "Edward Snowden Is a #Patriot, Twitter Users Say". Mashable. Retrieved May 31, 2014.
- Todd, Chuck; Murray, Mark; Dann, Carrie (June 2, 2014). "Carbon Combat: Obama Begins Battle Over Environmental Regulation". NBC News.
- "Global Opposition to U.S. Surveillance and Drones, but Limited Harm to America's Image". Pew Research Center. July 14, 2014.
- "Ethical Dilemmas". Vanity Fair. August 13, 2014. Retrieved April 11, 2015.
- Griggs, Brandon; Gross, Doug (March 10, 2014). "Edward Snowden speaks at SXSW, calls for public oversight of U.S. spy programs". CNN Tech. Retrieved April 11, 2015.
- DeLuca, Dan (March 12, 2014). "NSA leaker Snowden is the rock star of SXSW Interactive". The Inquirer (Philly.com).
- Clark, Liat (March 10, 2014). "Snowden: the NSA is 'setting fire to the future of the internet'". Wired.
- Garling, Caleb (March 11, 2014). "Edward Snowden pushes Web privacy at South by Southwest". San Francisco Chronicle.
- Rowan, David (March 18, 2014). "Snowden: Big revelations to come, reporting them is not a crime". Wired. Retrieved April 11, 2015.
- Wohlsen, Marcus (March 18, 2014). "Ed Snowden Meets the Father of the World Wide Web". Wired.
- Michael Safi & Hannah Jane Parkinson (September 15, 2014). "Kim Dotcom accuses New Zealand government of mass spying – live updates". The Guardian. Retrieved April 11, 2015.
- "Edward Snowden tells students mass data collection can hamper attempts to foil attacks". Canadian Broadcasting Corporation. February 2, 2015. Retrieved February 21, 2015.
- Nebehay, Stephanie (March 6, 2015). "Edward Snowden Wants Switzerland To Grant Him Asylum". The Huffington Post. Retrieved June 11, 2015.
- Rosen, Jay. "The Snowden Effect: definition and examples". Jay Rosen's PressThink. Retrieved February 18, 2015.
- Alterman, Eric. "What the Press Should Learn From the 'Snowden Effect'". The Nation. Retrieved March 2, 2014.
- Davos, L.S. (January 24, 2014). "The Snowden effect". The Ecomonist. Retrieved March 2, 2014.
- Watson, Tom. "The Snowden Effect Hits Congress: Will Effective Crowdsourced Lobbying Follow?". Forbes. Retrieved March 2, 2014.
- Clark, Charles S. (August 15, 2014). "Meet the Man Who's Gauging the Damage From Snowden". Government Executive. Retrieved April 11, 2015.
- Sink, Justin (September 18, 2014). "Intelligence chief says Snowden leaks created 'perfect storm'". The Hill. Retrieved April 11, 2015.
- Liptak, Kevin (October 21, 2014). "Ex-counterterror chief: U.S. lost track of terrorists after Snowden". CNN. Retrieved April 11, 2015.
- Eric P. Schmitt and Ben Hubbard (20 July 2015) ISIS Leader Takes Steps to Ensure Group’s Survival The New York Times
- Aftergood, Steven (February 17, 2015). "Leaks Damaged U.S. Intelligence, Official Says". Federation of American Scientists.
- "We are Edward Snowden, Laura Poitras and Glenn Greenwald from the Oscar-winning documentary CITIZENFOUR". Reddit. Retrieved February 25, 2015.
- Wolff, Michael (March 20, 2015). "Snowden effect hits 'Guardian'". USA Today. Retrieved March 26, 2015.
- Smith, Gerry (January 24, 2014). "'Snowden Effect' Threatens U.S. Tech Industry's Global Ambitions". Huffington Post. Retrieved February 1, 2014.
- Boulton, Clint (December 26, 2013). "Snowden Effect Dominates 2013 Tech Industry News". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved February 1, 2014.
- Miller, Matthew (January 21, 2014). "In China, U.S. tech firms weigh 'Snowden Effect'". Reuters. Retrieved February 1, 2014.
- Kanji, Hussein. "The Snowden Effect: Impact on the Tech Sector". Bloomberg L.P. Retrieved February 1, 2014.
- Nicole Perlroth, Scott Shane (October 1, 2013). "As F.B.I. Pursued Snowden, an E-Mail Service Stood Firm". The New York Times. Archived from the original on March 16, 2014. Retrieved March 16, 2014.
- Hayley Tsukayama (August 9, 2013). "Lavabit, Silent Circle shut down e-mail: What alternatives are left?". The Washington Post. Archived from the original on March 16, 2014. Retrieved March 16, 2014.
- Alex Hern (December 31, 2013). "Email is broken – but Dark Mail Alliance is aiming to fix it". The Guardian. Archived from the original on March 16, 2014. Retrieved March 16, 2014.
- Lorenzo Franceschi-Bicchieraioct (October 30, 2013). "Silent Circle and Lavabit Team Up to Protect Your Email From the NSA". Mashable. Archived from the original on March 16, 2014. Retrieved March 16, 2014.
- Matthew Green (November 9, 2013). "The Daunting Challenge of Secure E-mail". The New Yorker. Archived from the original on March 16, 2014. Retrieved March 16, 2014.
- "The perpass list is for IETF discussion of pervasive monitoring". IETF. Retrieved April 11, 2015.
- Farrell, Stephen (November 2014). RFC 7258. IETF. https://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc7258.
- Hiner, Jason. "Understanding Snowden's impact on IT... in 2 minutes". TechRepublic. Retrieved February 1, 2014.
- "Das Blackphone soll die totale Überwachung stoppen". heise online. January 15, 2014. Retrieved April 11, 2015.
- Kopstein, Joshua. "A Phone for the Age of Snowden". The New Yorker. Retrieved March 2, 2014.
- "Harris Poll: People Cutting Back Internet Use After Snowden". Retrieved April 6, 2014.
- "Post Snowden, Some Internet Usage Is Contracting, Study Finds". The Wall Street Journal. April 3, 2014. Retrieved April 6, 2014.
- "Former NSA deputy director: Snowden leaks caused 'significant disservice' to the Internet". ZDNet. April 24, 2014. Retrieved April 25, 2014.
- Miller, Claire Cain (March 21, 2014). "Revelations of N.S.A. Spying Cost U.S. Tech Companies". The New York Times. Retrieved April 11, 2015.
- "Surveillance Costs: The NSA’s Impact on the Economy, Internet Freedom & Cybersecurity" (PDF). newamerica.net. New America Foundation. Summer 2014. Retrieved September 30, 2014.
- Dwoskin, Elizabeth (July 30, 2014). "New Report: Snowden Revelations Hurt U.S. Companies". The Wall Street Journal.
- Temple-Raston, Dina (August 1, 2014). "Big Data Firm Says It Can Link Snowden Data To Changed Terrorist Behavior". NPR.
- "IQT Portfolio". In-Q-Tel. Retrieved February 10, 2015.
- "About IQT". In-Q-Tel. Retrieved February 10, 2015.
- "Measuring the Impact of the Snowden Leaks on the Use of Encryption by Online Jihadists". Flashpoint Partners. September 16, 2014.
- Cappello, Lawrence (May 4, 2015). "Privacy and the Profit Motive". The Nation. Retrieved May 4, 2015.
- Sanger, David E.; Chen, Brian X. (September 26, 2014). "Signaling Post-Snowden Era, New iPhone Locks Out N.S.A.". The New York Times. Retrieved April 11, 2015.
- JShotVideo (June 25, 2013). "[v e r a x ] : Edward Snowden / ??? - Short Film". YouTube. JShotVideo. Archived from the original (Video 5&nspb;Minuten) on February 9, 2014. Retrieved March 16, 2014.
- Arno Maierbrugger (July 4, 2013). "Ready at last: Hong Kong director presents Snowden movie". Investvine. Archived from the original on March 16, 2014. Retrieved March 16, 2014.
- Arjun Kharpal (September 10, 2013). "Filmmakers look to crowdfunding for Snowden movie". Consumer News and Business Channel. Archived from the original on March 16, 2014. Retrieved March 16, 2014.
- James Hibberd (September 26, 2013). "'South Park' NSA surveillance spoof gets big ratings". Entertainment Weekly. Archived from the original on March 16, 2014. Retrieved March 16, 2014.
- David Ferguson (September 27, 2013). "Eric Cartman becomes the new Edward Snowden on 'South Park'". Raw Story. Archived from the original on March 16, 2014. Retrieved March 16, 2014.
- Kopan, Tal. "Edward Snowden pic coming to D.C. buses". Politico. Retrieved March 31, 2014.
- Ly, Sherri. "Metro bus ad thanks NSA leaker Edward Snowden". Retrieved March 31, 2014.
- Hughes, Sarah Anne. "More Snowden Bus Ads Coming To D.C.". DCist. Retrieved March 31, 2014.
- "Yes, already: Two video games about Edward Snowden and stealthy data". NBC News. Retrieved March 31, 2014.[dead link]
- Sundby, Alex. "Edward Snowden cast as hero in smartphone game". CNET. Retrieved March 31, 2014.
- "No Secret: Edward Snowden Gets Own Action Figure". NBC News. Retrieved March 31, 2014.
- Kooser, Amanda. "Edward Snowden action figure makes for toy whistle-blower". CNET. Retrieved March 31, 2014.
- Flood, Alison. "Edward Snowden gets his own graphic biography". The Guardian. Retrieved May 20, 2014.
- Feeney, Nolan (May 19, 2014). "Edward Snowden, Comic-Book Hero". TIME. Retrieved May 20, 2014.
- Walker, Shaun. "Oliver Stone to make movie based on fictionalised life of Edward Snowden". The Guardian. Retrieved June 11, 2014.
- "Citizenfour film". filmlinc.com. September 10, 2014. Retrieved December 2, 2014.
- "Snowden Documentary to Premiere at NY Festival". ABC News. Associated Press. July 1, 2013. Retrieved April 11, 2015.
- "Hong Kong in cinema spotlight in documentary on Edward Snowden". South China Morning Post. October 11, 2014.
- "Citizenfour (2014): Reviews". Metacritic. CBS Interactive. Retrieved December 27, 2014.
- "The 87th Academy Awards". oscars.org. Retrieved February 22, 2015.
- von Busack, Richard. "Breaking the Internet: Killswitch Screens at Cinequest". Metro Silicon Valley. Retrieved February 25, 2015.
- "Battle for Internet Control Fuels O.C. -produced Movie". Orange County Register. Retrieved April 16, 2015.
- "Killswitch". International Documentary Film Festival Amsterdam. Retrieved November 18, 2014.
- Benzine, Adam (October 10, 2014). "Exclusive: NDR, DR TV prep "Snowden’s Great Escape"". Realscreen (Brunico Communications). Retrieved October 29, 2014.
- Sharp, Tyler (February 9, 2015). "Rivers Cuomo guests on new Big Data track, "Snowed In"". Alternative Press. Retrieved March 26, 2015.
- Greenwald, Glenn (April 6, 2015). "Why john oliver can’t find americans who know Edward Snowden’s name (it’s not about Snowden)". Retrieved April 6, 2015.
- Stelter, Brian (April 6, 2015). "John Oliver lands Edward Snowden interview from Russia". CNN. Retrieved April 6, 2015.
- Alan Yuhas (April 6, 2015). "Busted: Edward Snowden statue prompts cover-up at Brooklyn park". The Guardian. Retrieved April 6, 2015.
- Sifferlin, Alexandra (April 6, 2015). "New York City Takes Down Edward Snowden Statue Erected By Guerilla Artists". Time. Retrieved April 6, 2015.
- Ries, Brian (April 7, 2015). "Hologram replaces Edward Snowden statue in Brooklyn park". Mashable. Retrieved April 7, 2015.
- Fishbein, Rebecca; Depew, Kyle, Photographer (April 7, 2015). "Illicit Edward Snowden Statue Replaced By Illicit Edward Snowden Hologram". Gothamist. Retrieved April 9, 2015.
- Sanders, Sam (April 7, 2015). "An Edward Snowden Statue Was Replaced By A Hovering Snowden Image Last Night". National Public Radio. Retrieved April 8, 2015.
- Dilanian, Ken. Dilanian, Ken (December 22, 2013). "A spy world reshaped by Edward Snowden". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved April 11, 2015. December 22, 2013.
- Duns, Jeremy (November 25, 2014). News of Devils: The Media and Edward Snowden. Seattle, Washington: Amazon Digital Services, Inc.
- Greenwald, Glenn (May 13, 2014). No Place to Hide: Edward Snowden, the NSA, and the U.S. Surveillance State. London: Hamish Hamilton.
- Gurnow, Michael (April 1, 2014). The Edward Snowden Affair: Exposing the Media and Politics Behind the NSA Scandal. Indianapolis: Blue River Press.
- Harding, Luke (February 6, 2014). The Snowden Files: The Inside Story of the World's Most Wanted Man. London: Guardian Faber.
- Lanchester, John. "The Snowden files: why the British public should be worried about GCHQ". The Guardian. Retrieved April 11, 2015. October 3, 2013.
- Lucas, Edward (January 23, 2014). The Snowden Operation: Inside the West's Greatest Intelligence Disaster. Amazon Kindle Single.
- Margulies, Joseph. "The Promise of May, the Betrayal of June, and the Larger Lesson of Manning and Snowden." Verdict. Justia. July 17, 2013.
- Packer, George (October 20, 2014). "The holder of secrets : Laura Poitras's closeup view of Edward Snowden". Profiles. The New Yorker 90 (32): 50–59. Retrieved December 23, 2014.
Find more about
at Wikipedia's sister projects
|Media from Commons|
|News stories from Wikinews|
|Quotations from Wikiquote|
|Source texts from Wikisource|
|Data from Wikidata|
- "NSA leaks: a timeline". Al Jazeera. Retrieved April 11, 2015. November 1, 2013
- "The NSA Files". The Guardian (London). June 5, 2013. Retrieved April 11, 2015. (Index of articles)
- Nakashima&, Ellen (June 9, 2013). "NSA Secrets". The Washington Post (Washington, D.C.). Retrieved April 11, 2015. (Index of articles)
- "Global Surveillance" An annotated and categorized "overview of the revelations following the leaks by the whistleblower Edward Snowden. There are also some links to comments and followups." By Oslo University Library
- "The NSA Archive" American Civil Liberties Union searchable database of NSA documents disclosed by Edward Snowden, as published between June 5, 2013, and May 6, 2014
- Book documents 107 additional pages from the Snowden archive released on May 13, 2014, in conjunction with publication of Glenn Greenwald's No Place to Hide
- Edward Snowden at TED
|Rector of the University of Glasgow