Ed Krupp

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Edwin Charles Krupp
Ed Krupp 2017.jpg
Ed Krupp in his Griffith Observatory office
Born (1944-11-18) November 18, 1944 (age 72)
Chicago, Illinois
Other names Ed, E.C.
Residence Eagle Rock, California
Nationality American
Fields Astronomy, Astronomy and Culture
Institutions Griffith Observatory
Education B.A. Physics/Astronomy (1966),
M.A. Astronomy (1968)
PhD Astronomy (1972)
Alma mater Pomona College (B.A.), University of California, Los Angeles (M.A. and PhD)
Doctoral advisor George O. Abell
Other academic advisors Robert J. Chambers
Notable awards Klumpke-Roberts Award (1989)
Andrew Gemant Award (2013)
Spouse Robin Rector Krupp (married 1968–2006)
Children 1 son

Edwin Charles Krupp (born November 18, 1944) is an American astronomer, researcher, author, and popularizer of science. He is also known as Ed or E.C. He is an internationally recognized expert in the field of archaeoastronomy, the study of how ancient cultures viewed the sky and how those views affected their cultures. He has taught at the college level, as a planetarium lecturer, and in various documentary films. He has been the director of the Griffith Observatory in Los Angeles since first taking over the position in 1974 after the departure of the previous director, William J. Kaufmann III. His writings include science papers and journal articles, astronomy magazine articles, books on astronomy and archaeoastronomy for adults, and books explaining sky phenomena and astronomy to children.

Krupp is a member of the American Astronomical Society and the International Astronomical Union, and has served in several divisions and commissions of both organizations. He is also a fellow of the Committee for Skeptical Inquiry and a member of that organization's Council for Media Integrity.

Early life[edit]

Edwin Charles Krupp was born in Chicago, Illinois, on November 18, 1944[1] where as a child his parents took him to many of the local museums.[2] In 1956 the family moved to Los Angeles where Krupp's father, a mechanical engineer,[2] worked on the Apollo program and then on the Space Shuttle.[3]

Education[edit]

In 1961 Krupp attended the Summer Science Program (SSP).[4] Among other things, SSP teaches astronomy to high school students.[5] Krupp has remained active with SSP, first as a graduate student teaching assistant from 1968 to 1972 and later as a frequent guest lecturer.[4] Krupp has said of SSP,

In some respects, SSP remains the most academically cohesive and intense educational experience I have ever had. That, I suspect, is true for most who are fortunate enough to attend it. If it weren't for SSP, my vision would be narrower, my aspirations less ambitious, and my life less rich. I don't exaggerate.[4]

Pomona College

Krupp studied physics and astronomy at Pomona College (the founding member of the Claremont Colleges consortium) in Claremont, California.[6] His undergraduate advisor was Robert J. Chambers.[7] While studying at Pomona College, Krupp participated in cross-country, track, and soccer.[8] He also worked at KSPC, the Pomona College non-commercial community radio station.[8] He lived for two years at the Brackett Observatory, during this time he served as caretaker of the observatory, weatherman, and telescope demonstrator.[7] He received a Bachelor of Arts degree in 1966.[7][9]

Ed pursued graduate studies in astronomy at the University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA), and received a Master of Arts degree in 1968.[7][9] He received his PhD in 1972;[7] his dissertation concerned the morphology of rich clusters of galaxies.[3] His graduate adviser was George O. Abell.[a][3][6]

Concerning his dissertation, it has been said:[7]

  • “very respectable” – George Abell (PhD advisor)
  • “fine work; a definitive study” – Robert Chambers (undergraduate advisor)
  • “a very tedious business” – Edwin Krupp

Career[edit]

Teaching[edit]

Krupp began his teaching career as a teaching assistant for the Summer Science Program during his graduate school days.[10] Also, during graduate school he taught at the following education institutions:[11]

He became a planetarium lecturer at Griffith Observatory while also still in graduate school.[13] Ed has been a frequent lecturer throughout his career. He has lectured on science based tours he has led and other venues.[3][8][12][14][15]

Griffith Observatory[edit]

An aerial view of Griffith Observatory on the south facing slope of Mount Hollywood in Griffith Park, Los Angeles

Krupp took his first job at Griffith Observatory in Los Angeles[b] while he was still a doctoral candidate at UCLA. This was as a part-time planetarium lecturer[13][17][18] and Krupp did not enjoy this job at first, saying to his wife Robin, "Gee this isn't science, It's showbusiness.”[3] But, after he started noticing the audiences responding with increasing enthusiasm he started saying, "Hey, this is showbusiness."[3]

Krupp was appointed Observatory Curator in 1972 upon completion of his PhD.[11] In 1974 the director of Griffith Observatory, William J. Kaufmann III, left, and Krupp was appointed acting director.[11][17][18] In 1976 Krupp's title was changed from "acting" director to director.[11]

Ed Krupp Communing With Albert Einstein at Griffith Observatory

As early as 1978 Krupp was aware that the observatory would need a future restoration and that there was a need to update equipment and exhibits. So he and Harold and Debra Griffith[c] co-founded the Friends of the Observatory (FOTO).[20] FOTO aids the mission of the observatory in many ways. FOTO partnered with the city to renovate and expand the observatory raising US$30 million for the effort ($26 million in private funds).[20] The observatory closed its doors in 2002 for the $93 Million dollar renovation and expansion.[8][18] The entire project was spearheaded by Krupp,and the observatory reopened in the fall of 2006.[18]

Ed often appears in the media to discuss and explain developments and recent discoveries in astronomy, as well as discuss current celestial events.[6][21][22][23][24][25]

In 2014 Griffith Observatory had its 80th anniversary and Krupp his 40th as observatory director.[13] At that time, John Ashton of Sunseeker Tours in Long Beach noted, "It’s an L.A. treasure. We get more requests to see this than anything."[13] And, then LA City Councilman Tom LaBonge (whose district included the observatory) observed:

There are many, many, many very special public employees, but there’s only one Dr. Edwin C. Krupp. Not only does he have the greatest building in the city. He’s got the universe.[13]

Archaeoastronomy[edit]

Burro Flats Pictographs in the Simi Hills of Southern California

Krupp is a recognized expert in the field of archaeoastronomy, a field in which he has been active since 1973. He has a special interest in the impact of astronomy on ancient belief systems, and is an internationally recognized expert on traditional astronomies.[12] He is noted for his many contributions to the field on which he has written extensively, and he has visited, and studied, nearly 2,000 prehistoric, and historic sites around the world.[6][26]

Krupp has traveled around the world for his archaeoastronomy studies. These trips have also taken him to sites close to home such as the Burro Flats pictograph site in the Simi Hills of Southern California, which he first visited in 1979. Over the years, Krupp has made semi-regular trips to that site to conduct solstice observations.[27]

Krupp has shared his studies of archaeoastronomy with the general public by including archaeoastronomy topics in Griffith Observatory planetarium programs,[26] writing books and magazine articles,[28][29] appearing in documentary films, and leading tours to archaeological sites that are associated with ancient astronomy.[8][14][30]

Bibliography[edit]

Krupp has written several books for adults and for children. His first two adult books (one being his doctoral dissertation), both derive from the work he did on rich clusters of galaxies while a PhD student at UCLA. His remaining adult books derive from his interests in archaeoastronomy, and contain extensive original research and analysis, while also being educational in nature. They cover astronomy in ancient cultures and the effect of beliefs about the sky on those cultures.[30]

Books for adults[edit]

Books authored, partially authored, and/or edited by Krupp for an adult audience:[30]

Title Author(s) Year Published Publisher Description References
The Morphology of Rich Clusters of Galaxies Edwin C. Krupp 1972 University Microfilms International,
Ann Arbor, Michigan
Doctoral Dissertation (UCLA) [31]
The Luminosity Function of E-S0 Galaxies in Rich Clusters Edwin C. Krupp 1974 University of California,
Los Angeles
[32]
In Search of Ancient Astronomies Edwin C. Krupp (editor, principal author) 1978 Doubleday,
Garden City, New York
Survey of the new scientific discipline of archaeoastronomy, the study of the astronomies of ancient and prehistoric times through archaeology. [3]
[33]
Echoes of the Ancient Skies: The Astronomy of Ancient Civilizations[d] Edwin C. Krupp 1983 Harper & Row,
New York
The study of ancient peoples' observations of the skies and the impact of those observations on their cultural evolution [34]
Archaeoastronomy and the Roots of Science Edwin C. Krupp (Editor, Author) 1984 Westview Press,
Boulder, Colorado
Reviews recent research, on the astronomy of worldwide ancient cultures and the effects of astronomy on those cultures. [35]
Beyond the Blue Horizon – Myths and Legends of the Sun, Moon, Stars, and Planets Edwin C. Krupp 1991 HarperCollins,
New York
A worldwide comparative study of celestial mythology, Skywatchers, Shamans, & Kings: Astronomy and the Archaeology of Power [36]
Skywatchers, Shamans, & Kings: Astronomy and the Archaeology of Power Edwin C. Krupp 1996 John Wiley,
New York
Journey to the world's essential sacred places and celestial shrines and see where the rulers of old communed with the gods of the sky. [37]

Chapters, forwards, and research papers[edit]

Krupp has also written full chapters for books edited by other authors, as well as research papers, included in publications of the proceedings of conferences where the papers were presented. Here are some examples

  • Time and astronomy at the meeting of two worlds : proceedings of the International Symposium held in April 27 – May, 1992 in Frombork, Poland edited by Stanislaw Iwaniszewski[38]
    • California Girls: Pleiades Traditions in Native California[39]
  • Handbook of Archaeoastronomy and Ethnoastronomy edited by Clive Ruggles,[40] Krupp wrote three chapters for this book:[41]
    • In Part I, Themes and Issues
      • Chapter 5, Astronomy and power
      • Chapter 18, Archaeoastronomy concepts in popular culture
    • In Part III, Pre-columbian and indigenous North America
      • Chapter 41, Rock Art of the greater southwest
  • Cosmology, Calendars, and Horizon-based Astronomy in Ancient Mesoamerica, edited by Anne S. Doud
    Susan Milbrath[42]
    • Krupp wrote the Forward for this book,
      • Astronomy, Anthropology, and Anthony Aveni
  • Krupp has contributed to two books on the work of artist of James Turrell,
    • Mapping Spaces : a topological survey of the work by James Turrell[43]
      • Authors: Craig Adcock, E C Krupp, Mario Diacono, James Turrell
    • James Turrell: A Retrospective[44]
      • Authors: Michael Govan, James Turrell, Florian Holzherr, Christine Kim, Carol S Eliel, Alison Lima Greene, E C Krupp, Vivian Sobchack

Books for children[edit]

Children themed books, with illustrations by Robin Rector Krupp:[30]

Title Year Published Publisher Description References
The Comet and You 1985 Macmillan Publishing Company, New York;
Collier Macmillan, London
History, appearance, and physical composition of Halley's comet, compares it to other comets, describes its path through the solar system, and its predicted return [45]
The Big Dipper and You 1989 Morrow Junior Books New York What is known today and past beliefs about the Big Dipper, or Ursa Major. Added information on the North Star, or Polaris. [46]
The Moon and You 1993 Simon & Schuster Books for Young Readers, New York;
Macmillan Publishing Company, New York;
Maxwell Macmillan Canada, Toronto;
Maxwell Macmillan International, New York
Information about the moon, describing its phases, rotation, effect on our tides, and myths and legends. [47]
[48]
The Rainbow and You 2000 HarperCollins, New York;
Morrow Junior Books, New York
How rainbows are formed by the colors in sunlight shining through raindrops. [49]
[50]

Magazine/journal articles[edit]

Krupp was once a contributing editor to Sky & Telescope magazine and had a monthly column in that publication.[30][15][51] The column was named Rambling Through the Skies and discussed the impact of astronomy on cultural.[12] He has also served as the editor of the Griffith Observer, the monthly magazine published by Griffith Observatory's.[12]

Krupp has written many articles on astronomy and culture for the general reader and dozens of research papers.[7] This list is a mere sampling:

Title Magazine/Journal Date/Volume Page Description References
Whiter Shade of Pale Sky & Telescope July 2000 86 A rock that looks like the Milky Way and was used in ceremonies by Native Americans in California. [29]
[52]
Inner Glow Sky & Telescope December 2004 50 About the underground shrine at Newgrange, Ireland. [28]
[52]
The Great 2012 Scare Sky & Telescope November 2009 22–26 The Maya Calendar does not predict the end of the world in December 2012. [53]
Archaeoastronomy Unplugged: Eliminating the Fuzz Tone from Rock Art Astronomy American Indian Rock Art 2006
Volume 21, Vol. 3
353–370 [54]
Hiawatha in California Astronomy Quarterly 1991
Vol. 8, No. 1
47–64 [55]
Night Gallery: the Function, Origin, and Evolution of Constellations Archaeoastronomy 2000 43–63 [56]
Egyptian Astronomy: The Roots of Modern Timekeeping New Scientist January 3, 1980 24–27 [57]
[58]
Saluting the Solstice News from Native California November 1987
Vol. 1(5)
10–13 [54]
When Things are Divided in Half Rock Art Papers San Diego Museum Papers 1990
No. 26, Vol. 7
41–48 [54]

Films[edit]

Krupp has appeared in several documentary films and educational film series. He also has writing credits and scientific advisor credits. These include:

Title Type Year Ed's Role Description References
Project Universe[e] PBS Telecourse Series (30 half-hour episodes) 1978 Presenter/Writer Introduction to Astronomy [26]
[59]
Time Travel: Fact, Fiction and Fantasy Documentary/Science Fiction 1985 Cast – Himself
Seasons Short Documentary 1987 Scientific Consultant
Secrets and Mysteries
    (episode) Stonehenge
Documentary Series 1988 Cast – Himself A look at England's Stonehenge, compared to American sites such as Arizona's Casa Grande and Mystery Hill in New Hampshire.
The Complete Cosmos Short Documentary/Science Fiction Series 1998–1999 Thanks to Ed Krupp and Griffith Observatory Guide to the wonders of the universe.
Horizon
    (episode) Atlantis Reborn
Documentary Series 1999 Cast – Himself
Solarmax Short Documentary 2000 Scientific Advisory Committee The story of humankind's struggle to understand the sun.
The Universe
    (episode) Constellations (2008)
    (episode) Stonehenge (2014)
    (episode) Pyramids (2014)
Documentary Series 2007–2015 Cast – Himself Explores many scientific questions and topics about the universe
Extreme Universe
    (episode) Star Gates
Documentary Series 2010 Cast – Himself
Why We Will Still Be Here on Dec. 21 [2012] Panel Discussion 2012 Panel Member Sponsored and filmed by SETI, Why the Mayan calendar does not predict the end of the world. [29]

Planetarium programs[edit]

Krupp started his career at Griffith Observatory as a planetarium lecturer. As directory of the observatory he has returned to the Samuel Oschin Planetarium at Griffith Observatory as a writer. He has several planetarium show writing credits.

Title Writer(s) Description References
Centered in the Universe Don Dixon,
E.C. Krupp,
Andre Bormanis
Asks fundamental questions about Earth's and humankind's place in the universe. [60]
Time's Up Laura Danly,
Ed Krupp,
Don Dixon,
Chris Shelton
How time and the universe works and why the Mayan calendar did not predict the end of the world in 2012. [61]
Light of the Valkyries[f] Laura Danly,
Don Dixon,
Ed Krupp
A voyage of Viking cosmology that explores the true nature of the aurora borealis, the northern lights.
First Light: The Telescope Changed Everything Ed Krupp How the world changed after Galileo Galilei built the world's finest telescope and pointed it to the sky. [63]

Professional affiliations[edit]

Krupp is affiliated with several scientific, astronomical, archaeoatronomical, and educational organizations.

  • American Astronomical Society, and its Historical Astronomy Division[64]
    • Historical Astronomy Division Vice-Chairman 1983–1985, Chairman 1985–1987
  • International Astronomical Union[65]
    • Member of
      • Division C Education, Outreach and Heritage
      • Commission C3 History of Astronomy
      • Inter-Commission C3-C4 WG Archaeoastronomy and Astronomy in Culture
    • Past Member of
      • Division XII Union-Wide Activities (until 2012)
      • Commission 41 History of Astronomy (until 2015)
      • Commission 46 Astronomy Education & Development (until 2015)
      • Commission 41 WG Archaeoastronomy and Astronomy in Culture (2015–2015)
      • Commission 41 WG Astronomy and World Heritage (until 2015)
  • Committee for Skeptical Inquiry[66]

Awards and honors[edit]

Krupp's writings, and active evangelization of the universe to the public, has resulted in his receiving several awards and honors:

Award/Honor When Awarded By Description Work Honored References
Science-Writing Award 1978 American Institute of Physics (AIP) In Search of Ancient Astronomies [3]
Science-Writing Award 1985 American Institute of Physics (AIP) The Comet and You[g] [68]
Klumpke-Roberts Award 1989 Astronomical Society of the Pacific For contributing to the understanding and appreciation of astronomy by the public. [12]
Honorary Doctor of Science 1996 West Coast University [9]
Clifford W. Holmes Award 2002 Riverside Telescope Makers Conference (Riverside, California) For major contributions toward popularizing astronomy. [69]
Honorary Doctor of Science 2011 Pomona College [7]
[9]
Andrew Gemant Award[h] November 22, 2013 American Institute of Physics (AIP) Awarded to a person that has made substantial cultural, artistic, or humanistic contributions to physics. [6]
[17]
[18]
Blaisdell Distinguished Alumni Award[i] April 29, 2016 Pomona College Honors alumni for achievement in professional and community service [7]

On November 22, 2013 Krupp was presented with the Andrew Gemant Award at a session of the Los Angeles city council, the award citation indicated that Krupp was being recognized for:[6][17]

  • 40 years of outreach and education through extraordinary planetarium shows and programs.
  • Award-winning and popular articles, books, exhibits, lectures, public events and television programs.
  • Distinguished archaeoastronomical research in which the links between astronomy and ancient culture have been explored.

At the ceremony Catherine O'Riordan, then AIP vice president of Physics Resources said:

Griffith Observatory, where Edwin Krupp has been director for nearly four decades, is the most-visited public observatory in the world. Through telescopes, other public instruments, innovative exhibits, and live astronomical programs, he has brought the heavens to life for millions on the ground.[6][70]

Personal life[edit]

Krupp married Robin Rector on New Year's Eve of 1968.[11] They had one son[3] and divorced in 2006.[citation needed] Krupp now resides in the Eagle Rock neighborhood of Los Angeles, California.[13]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ George Abell was Academic Advisor to the Summer Science Program when Krupp attended as a high school student.
  2. ^ Both Griffith Observatory and Griffith Park where the observatory is located were given to the city of Los Angeles by Griffith J. Griffith a wealthy Los Angeles businessman.[16]
  3. ^ Harold Griffith was the grandson of Griffith J. Griffith.[19] Debra was his wife.[20] Griffith J. Griffith was the wealthy businessman that donated both Griffith Park and the Griffith Observatory within the park to the city of Los Angeles.[16]
  4. ^ Selected for Book of the Month Club/Science. Also selected for two Macmillan book clubs (as the main and alternate selections).[12]
  5. ^ Project Universe was nominated for a local Emmy Award.[3]
  6. ^ IMDb classifies Light of the Valkyries as an Animation Short. It is in fact, a planetarium show in the Samuel Oschin Planetarium at Griffith Observatory.[62]
  7. ^ The first time the Science-Writing award was given for a book written for children.[68]
  8. ^ Named for Andrew Gemant, a twentieth century physicist who specialized in the fields of viscoelasticity and fractional differentials.
  9. ^ Recognizes alumni who have borne the essence of Pomona College into the world, and have emulated to the James A. Blaisdell quotation carved on the college gates: "They only are loyal to the college who departing bear their added riches in trust for mankind."[7]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Cole, K. C. (14 February 1999). "Ed Krupp's Star-Studded Cosmic Extravaganza". Los Angeles Times. Archived from the original on 27 May 2016. 
  2. ^ a b Berger, Kevin (27 March 2014). "Ingenious: Edwin C. Krupp". Nautilus. Archived from the original on 8 January 2017. 
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l Bingham, Roger (13 September 1979). "The New Scientist Interview: Dr. Edwin Krupp". New Scientist. Reed Business Information. Archived from the original on 4 March 2017. 
  4. ^ a b c "The Summer Science Program" (PDF). Center for Astorphysics and Space Astronomy. University of Colorado at Boulder. Archived (PDF) from the original on 2 February 2017. Retrieved 4 March 2017. 
  5. ^ "The Summer Science Program". Summer Science Program. Archived from the original on 11 November 2016. Retrieved 4 March 2017. 
  6. ^ a b c d e f g "L.A. Astronomer Edwin C. Krupp Wins AIP's 2013 Andrew Gemant Award". American Institute of Physics. 24 September 2013. Archived from the original on 18 October 2015. 
  7. ^ a b c d e f g h i j "Gretchen Berland '86, Ed Krupp '66, Julian Nava '51 and George C. Wolfe '76 Win Blaisdell Distinguished Alumni Award". Pomona College. 29 April 2016. Archived from the original on 22 July 2016. 
  8. ^ a b c d e "Edwin Krupp '66, Pomona College Commencement 2011" (PDF). Pomona College. 15 May 2011. Archived (PDF) from the original on 19 August 2016. 
  9. ^ a b c d "E. C. Krupp: Recycling Time". Time For Everyone. California Institute of Technology. Archived from the original on 4 June 2016. Retrieved 24 March 2017. 
  10. ^ "The "Teaching Opportunity of a Lifetime" at SSP" (PDF). The Summer Science Program. Archived (PDF) from the original on 2 February 2017. Retrieved 22 March 2017. 
  11. ^ a b c d e Menke, David H. (4 October 1987). "Dinsmore Alter and the Griffith Observatory". International Planetarium Society. Archived from the original on 4 November 2016. 
  12. ^ a b c d e f g "Dr. Edwin C. Krupp". Science at Sea. pedasfamily.com. Archived from the original on 7 March 2017. Retrieved 7 March 2017. 
  13. ^ a b c d e f Bartholomew, Dana (9 May 2014). "Griffith Observatory, its director Dr. Edwin C. Krupp celebrate milestones". Los Angeles Daily News. Archived from the original on 5 August 2016. 
  14. ^ a b "Edwin C. Krupp". Far Horizons Inc. Archived from the original on 24 March 2017. Retrieved 24 March 2017. 
  15. ^ a b "Dr. Edwin C. Krupp,Astronomer & Director of Griffith Observatory". Guide to the Cosmos on Radio. Robert L. Piccioni, Ph.D. Archived from the original on 24 December 2016. Retrieved 10 March 2017. 
  16. ^ a b Bell, Alison (12 June 2011). "Colonel Griffith J. Griffith one of L.A.'s more colorful figures". Los Angeles Times. Archived from the original on 9 March 2016. 
  17. ^ a b c d "Edwin Krupp, 2013 Gemant Award". American Institute of Physics. Archived from the original on 18 October 2015. Retrieved 6 March 2017. 
  18. ^ a b c d e Bartholomew, Dana (24 September 2013). "Griffith Observatory director Edwin C. Krupp wins physics award". Los Angeles Daily News. Archived from the original on 15 January 2016. 
  19. ^ "Harold Griffith, Grandson of Park's Donor, Dies". Los Angeles Times. 10 March 1985. Archived from the original on 29 October 2015. 
  20. ^ a b c "Friends Of The Observatory (FOTO)". Griffith Observatory. Archived from the original on 24 June 2016. Retrieved 6 March 2017. 
  21. ^ Emspak, Jesse (26 August 2016). "Venus and Jupiter Imagined: From Galileo to Science Fiction". Space.com. Purch. Archived from the original on 30 August 2016. 
  22. ^ Navarro, Heather (26 April 2016). "Streak of Light Dashes Across SoCal Sky Sparking Social Media Debate". NBCLosAngeles. NBC Universal Media, LLC. Archived from the original on 12 December 2016. 
  23. ^ Jennewein, Chris (23 December 2015). "Russian Rocket Debris Lights Up Southern Calif. Sky". Times of San Diego. Times of San Diego, LLC. Archived from the original on 1 June 2016. 
  24. ^ "Blood moon eclipse offers rare astronomical double feature". Chicago Tribune. 28 September 2015. Archived from the original on 26 February 2016. 
  25. ^ "KPCC vs. The Sun: Solar flares, cosmic rays, and a chat with the director of the Griffith Observatory". 89.3 KPCC. 8 March 2012. Archived from the original on 13 March 2017. 
  26. ^ a b c "Dr. E. C. Krupp". AstronomyOutreach. AstronomyOutreach Network. Archived from the original on 6 March 2017. Retrieved 6 March 2017. 
  27. ^ Knight, Albert. "Three Chumash-style Pictograph Sites in Fernandeño Territory" (PDF). Society for California Archaeology. Archived (PDF) from the original on 20 October 2016. Retrieved 7 March 2017. 
  28. ^ a b "The Astronomy of Many Cultures" (PDF). Nature First. Archived (PDF) from the original on 13 September 2016. Retrieved 7 March 2017. 
  29. ^ a b c Fraknoi, Andrew. "Unheard Voices, Part 1: The Astronomy of Many Cultures". Multiverse. University of California, Berkeley. Archived from the original on 16 April 2016. 
  30. ^ a b c d e Lemberg, David (7 December 2009). "Griffith Observatory – Astronomy and Science Education". Science and Society. Archived from the original on 8 March 2017. 
  31. ^ "The morphology of rich clusters of galaxies". OCLC WorldCat. Online Computer Library Center. Archived from the original on 9 March 2017. Retrieved 9 March 2017. 
  32. ^ "The luminosity function of E-S0 galaxies in rich clusters". OCLC WorldCat. Online Computer Library Center. Archived from the original on 9 March 2017. Retrieved 9 March 2017. 
  33. ^ "In search of ancient astronomies". OCLC WorldCat. Online Computer Library Center. Archived from the original on 13 March 2017. Retrieved 13 March 2017. 
  34. ^ "Echoes of the Ancient Skies : the Astronomy of Lost Civilizations". OCLC WorldCat. Online Computer Library Center. Archived from the original on 13 March 2017. Retrieved 13 March 2017. 
  35. ^ "Archaeoastronomy and the roots of science". OCLC WorldCat. Online Computer Library Center. Archived from the original on 24 March 2017. Retrieved 24 March 2017. 
  36. ^ "Beyond the blue horizon : myths and legends of the sun, moon, stars, and planets". OCLC WorldCat. Online Computer Library Center. Archived from the original on 13 March 2017. Retrieved 13 March 2017. 
  37. ^ "Skywatchers, shamans [and] kings : astronomy and the archaeology of power". OCLC WorldCat. Online Computer Library Center. Archived from the original on 8 March 2017. Retrieved 13 March 2017. 
  38. ^ "Time and astronomy at the meeting of two worlds : proceedings of the International Symposium held in April 27 – May, 1992 in Frombork, Poland". WorldCat. Online Computer Library Center. Archived from the original on 25 March 2017. Retrieved 25 March 2017. 
  39. ^ Seline, Helaine; Sun, Xiaochun (2000). Astronomy Across Cultures: The History of Non-Western Astronomy. Dordrecht, Netherlands: Kluwer Academic Publishers. p. 29. ISBN 0792363639. 
  40. ^ "Handbook of archaeoastronomy and ethnoastronomy". WorldCat. Online Computer Library Center. Archived from the original on 13 March 2017. Retrieved 13 March 2017. 
  41. ^ "Springer Handbook of Archaeoastronomy and Ethnoastronomy". Clive Ruggles. Archived from the original on 13 March 2017. Retrieved 13 March 2017. 
  42. ^ Dowd, Anne S.; Milbrath, Susan (2015). Cosmology, Calendars, and Horizon-Based Astronomy in Ancient Mesoamerica. Boulder, Colorado: University Press of Colorado. p. xxv–xxviii. ISBN 9781607323785. 
  43. ^ "Mapping Spaces : a topological survey of the work by James Turrell". WorldCat. Online Computer Library Center. Archived from the original on 25 March 2017. Retrieved 25 March 2017. 
  44. ^ "James Turrell a retrospective ; [Museum of Fine Arts, Houston June 9 – September 22, 2013 ... National Gallery of Australia, Canberra December 12, 2014 – April 6, 2015]". WorldCat. Online Computer Library Center. Archived from the original on 25 March 2017. Retrieved 25 March 2017. 
  45. ^ "The comet and you". OCLC WorldCat. Online Computer Library Center. Archived from the original on 8 March 2017. Retrieved 8 March 2017. 
  46. ^ "The big dipper and you". OCLC WorldCat. Online Computer Library Center. Archived from the original on 13 March 2017. Retrieved 13 March 2017. 
  47. ^ "The moon and you". OCLC WorldCat. Online Computer Library Center. Archived from the original on 8 March 2017. Retrieved 8 March 2017. 
  48. ^ "The moon and you". OCLC WorldCat. Online Computer Library Center. Archived from the original on 8 March 2017. Retrieved 8 March 2017. 
  49. ^ "The rainbow and you". OCLC WorldCat. Online Computer Library Center. Archived from the original on 8 March 2017. Retrieved 8 March 2017. 
  50. ^ "The rainbow and you". OCLC WorldCat. Online Computer Library Center. Archived from the original on 8 March 2017. Retrieved 8 March 2017. 
  51. ^ "Meet the Staff of Sky & Telescope". Sky & Telescope. Retrieved 10 March 2017. 
  52. ^ a b Fraknoi, Andrew. "Multicultural Astronomy : The Astronomy of Non – western Cultures: A Resource Guide" (PDF). Foothill College & Astronomical Society of the Pacific. Archived (PDF) from the original on 9 January 2017. Retrieved 10 March 2017. 
  53. ^ Krupp, E. C. (November 2009). "The Great 2012 Scare" (PDF). Sky & Telescope. Archived (PDF) from the original on 18 April 2016. 
  54. ^ a b c "Chumash Rock Art (from search of the Marymor / Bancroft bibliiographic database)" (PDF). American Rock Art Research Association. Archived (PDF) from the original on 20 June 2010. Retrieved 10 March 2017. 
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