Ef (Cyrillic)

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Cyrillic letter Ef
Phonetic usage:[f], [ɸ]
Name (Early Cyrillic alphabet):фрьтъ
Numeric value:500
Derived from:Greek letter Phi (Φ φ)
The Cyrillic script
Slavic letters
АА̀А̂А̄ӒБВГ
ҐДЂЃЕЀЕ̄Е̂
ЁЄЖЗЗ́ЅИІ
ЇЍИ̂ӢЙЈК
ЛЉМНЊОО̀О̂
ŌӦПРСС́ТЋ
ЌУУ̀У̂ӮЎӰФ
ХЦЧЏШЩЪ
Ъ̀ЫЬѢЭЮЮ̀Я
Я̀
Non-Slavic letters
ӐА̊А̃Ӓ̄ӔӘӘ́Ә̃
ӚВ̌ԜГ̑Г̇Г̣Г̌Г̂
Г̆Г̈ҔҒӺҒ̌Ӷ
Г̡Д́Д̌Д̈Д̣Д̆ӖЕ̃
Ё̄Є̈ҖӜӁЖ̣ҘӞ
З̌З̣З̆ԐԐ̈ӠИ̃Ӥ
ҊҚӃҠҞҜК̣Ԛ
Л́ӅԮԒЛ̈Ӎ
Н́ӉҢԨӇҤО̆О̃
Ӧ̄ӨӨ̄Ө́Ө̆ӪԤП̈
ҦР̌ҎС̌ҪС̣С̱Т́
Т̈Т̌Т̇Т̣ҬУ̃Ӳ
У̊Ӱ̄ҰҮҮ́Х̣Х̱Х̮
Х̑Х̌ҲӼӾҺҺ̈Ԧ
Ц̌Ц̈ҴҶҶ̣ӴӋЧ̡
ҸЧ̇Ч̣ҼҾШ̈Ш̣
Ы̆Ы̄ӸҌҨЭ̆Э̄
Э̇ӬӬ́Ӭ̄Ю̆Ю̈Ю̄Я̆
Я̄Я̈Ӏ
Archaic or unused letters
А̨Б̀Б̣Б̱В̀Г̀Г̧
Г̄Г̓Г̆Ҕ̀Ҕ̆ԀД̓
Д̀Д̨ԂЕ̇Е̨
Ж̀Ж̑Џ̆
Ꚅ̆З̀З̑ԄԆ
ԪІ̂І̣І̨
Ј̵Ј̃К̓К̀К̆Ӄ̆
К̑К̇К̈К̄ԞК̂
Л̀ԠԈЛ̑Л̇Ԕ
М̀М̃Н̀Н̄Н̧Н̃
ԊԢН̡Ѻ
П̓П̀П́П̧
П̑ҀԚ̆Р́Р̀Р̃Ԗ
С̀С̈ԌҪ̓Т̓Т̀Ԏ
Т̑Т̧Ꚍ̆
ОУУ̇У̨ꙋ́Ф̑Ф̓
Х́Х̀Х̆Х̇Х̧Х̓һ̱
ѠѼѾЦ̀Ц́Ц̓
Ꚏ̆Ч́Ч̀
Ч̆Ч̑Ч̓Ԭ
Ꚇ̆Ҽ̆Ш̀Ш̆Ш̑Щ̆Ꚗ̆
Ы̂Ы̃Ѣ́Ѣ̈Ѣ̆
Э̨Э̂Ю̂Я̈
Я̂Я̨ԘѤѦѪ
ѨѬѮѰѲѴѶ
Ef, from Karion Istomin's 1694 alphabet book

Ef or Fe (Ф ф; italics: Ф ф) is a Cyrillic letter, commonly representing the voiceless labiodental fricative /f/, like the pronunciation of ⟨f⟩ in "fill, flee, or fall". The Cyrillic letter Ef is romanized as ⟨f⟩.

History[edit]

The Cyrillic letter Ef was derived from the Greek letter Phi (Φ φ). It merged with and eliminated letter Fita (Ѳ) in the Russian alphabet in 1918.

The name of Ef in the Early Cyrillic alphabet is фрьтъ (fr̥tŭ or frĭtŭ), in later Church Slavonic and Russian form it became фертъ (fert).[1]

In the Cyrillic numeral system, Ef has a value of 500.

Appearance[edit]

The Slavic languages have almost no native words containing /f/. This sound did not exist in Proto-Indo-European (PIE). It arose in Greek and Latin from PIE *bʰ (which yielded Slavic /b/). In some instances in Latin, it represented historical th-fronting and derived from Proto-Indo-European *dʰ. In the Germanic languages, the f sound arose from PIE *p via Grimm's law, which remained unchanged in Slavic. The letter ф is thus almost exclusively found in words of foreign origin, especially Greek (from φ and sometimes from θ), Latin, French, German, Dutch, English, and Turkic languages

Example borrowings in Russian:

  • from Greek: катастрофа, "catastrophe" (from φ); Фёдор, "Theodore" (from θ)
  • from Latin: федерация, "federation"; эффект, "effect"
  • from German: картофель, "potato" (from Kartoffel); фунт, "pound" (from Pfund)
  • from Dutch: флаг, "flag"

The few native Slavic words with this letter (in different languages) are examples of onomatopoeia (like Russian verbs фукать, фыркать etc.) or reflect sporadic pronunciation shifts:

  • from пв /pv/: Serbian уфати 'to hope' (cf. Church Slavonic уповати 'to hope')
  • from хв /xv/: Macedonian сфати '(he) understands' (cf. Church Slavonic схватити 'to take, to catch'), Russian дрофа 'bustard' (cf. Ukrainian дрохва 'bustard')
  • from кв /kv/: Russian филин 'eagle-owl' (cf Ukrainian квилити 'to cry')
  • from х /x/: Russian toponym Фили 'Fili' (from хилый 'sickly')

Slavic languages[edit]

Ef is the 21st letter of the Bulgarian alphabet; the 22nd letter of the Russian alphabet; the 23rd letter of the Belarusian alphabet; the 25th letter of the Serbian and Ukrainian alphabet; and the 26th letter of the Macedonian alphabet. It represents the consonant /f/ unless it is before a palatalizing vowel, when it represents /fʲ/.

Related letters and other similar characters[edit]

Computing codes[edit]

Character information
Preview Ф ф
Unicode name CYRILLIC CAPITAL LETTER EF CYRILLIC SMALL LETTER EF
Encodings decimal hex dec hex
Unicode 1060 U+0424 1092 U+0444
UTF-8 208 164 D0 A4 209 132 D1 84
Numeric character reference Ф Ф ф ф
Named character reference Ф ф
KOI8-R and KOI8-U 230 E6 198 C6
Code page 855 171 AB 170 AA
Code page 866 148 94 228 E4
Windows-1251 212 D4 244 F4
ISO-8859-5 196 C4 228 E4
Macintosh Cyrillic 148 94 244 F4

External links[edit]

  • The dictionary definition of Ф at Wiktionary
  • The dictionary definition of ф at Wiktionary

References[edit]

  1. ^ Corbett, Professor Greville; Comrie, Professor Bernard (September 2003). The Slavonic Languages. Routledge. ISBN 978-1-136-86137-6.