Eelam People's Democratic Party

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Eelam People's Democratic Party
ஈழ மக்கள் ஜனநாயகக் கட்சி
ඊළාම් ජනතා ප්‍රජාතන්ත්‍රවාදී පක්ෂය
Founder Douglas Devananda
Secretary Douglas Devananda
Founded November 1987
Split from Eelam People's Revolutionary Liberation Front
Headquarters 121 Park Road, Colombo 05
National affiliation United People's Freedom Alliance
Parliament of Sri Lanka
1 / 225
Election symbol
Party flag
Flag of Eelam People’s Democratic Party.svg
Politics of Sri Lanka
Political parties

The Eelam People's Democratic Party (EPDP) is a political party and a pro-government paramilitary organization in Sri Lanka. It is led by its founder Douglas Devananda.


Douglas Devananda was one of the founding members of the Eelam Revolutionary Organisation of Students (EROS), one of the earliest Sri Lankan Tamil militant groups. In 1980 EROS split into two as K. Pathmanabha (Padmanaba) Varatharajah Perumal broke away and formed the Eelam People's Revolutionary Liberation Front (EPRLF). Devananda joined the EPRLF. By early 1986 disputes had arisen between Devananda and Pathmanabha, the EPRLF's political leader. The EPRLF leadership split into two factions: EPRLF (Ranjan) and EPRLF (Douglas). In 1987 the EPRLF (Douglas) faction formally split from the EPRLF. Devananda initially formed the Eelam National Democratic Liberation Front (ENDLF) with a breakaway faction of the People's Liberation Organisation of Tamil Eelam led by Paranthan Rajan. The ENDLF collapsed when Rajan started working with Indians - Devananda was opposed to the Indian intervention in the Sri Lankan Civil War. Devananda, now living in Madras, India, then formed the Eelam People's Democratic Party.[1]

Kidnapping and extortion[edit]

The EPDP lacked funds and Devananda resorted to kidnapping and extortion of Sri Lankan Tamils living in Madras.[2] In 1989 Devananda and 25 others were arrested for the second time by the Indian police, this time for kidnapping a ten-year-old boy for ransom at Poonamallee High Road, Kilpauk, Madras, and imprisoned.[2][3][4] He was given bail. In 1990 police in Kodambakkam, Madras, started an investigation on Devananda on charges of rioting and criminal intimidation of a person called Valavan.[3][4] In 1990 Devananda jumped bail and returned to Sri Lanka.[2]

Paramilitary group[edit]

In 1990 Devananda arrived in Colombo. A meeting was arranged by Sri Lankan intelligence between Devananda and Deputy Defence Minister Ranjan Wijeratne.[2] Devananda offered to place the EPDP under Sri Lankan government control in return for support and protection from the Tamil Tigers.[2] The government accepted - the EPDP had transformed itself into a paramilitary organisation. Devananda was attacked for betraying the Tamil people and collaborating with the enemy.

EPDP cadres from all over Sri Lanka and India converged on Colombo. The government gave the EPDP vast financial assistance.[2] The EPDP, with the support of the government, took control of the islands off Jaffna peninsula after the Tigers withdrew.[2] The EPDP used the islands as a base to transport goods, particularly dried fish, between India and Sri Lanka.[2] It also imposed taxes.[2] Tamils living in Colombo were extorted money.[2]

On 1 January 1993 Tharmalingam Selvakumar, a former EPDP sympathiser, was abducted from the Premil Sports Club at Kotahena, Colombo. Selvakumar has alleged that he was taken in a van driven by Devananda to Devananda's house at 121 Park Road, Colombo 5.[5][6] He was detained along with other prisoners in cells at the back of Devananda's house. Selvakumar was tortured and the EPDP tried to extort money from his family.

All of this resulted in Devananda making a fortune.[2]

The EPDP's paramilitary wing continues to operate, despite its claims to have given up violence.[7][8][9] The paramilitary wing has been accused to have helped the Sri Lankan Navy commit massacre in places like Allaipiddy.[10][11]

Political party[edit]

Devananda and the EPDP entered politics in 1994 when it contested the 1994 parliamentary election as an independent group in Jaffna District. Most of the district was under Tamil Tiger control and so did not vote, allowing the EPDP win nine parliamentary seats with just 10,744 votes (0.14%), of which 9,944 votes came from the EPDP controlled Jafna islands. The EPDP became an ally of President Chandrika Kumaratunga and her People's Alliance (PA) government.

At the 2000 parliamentary election the EPDP won 50,890 votes (0.59%), securing 4 of the 225 seats in Parliament. In October 2000 Kumaratunga appointed Devananda as Minister of Development, Rehabilitation and Reconstruction of the North, and Tamil Affairs, North and East.

At the 2001 parliamentary election the EPDP won 72,783 votes (0.81%), securing 2 of the 225 seats in Parliament. Devananda lost his ministerial post following the change of government.

At the 2004 parliamentary election the EPDP won 24,955 votes (0.27%), securing 1 of the 225 seats in Parliament. Devananda was reappointed Minister of Agriculture, Marketing Development, Hindu Education Affairs, Tamil Language & Vocational Training Centres in North when the United People's Freedom Alliance, the successor to the PA, returned to power. He was appointed Minister for Social Service and Social Welfare by President Mahinda Rajapaksa in 2005.[12] There are unproved allegations of corruption against Devananda.[2]

United People's Freedom Alliance[edit]

Since the end of the Sri Lankan civil war in May 2009 the EPDP has contested local and national elections under the UPFA banner rather than on its own. At the 2010 parliamentary election three EPDP members were elected on the UPFA ticket, all in from Jaffna District.


  1. ^ DBS Jeyaraj (22 November 2001). "The Douglas Devananda phenomenon". The Sunday Leader, Sri Lanka. 
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l DBS Jeyaraj (18 November 2001). "The Dougles Devananda phenomenon". Sunday Leader. 
  3. ^ a b "Chennai Police alert Delhi on Douglas Devananda". The Hindu. 10 June 2010. 
  4. ^ a b "Rajapaksa minister wanted for murder, kidnapping in TN". Indian Express. 11 June 2010. 
  5. ^ "ASA 37/009/1993 Sri Lanka: death threats / fear of torture: Tharmalingam Selvakumar and others". Amnesty International. 13 April 1993. 
  6. ^ Jackie Smith, Charles Chatfield, Ron Pagnucco (1997). Transnational social movements and global politics: solidarity beyond the state. Syracuse University Press. p. 88. 
  7. ^ "Sri Lankan SEP holds media conference over disappearance of party member". World Socialist Web Site. International Committee of the Fourth International. 2007. Retrieved 2007-11-03. 
  8. ^ "Jaffna's media in the grip of terror" (PDF). IPF. Reporters Without Borders. 2007. Retrieved 2007-11-03. 
  9. ^ Harrison, Frances (2002-10-18). "Killed journalist: Sri Lanka 'injustice'". BBC. Retrieved 2007-11-03.  Check date values in: |year= / |date= mismatch (help)
  10. ^ "The Choice between Anarchy and International Law with Monitoring". University Teachers for Human Rights (Jaffna). 2006-11-07. Retrieved 2007-11-03. 
  11. ^ Amnesty International Canada (2006-05-16). "Sri Lanka: Amnesty International condemns killings of civilians". Amnesty International Canada. Retrieved 2007-11-04. 
  12. ^ "'LTTE usurped Lankan Tamils' identity'". The Statesman. 

External links[edit]