Effects of Hurricane Wilma in Florida

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
Hurricane Wilma
Category 3 major hurricane (SSHWS/NWS)
Flood102405.JPG
Storm surge from Wilma on Key Haven, island suburb of Key West, Florida
Winds 1-minute sustained: 120 mph (195 km/h)
Gusts: 150 mph (240 km/h)
Fatalities 35 direct, 26 indirect
Damage $20.6 billion (2005 USD)
Areas affected Florida
Part of the 2005 Atlantic hurricane season

The effects of Hurricane Wilma in Florida were catastrophic, becoming the second costliest Florida hurricane ever recorded. Hurricane Wilma was first evident near Jamaica and was classified as a hurricane on October 18. Initially, orange future prices soared on October 19, 2005. As the system drew closer, schools and government offices closed on October 21. Professional and college sports games were rescheduled during Wilma's advance towards Florida. Evacuations were ordered for southwestern Florida and the Keys. As the storm made landfall, a storm surge swept into coastal sections of southern Florida and high winds led to significant damage near and along Wilma's path, particularly to the power grid. Some locations were without power for 2–3 weeks after the storm. Wilma spawned ten tornadoes in Florida.[1] At least 35 Wilma-related deaths were reported in the United States, all in Florida. Wilma was also blamed for at least 26 indirect deaths.[2][3] Damage in Florida totaled $20.6 billion (2005 USD; $22.7 billion 2008 USD).[4]

Preparations[edit]

Satellite image of Wilma over South Florida

The National Hurricane Center (NHC) issued many tropical cyclone warnings and watches in anticipation of Wilma. First, a hurricane watch was posted for the Florida Keys including Dry Tortugas and Florida Bay at 15:00 UTC on October 22. Six hours later, NHC issued another hurricane watch for the west coast of Florida south of Longboat Key and on the east coast of Florida to the south of Titusville, including Lake Okeechobee. At 21:00 UTC on October 23, a tropical storm watch was put into effect on the west coast from Longboat Key northward to the Steinhatchee River and on the east coast from Titusville northward to Fernandina Beach. Early the following day, the hurricane watch was upgraded to a hurricane warning on the west coast and on the east coast from Jupiter Inlet southward, including Lake Okeechobee.[1]

The hurricane warning along the east coast stretching from the Jupiter Inlet southward was expended northward to Titusville at 09:00 UTC on October 23. Simultaneously, the portion of the tropical storm watch from Titusville to Flagler Beach was upgraded to a tropical storm warning. The tropical storm warning was extended further northward to St. Augustine at 03:00 UTC on October 24. Twelve hours later, the tropical storm watch was discontinued from St. Augustine to Fernandina Beach. At 17:00 UTC, the tropical storm warning from Longboat Key to the Steinhatchee River was canceled. The remainder of the hurricane warning in effect was downgraded to a tropical storm warning about 90 minutes later. By 21:00 UTC on October 24, all remaining tropical cyclone warnings and watches were discontinued.[1]

A mandatory evacuation of residents was ordered for the Florida Keys in Monroe County. However, media reports suggested that as many as 80% of residents may have ignored the evacuation order. County offices, schools and courts were closed Monday, October 24. At least 300 Keys evacuees were housed at the Monroe County shelter at Florida International University in Miami-Dade County.[5]

All Collier County public schools were declared closed for Friday, October 21. The schools were closed to "allow parents and staff to prepare for the storm and potential evacuation", and also allowed "for needed preparation of schools to be used as hurricane shelters." The schools remained closed on Monday, October 24 as the hurricane made landfall.[6]

Florida Gulf Coast University in Fort Myers completed an evacuation; classes were canceled until further notice. Eckerd College in St. Petersburg, Florida also evacuated by 5 p.m. EDT on October 20. All campuses of the University of South Florida, the University of Tampa and the University of Central Florida were closed on Monday, October 24.

Mandatory evacuations were in effect for all Collier County residents living West or South of US 41. Other areas that were included in the mandatory evacuation were Seagate, Parkshore, The Moorings, Coquina Sands, Olde Naples, Aqualane Shores, Port Royal and Royal Harbour. Hurricane shelters in the area were opened. Curfews were put in place for several cities in Lee and Collier counties.[7]

Anticipating high winds all public school districts south of Marion closed their schools on Monday, October 24 in order to prevent possible harm to county employees and students. The last places to issue this warning sat within the gap between bands as tornadoes were observed as far north as Sumter, Marion, Pasco, and Polk Counties. Schools in Palm Beach and Broward counties were closed for two weeks due to extended power outages and some physical damage to school buildings. Schools in Collier and Miami-Dade counties were closed for a little over a week, including the University of Miami and Barry University.

Orange juice futures reached the highest level in six years on Wednesday, October 19, closing up 2.9 cents at $1.118 per pound due to the storm's expected damage to orange trees which would have compounded problems caused the previous year by Hurricanes Charley, Frances and Jeanne.[8] As dynamic models moved the storm's track east over Florida, oil futures eased as worries of another direct hit on the oil producing regions of the Gulf of Mexico subsided. There were many robberies reported.

The NFL moved up its regular-season game between Kansas City Chiefs and Miami Dolphins to 7 p.m. on Friday, October 21 in anticipation of the hurricane. The NCAA postponed two college football games scheduled in south Florida on Saturday, October 22. Georgia Tech vs. University of Miami was rescheduled for Saturday, November 19 and West Virginia vs South Florida was rescheduled for Saturday, December 3. The NHL rescheduled its Saturday, October 22 regular-season game between the Ottawa Senators and Florida Panthers to Monday, December 5. Due to roof damage caused by Wilma and the loss of power at the BankAtlantic Center, the Panthers also had to postpone their October 29 match up against the Washington Capitals. Furthermore, a concert by the industrial rock band, Nine Inch Nails, expected to have taken place Monday, October 24, was postponed and later canceled. Key West's Fantasy Fest held around each Halloween was postponed until December.

Impact[edit]

Florida Power and Light, the largest electricity utility in the state, reported more than 3,241,000 customers had lost power,[9] equivalent to approximately 6,000,000 people.

Wilma was blamed for at least 61 deaths,[2][3] 35 of those direct and the remaining 26 indirect. Damage in Florida totaled $20.6 billion,[4] making Wilma the costliest hurricane in the state since Hurricane Andrew in 1992.

Monroe County[edit]

After the hurricane had passed, a storm surge from the backwash of up to 8 ft (2.4 m) from the Gulf of Mexico completely inundated a large portion of the lower Keys. Low-lying areas of Key West and the lower Keys, including major tourist destinations were under up to 3 ft (.9 m) of water from the storm surge. 60% of the homes in Key West were flooded.[10] Much of the originally settled "oldtown", such as the Solares Hill and cemetery areas did not flood due to their higher elevations of 12–16 ft (3.7-4.9 m).[11] The surge destroyed tens of thousands of cars throughout the lower Keys and many houses were flooded with 1–2 feet (.3-.6 m) of seawater. A local newspaper referred to Key West and the lower Keys as a "car graveyard".[12]

The Islamorada village hall was damaged beyond repair, forcing officials to temporarily relocate to the fire station.[13]

Most buildings in Key Largo were unscathed. However, many docks were damaged, several trees were downed, and some areas were flooded. The Monroe County Sheriff's Office closed an 18 mi (29 km) stretch of U.S. Route 1 between Key Largo and Florida City and Card Sound Road due to debris and flooding.[14] The storm also impacted the mainland areas of the county. At Flamingo, a ghost town located in Everglades National Park, many of the facilities were severely damaged, forcing park officials to prohibit camping, lodging, and other services.[15]

Southwest Florida[edit]

The peak of the storm surge occurred when the eye of Wilma had already passed over the Naples area, and the sustained winds during the surge were less than 40 mph (64 km/h).[11] One person died in rural Collier County due to wind-driven debris.[2][3]

The Naples Airport was severely damaged by the hurricane, while areas like Immokalee and East Naples suffered extreme and widespread roof damage to numerous homes and communities. Out of the 170 signaled intersections in Collier County, 130 were destroyed.[2] There was damage to the 90 high-rise condominiums in Coastal Naples, where some levels were blown out completely by the high winds brought by the storm. Ninety percent of all mobile homes in East Naples were destroyed, while 30% of the mobile homes in all of Collier County suffered the same fate. Widespread roof damage was evident across the county even outside the City of Naples. At least three deaths were blamed on Hurricane Wilma in Collier County, and widespread wind and water damage is commonplace. One tornado was spawned in Collier County.

Hurricane Wilma lashed Hendry County with winds of 90 to 100 mph (140 to 160 km/h). In LaBelle, the municipal airport lost several doors at the hangars and the office was flooded. Additionally, aircraft may have been damaged. A number of roads and a bridge in the city were closed due to debris and downed trees.[16] The city of Clewiston was devastated. Some 200‑year‑old trees were toppled and multiple streets flooded,[17] including Route 27.[18] At least 145 dwellings were demolished, including rows of houses in the section of Harlem.[19] Much of the cafeteria at Clewiston High School lost its roof and water leakage from the ceiling occurred in several classrooms.[20] The Hendry Regional Medical Center sustained roof damage.[21] The city's three marinas were destroyed and a number of boats were impacted by the storm. Numerous businesses in the city suffered some degree of losses.[22] At the US Sugar Corporation headquarters, the roof was severely damaged.[23]

The small, unincorporated communities of Montura Ranch Estates and Pioneer Plantation were also severely effected. In the former, 47 homes were moderately damaged and 9 were left uninhabitable. Forty dwellings were damaged or destroyed in Pioneer Plantation.[24] Roughly 50% of sugar and orange crops destroyed.[23] The main building of the Ah-Tah-Thi-Ki Seminole Indian Museum lost its roof, causing rain to pour into the building and damage some mannequins.[25] At the Big Cypress Indian Reservation, buildings and homes weakened by previous hurricanes suffered further damage. Branches broke from large live oak trees, while porches and sheds lost roofs.[26] Additionally, a shop filled with Native Americans arts and crafts was destroyed.[27] Throughout Hendry County, damage totaled about $567 million, with $300 million to agriculture and $267 million in structures.[28]

Southeast Florida[edit]

Nearly every window on the west side of South Beach Community Hospital in Miami Beach was blown out.

Miami-Dade County[edit]

A high rise in Brickell, Miami

The only direct death in Miami-Dade County occurred in Aventura after a man's boat smashed into a seawall. A drowning was reported on Maule Lake in North Miami Beach from a capsized boat. Two deaths occurred in Hialeah, one was a 1-year old boy after the car he was in hit a light pole loosened during the storm and the other was a woman who died during a collision at an intersection with no traffic signal.[29] In North Bay Village, 10 houseboats were declared "unsafe." A few buildings were damaged, especially the Treasure Bay Clubhouse, which lost its roof and had significant damage on the ground floor.[30] In Miami Beach, the South Beach Community Hospital was severely damaged.[31] Collins Avenue was littered with trees and coconuts, while some other roads were impassable.[32]

Some skyscrapers and high-rises in Miami suffered severe facade damage during the storm, particularly along Brickell Avenue between Route 41 and Coral Way. Among the damaged structures were the Colonial Bank Building, the JW Marriott Miami, Espirito Santo Plaza, and the Four Seasons Hotel Miami, which was the tallest building in Florida.[33][34] Several hangars at the Miami International Airport were deroofed.[35] The Orange Bowl suffered damage to a radio tower, a chain-link fence, and the light banks. Although there was no structural loss, the impact from the storm rekindled discussion about demolishing the stadium.[36] At the Miami Seaquarium on Virginia Key, storm surge intruded into the park and caused significant damage.[37]

A trailer park in Sweetwater, six mobile homes were destroyed and dozens of other suffered damage.[38] In West Kendall, the storm knocked over fences, tore shingles from roofs, uprooted trees, and downed power lines, leaving some without electricity and blocking roads such as Kendall Drive. Similar impact occurred in The Hammocks, with fences, light poles, and trees felled, which blocked some roads. At the Miami MetroZoo (now known as Zoo Miami), roofs and fences were damaged, but the animals were unharmed.[39] The Homestead-Miami Speedway, built to restore Homestead's economy after Hurricane Andrew in 1992, suffered major damage to lights, grandstandings, catch fencing, and garages.[40] One indirect death occurred in Homestead after a man was killed by the tractor he was using to remove debris.[29]

Broward County[edit]

Heavy façade damage to a building in Fort Lauderdale

Wilma was the most damaging storm in Broward County since Hurricane King in 1950. Winds between 80 and 100 mph (130 and 160 km/h) lashed the county for about five hours. Widespread minor to major wind damages to residential and commercial buildings occurred. At least 5,111 dwellings were left uninhabitable, including 2,800 condominiums and apartments, 1,441 mobile homes, 42 single-family dwellings, and 170 commercial buildings. Much of the damage was incurred to roofing and siding, while interior damage was caused by rain and winds. Along the Intracoastal Waterway, a number of boats, docks, bulkheads, and dry storage marinas sustained impact, and many houses and businesses suffered roof damage.[41] The storm severely damaged 69 school, totaling as much as $100 million.[42]

In Parkland, city properties suffered $300,000 to $500,000 in damage.[43] At Tradewinds Park in Coconut Creek, many of the Christmas lights to be used for the Holiday Fantasy of Lights became tangled around trees or were destroyed.[44] Forty-two dwellings in the city were left uninhabitable, all of which were mobile homes.[45] A 48-year old man died from carbon monoxide in Deerfield Beach after running a generator in his living room.[29] Along the beach, sand covered parts of State Road A1A (South Ocean Drive) and reached the second floors of some apartments.[46] Overall, erosion was extensive.[47] At a yacht club along the south side of the Hillsboro Canal, a 40,000 ft (12,000 m) shed sheltering more than 150 boats worth millions of dollars collapsed.[48] About 684 homes were damaged, 100 of which were declared "unsafe".[45]

One of the worst damaged areas was downtown Fort Lauderdale, where several highrise office buildings suffered extensive damage, including One Financial Plaza, AutoNation Tower, Broward Financial Center, the 14-floor Broward County School Board building and the Broward County Courthouse, which was forced to remain closed for two weeks as a result of the storm. Broward County Public Schools also remained closed for two weeks.

In the city of Plantation, 93 buildings were reported to have sustained major damage. Three single-family dwellings were severely damaged and 16 mobile homes were destroyed in Hollywood.[41] A Coral Springs man who was inspecting damage during the eye of the hurricane was killed by a falling tree, according to a Broward County official.[49] Moderate beach erosion at John U. Lloyd Beach State Park.[41]

Severe impact was reported in Davie.[50] At Camp Seminole, a Boy Scout camp owned by the South Florida Council, the storm caused over $1 million in damage to trees, buildings, and other infrastructure.[51] The camp was closed for several years and underwent repairs, re-opening as Camp Elmore in June 2012.[52] A total of 608 trailers, 46 single-family homes, and 38 town homes were rendered uninhabitable, while one business was left in disrepair. Damage in the town alone was approximately $103 million, which included at least $60,000 to municipal buildings and around $150,000 to parks.[50]

Palm Beach County[edit]

An aerial view of Belle Glade after Wilma

Most schools in Palm Beach County had extensive roof and building damage, resulting in an estimated $35.7 million in damage. Also, power failure left schools closed for two weeks. The storm inflicted some degree of damage to more than 55,000 homes and 3,600 businesses. A total of 7.7 million cubic yards of debris was collected after the storm.[53] More than 90% of Florida Power & Light customers were left without electricity. Two deaths occurred in Palm Beach County.[54] Overall, left at least $2.9 billion in damage in Palm Beach County, with $1.6 billion to residential property, $1 billion to businesses, and over $300 million to municipal property. Unincorporated areas of the county suffered about $1.67 billion in damage. Additionally, there was $13 million in damage to parks and $32 million to trees, fences, lights, bleachers, ball fields, walking paths, and buildings at parks.[53]

Belle Glade recorded the strongest wind gust in Florida, reaching 117 mph (188 km/h) at the South Florida Water Management District office.[1] Trees, tree limbs, and power lines were downed in the city.[55] The storm destroyed marinas around Lake Okeechobee. Several boats, vehicles, and adjacent buildings were smashed. At least 53 vessels were beached.[56] Glades General Hospital was damaged so severely that patients were evacuated.[57] The fire station was deroofed, forcing firefighters to relocate to Lakeshore Middle School.[33] Throughout the city, 526 homes suffered damage, while 72 homes were demolished.[58] Further north, the fishing industry in Pahokee was effectively destroyed after the newly built marina collapsed.[59] The storm also wrecked 172 homes and impacted 487 others.[58] Damage in Pahokee reached at least $41 million, with $1 million to municipal buildings and $40 million to homes.[60]

At Lake Harbor, a tiny lakefront community near the western boundary of Palm Beach County, only seven homes were left standing after the hurricane.[61] About 743 homes,[58] roughly 80% of the dwelling in South Bay were damaged,[59] and 63 residences were destroyed.[58] City hall and the fire station suffered heavy roof damage.[62] In Canal Point, trees, branches, power lines, and electrical poles were toppled. Almost complete destruction of the communities mobile homes parks occurred. Several other homes and buildings were inflicted with serious damage.[55] Overall, damage occurred at about 60% of homes in Canal Point.[60] Some historical buildings damaged by hurricanes Frances and Jeanne in 2004 were destroyed by Wilma.[63] State Road 80, one of the only routes between eastern and western Palm Beach County, was closed after a Florida Power & Light transmission line fell across the highway about 1 mi (1.6 km) west of Lion Country Safari.[57] At the Loxahatchee National Wildlife Refuge (NWR), 85% of tree islands – "small, wetland forest communities imbedded in a matrix of freshwater marsh" – were damaged by the storm. Less than 50% of the canopies were removed at most tree islands, while the tree islands that suffered the worst impact had larger trees and were near the center of Loxahatchee NWR.[64] The office and visitor centers were both severely damaged and later rebuilt.[65]

A man in the unincorporated community of Loxahatchee died after he was crushed by a tree that pushed him into the windshield of his vehicle.[66] The metal roof at Western Pines Middle School was peeled back, exposing multiple classrooms.[67] In nearby Royal Palm Beach, 331 homes were impacted.[58] Damage there reached about $9 million, including about $1.5 million to village property.[68] The village of Wellington suffered severe damage. The community center nearly lost its roof, the bleachers around the pool collapsed, and fences and canopies surrounding the tennis courts were destroyed. A few local parks experienced similar effects to their bleachers and sports facilities.[69] Palm Beach Central High School was severely damaged. Its kitchen and cafeteria lost portions of their roof, the theater and media center were flooded, the gym suffered a roof leak, and trees, signs, and fences were knocked down throughout campus.[70] Many trees and utility poles were snapped at The Mall at Wellington Green.[57] Approximately 3,955 homes were impacted and 4 others destroyed.[58] Overall, Wellington suffered almost $62 million in damage, with $50.4 million to property, and $3.8 million to public facilities, with repairs costs reaching almost $5.9 million.[71]

Jonathan Dickinson State Park's Missile Tracking Annex in Tequesta observed a sustained wind speed of 82 mph (132 km/h) and a gust of 114 mph (183 km/h).[1] Throughout the village, trees and tree branches littered the streets. A condominium was evacuated after an air conditioner was detached from the roof, resulting in water damage.[72] The recreation center, water treatment plant, and public safety building all experienced roof damage and water intrusion.[73] Ninety-five homes and twenty-six businesses in the city suffered mostly minor damage.[58][73] Overall, damage in the village reached about $5.2 million.[53] In Jupiter, the storm brought similar impact to public facilities, parks, and roads.[73] However, dwellings fared much worse, with 2,673 damaged and 14 destroyed.[58] At Riverbend Park, many trees fell along the park's hiking trails and canoe and kayak trails. Several chickee huts suffered minor damage.[74] The damage toll for the town of Jupiter was over $23.3 million.[53] In Jupiter Farms, the police substation, originally owned by Burt Reynolds, was inflicted extensive impact both on the interior and exterior. The roof, the air conditioning system, and several walls were damaged. State Road 706 (Indiantown Road) was blocked due to a downed power line and overflowing culverts. Low-lying areas experienced minor flooding.[74]

In Juno Beach, several commercial and business properties were damaged, including two shopping centers on U.S. Route 1, a One-Stop store, and a community clubhouse. A number of beach walkovers and signs were damaged, while many trees were toppled at a park.[75] Twelve houses received structurally impacts, with one being completely demolished.[58] Total damage in Juno Beach was light compared to many other county municipalities, reaching around $1.48 million.[53] Several public facilities in Palm Beach Gardens were impacted by the storm. At a baseball field and a separate sports complex, bleachers, lights, and trees were downed. Five fire stations suffered damage to their roofs and equipment. City hall experienced damage to its roof and air-conditioning system.[75] About 3,481 dwellings were inflicted damage to some degree, while 12 others were destroyed.[58] The suffered about $30.1 million in damage.[53] Several commercial and public properties were damaged in North Palm Beach, including a condominium, a maintenance building, an office building, a bank, a country club, a park, and a baseball field.[75] Additionally, 35 homes received structural impact. Overall, the village experienced about $3.1 ,million in damage.[53]

In Lake Park, several businesses and a public works building on State Road 811 (10th Street) were extensively damaged.[76] There was also light damage to the roof of the town hall and at the Lake Park Marina.[75] Additionally, 279 homes were structurally impacted, 46 severely.[58] Two parks had a number of downed lights, fences, trees, and benches.[77] Damage in Lake Park totaled about $9.7 million.[53] The Wells Recreation Center and the Ocean Mall in Riviera Beach both suffered extensive damage. The latter was to be condemned, but was later rebuilt.[68][78] Severe impact to housing occurred in the city, with 1,191 homes damaged and 4 destroyed.[58] Damage in Riviera Beach approached $18.4 million.[53] In Palm Beach Shores, the roof of a restaurant and 41 homes suffered structural impact during the storm.[58][68] Damage in the city was light, totaling about $670,000.[53] One person died of carbon monoxide poisoning in Mangonia Park while sleeping in a house with a smoldering barbecue grill inside.[79] The Ande Monofilament headquarters suffered severe damage,[80] while a total of 41 homes received minor impact.[58] The town received only about $1.17 million in damage.[53]

Sustained-hurricane force winds and gusts up 101 mph (163 km/h) lashed West Palm Beach.[1] In downtown West Palm Beach, a large construction crane fell and broke water and gas lines, causing water and gas to spew into the streets.[81] The Comeau Building, which survived the 1928 hurricane, lost some windows and a section of its roof. Debris from the roof littered Clematis Street and crushed a parked car.[66] The Palm Beach County Courthouse and Board of County Commissioners building suffered only broken windows. A portion of the roof at the police department was peeled off.[81] At city hall, windows were broken and four out of the five floors sustained damage.[82] A total of 20 city-owned buildings were impacted structurally, with an overall loss of about $12.3 million.[68] At the Carefree Theatre, a theatre that screened foreign films and hosted small concerts, suffered extensive roof damage. The Carefree Theatre was moved into a former church building in 2007 and renamed The Theatre, but closed in 2008.[83] A roof leak at St. Mary's Medical Center forced staff to evacuate patients to other rooms.[33] The 1515 Tower, which was abandoned due to heavy impact by hurricanes Frances and Jeanne in 2004,[84] suffered further damage during Wilma.[85] In February 2010, the high-rise was demolished by explosives and was the third tallest building in the United States to be imploded.[84] Along the Intracoastal Waterway, many boats capsized or crashed into the seawall.[81] On U.S. Route 1 between Belvedere Road and State Road 80 (Southern Boulevard), several stores in the Antique Row section had broken windows, interior damage, and rain-soaked merchandise and furniture.[53]

The gymnasium of Forest Hill Community High School, which was serving as a shelter, had a portion of the roof torn-off and rain began to pour in. At the South Florida Fairgrounds some of the metal sidings were shredded off the Americraft Expo Center.[81] At Yesteryear Village, an open-air historic park on the grounds, several buildings were damaged, but none beyond repair, despite that nearly all of buildings were built in the 1930s or earlier. A four-pole barn was the only structure destroyed. The general store and rustic Corbett Shack both had roof damage. Windows at the Riddle House were broken, while the doors of the church were blown off. The Sally Bennett Big Band Hall of Fame Museum sustained water damage. An estimate placed damage in Yesteryear Village at about $25,000.[86] Twenty-eight of the fifty exhibits at the Palm Beach Zoo were damaged, three beyond repairs. There was also serious impact to the carousel and veterinarian hospital.[87] Many trees were downed and much of the vegetation was ruined. The zoo alone suffered about $1.5 million in damage.[88] At Okeeheelee Park, the roofs of multiple buildings were removed at the equestrian center, which was under construction at the time. Hurricane Frances, Jeanne, and Wilma combined toppled over 70% of the trees at Mounts Botanical Garden, while Wilma itself damaged the office buildings.[89] Throughout West Palm Beach, 1,194 businesses suffered minor damage and 105 others experienced severe impact, while one was obliterated.[68] Additionally, 6,036 homes received impact from the storm, while 16 were completely demolished.[58] Damage in the city reached approximately $425.8 million, with almost two-third of the total to businesses.[53]

Tree damage at a home in Palm Springs

In Palm Beach, damage was primarily limited to roofs, vegetation, and windows, and mostly occurred in the southern end of town. An 83-year-old man in Palm Beach suffered a fatal heart attack around the time he was struck by a sliding glass door.[79] A total of 51 homes in the town experienced damage.[58] Overall, damage in Palm Beach was approximately $9.4 million.[53] A wind gust of 105 mph (169 km/h) was observed in Greenacres.[90] Several roadways were blocked in the city due to falling trees. Two buildings at an apartment complex were evacuated after they began to lean.[57] About 627 residences were impacted and 19 others obliterated.[58] The roofs of two buildings at John I. Leonard Community High School suffered heavy damage.[70] Overall, damage to homes and businesses reach about $18 million.[76] In Palm Springs, 460 multi-family dwellings were severely damaged – the most in a single municipality in the county. A total of 2,462 homes were inflicted impact, while 5 residences were demolished.[58] Despite this, the village experienced only $6.1 million in damage.[53]

The sixth floor of JFK Medical Center in Atlantis was partially removed, causing staff to move 34 patients to lower floors.[66] The city as a whole suffered relatively light impact, with only nine houses damaged.[58] In Lake Worth, a church on State Road 802 (Lake Avenue) suffered the complete loss of its sanctuary and only a large cross remained standing.[91] The Lake Worth Playhouse, a theatre built in 1924, lost a portion of its roof above the stage and then rain poured in, flooding the dressing room, damaging the stage, and ruining sound and light mechanisms.[92] At the Lake Worth campus of Palm Beach Community College, several windows at the library shattered and then rain poured in, destroying about 1,000 books.[93] A senior citizen high-rise known as the Lake Worth Towers suffered roof damage.[94] At an elderly assistance facility at Haverhill Road and Lantana Road, most of the roof was blown off.[95] About 27 homes were destroyed and 2,491 homes suffered structural impact,[58] while 7 businesses were demolished and 93 others were damaged.[96] Damage in Lake Worth amounted to $28.3 million.[53]

In Lantana, the Old Key Lime House lost its tin roof. The restaurant's older section, constructed in 1889, remained mostly unscathed.[97] About 261 dwellings in the city were impacted and 4 others were destroyed.[58] Additionally, a church lost its steeple and the Solid Waste Authority transfer station suffered extensive roof damage.[57] In Hypoluxo, most of a mobile homes at a trailer park were damaged, 12 of which were condemned.[80] Overall, 204 residences were affected by Wilma.[58] The entrance to the Hypoluxo Scrub Natural Area was closed.[80] In South Palm Beach, high-rise condominiums experienced extensive damage.[57] Throughout the town, 429 dwellings were impacted.[58] In Manalapan, about 166 residences experienced structural losses.[58] The town hall and public safety buildings in Ocean Ridge suffered severe damaged.[80] The storm inflicted damage on a total of 364 homes in the town.[58] In Briny Breezes, two Quonset huts, the clubhouse, the auditorium, and 495 mobile homes – approximately 80% – were damaged.[80] Throughout the city, Wilma left approximately $100 million in damage.[76]

In Boynton Beach, several schools received damage, mainly limited to downed trees, fences, and signs, as well as missing roof tiles and broken windows, though a few schools were damaged more severely.[70] Fallen utility poles blocked the entrance to a gated community and one fell onto Interstate 95.[57] A number of businesses and residences were effected, with 896 homes damaged and 56 destroyed.[58] The roof of a Sam's Club crumpled and landed at Interstate 95 and Hypoluxo Road.[57] Three deaths occurred in Boynton Beach, one from a falling sliding glass door, another due to a collision at an intersection with the traffic lights out of service, and the third from a boy touching a downed power line.[79] A total of 58 homes were damaged in Gulf Stream.[58] The storm left approximately $1.5 million in damage in Gulf Stream, with $1 million to private property and business and $500,000 to the town's infrastructure. In Highland Beach, between 50 and 55 residential units had broken windows, while at least 40 suffered roof damage.[98] A total of 372 dwellings were impacted by the storm.[58] Damage was minor, reaching only $35,000, while clean-up and repair costs was estimated at $142,475.[55]

Snapped concrete electrical poles in Boca Raton

Strong winds also lashed Delray Beach. At the city hall, a 30-ton air-conditioning unit detached from the building, damaging the interior and portions of the roof. The doors to the ports at a local fire station were ripped off and subsequently replaced. A portion of the roof at Old School Square was lost, while minor ceiling damage occurred at several city parks. At the tennis center, trees, fences, and cabanas were knocked over.[99] Several trees and the modern romantic garden at the Morikami Museum and Japanese Gardens were destroyed, while the museum and cafe complex suffered roof damage. Similar impacts occurred at the American Orchid Society Visitors Center and Botanical Garden, which was closed to the public for about one month.[89] Wilma effected 917 homes, 79 of which were completely wrecked.[58] The roof of a condominium was blown off and broke its pieces, which scattered across the property.[57] Overall, damage in Delray Beach was estimated at between $100 million and $150 million, with $8 million to public buildings.[68]

In Boca Raton, the Boca Raton Airport suffered extensive damage, including the collapse of two hangars, planes that had flipped over, and hangar doors which had blown in. The airport reported nearly $12 million in damage.[100] At a high school, two masonry block walls of the school's $8.6 million theater were ripped apart. An elementary school almost completely lost its roof.[101] Additionally, the gymnasium at Florida Atlantic University suffered severe roof damage.[102] The Boca Raton News, a local community newspaper that circulated until 2009,[103] suspended publication for almost a week due to damage and lack of electricity at its headquarters.[104] The West Boca Medical Center was structurally damaged and the steeple of a church collapsed.[57] Twenty-five businesses were destroyed, while several along Northwest Second Avenue sustained roof damage.[53] About 1,889 homes in the city suffered losses, while the demolition of 8 others occurred.[58] Damage in the city alone total approximately $60.8 million.[53]

Elsewhere[edit]

Several trees were uprooted and low-land areas flooded in Palm City, Florida

Wind gusts up to 108 mph (174 km/h) in Hobe Sound resulted in widespread wind damage. Forty-eight residences were destroyed and 120 suffered significant damage, most of which were mobile homes. Over 90% of the county was left without electricity. The county's main hospital, Martin Memorial, sustained enough damage to be unable to receive new patients. Damage to agriculture reached about $48 million. In St. Lucie County, winds destroyed two mobile homes, severely damaged Tradition Field, and deroofed the county Civic Center. Otherwise, winds mainly downed trees and power lines. Losses to vegetation totaled $28 million. Strong winds gusts up to 80 mph (130 km/h) in Okeechobee County impacted about 800 residences, with 29 of those destroyed and 114 others receiving major damage. Winds also overturned two airplanes, and destroyed three hangars and severely damaged two others at Okeechobee County Airport. About 50 covered boat slips were destroyed and 12 boats were damaged or sunk. In the city of Okeechobee, the water plant was shut down due to poor water quality in the lake. Two tornadoes touched down in the county, though neither damaged anything other than trees.[105]

The rainfall in Osceola County led to the flooding of twelve homes in St. Cloud and the destruction of one mobile home in Kissimmee, while winds inflicted minor damage to numerous dwelling and mobile homes, primarily to the awnings and porches. Wind gusts up to 55 mph (89 km/h) in Indian River County left minor damage to trees, power lines, roofs, and out buildings. The county EOC was damaged after a communication tower was blown down.[106] Agricultural losses to vegetables, citrus and sugar totaled about $20 million.[105] A tornado spawned 10 mi (16 km) east of Yeehaw Junction downed trees along State Road 60. In Volusia County, a roof and a home under construction were severely damaged in Daytona Beach Shores. Throughout the county, a few power lines and trees were downed.[106]

Flooding in Cocoa West

Wilma produced minor wind damage in Brevard County, with trees and power lines down and damage to roofs and out buildings. Some areas received as much as 10 to 13 in (250 to 330 mm) of rain, flooding about 200 homes in Cocoa. Total crop damage including citrus equals $3 million. Six tornadoes touched-down in the county. The first tornado, which effected Cocoa and Rockledge, destroyed a porch at a restaurant and damaged the roof of an apartment building. It also destroyed transformers along State Road 520 after crossing the Intracoastal Waterway. The next tornado was spawned near Melbourne Beach and removed the second floor of beachfront house. The third tornado damaged trees and power lines in Palm Bay. A fourth tornado in West Melbourne destroyed a large portion of an apartment roof, flipped-over a car and damaged two others. It also felled fences and trees.[105] The fifth tornado, spawned in Floridana Beach, destroyed a home along State Road A1A and littered the home's debris across that roadway. The sixth and final tornado damaged an apartment an apartment complex in Melbourne near the intersection of Route 192 and John Rodes Boulevard.[107]

Damage in Charlotte, DeSoto, Hardee, Hernando, Highlands, Hillsborough, Manatee, Pasco, Pinellas, and Polk counties was minor, collectively totaling approximately $2.45 million. Between 4 and 8 in (100 and 200 mm) of rain in Charlotte County resulted in swollen ditches and inundated streets, including a portion of State Road 31. In Highlands County, up to 6 in (150 mm) of precipitation flooded parts of U.S. Route 98. A tornado that touched down along the shore of Lake Josephine destroyed a porch and a shed. Heavy rainfall ranging from 6 to 8 in (150 to 200 mm) in Polk County flooded a few homes in the city of Lake Wales. A tornado spawned in Mulberry destroyed a transformer and sent several people to a local shelter. Another tornado was reported in Hardee County near Zolfo Springs.[105] In Hillsborough County, a 66-year-old man died from a heart attack while uploading sandbags in preparation of the hurricane.[108]

Superficial impact occurred in Alachua, Citrus, Columbia, Dixie, Jefferson, Lafayette, Lake, Marion, Orange, Putnam, Seminole, Sumter, Suwannee, Taylor, and Wakulla counties, limited to light to heavy rainfall and power outages, which were restored by the following morning.[106][109] The outerbands of the storm produced 3 to 5 in (76 to 127 mm) of precipitation to Flagler and southern St. Johns counties. In the former, some flooding of roadways was reported.[105] One indirect death occurred in St. Johns County after a woman was killed in a car accident while evacuating.[110] Portions of the Florida Panhandle received large waves from Wilma prior to its landfall, with Alligator Point, Cape San Blas, Dog Island, and St. George Island experiencing minor beach erosion. The Cape St. George Light, built in 1852, suffered damage from many previous tropical cyclones, before Wilma finally toppled it into the Gulf of Mexico.[105]

Aftermath[edit]

On the same day as the passage of Hurricane Wilma, President of the United States George W. Bush issued a major disaster declaration for Brevard, Broward, Collier, Glades, Hendry, Indian River, Lee, Martin, Miami-Dade, Monroe, Okeechobee, Palm Beach, and Saint Lucie counties, allowing residents to receive assistance.[111]

More than 20 days later, some residents and business owners remained without electric service. Cable television and internet services as well as cell phone services were unavailable for up to two months in some areas. Power outages in southeastern Florida, notably in Miami-Dade, Broward, and Palm Beach counties, compounded the difficulties South Floridians faced following Wilma. Any traffic lights still standing were not working, causing an increase in traffic problems. Gasoline was in high demand for cars and generators; six-hour waits were common, due to lack of power to pump the fuel. Much of Miami-Dade, Broward, and Palm Beach counties were placed under a boil water order. Communication was also difficult—land lines were damaged, while cellular towers were either damaged, without power, or overloaded in capacity.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e f Richard J. Pasch; Eric S. Blake; Hugh D. Cobb III; David P. Roberts (September 9, 2014). Tropical Cyclone Report: Hurricane Wilma (PDF). National Hurricane Center (Report). Miami, Florida: National Oceanic Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved August 15, 2015. 
  2. ^ a b c d Bonita News. Three confirmed dead in Collier; President Bush to visit Thursday. Retrieved 2005-10-26.
  3. ^ a b c NBC 6. Hurricane Wilma Death Toll Rises To 14. Retrieved on 2007-05-22.
  4. ^ a b National Hurricane Center. Hurricane Wilma. Retrieved on 2007-01-26.
  5. ^ Monroe County, Florida (Oct. 23, 2005 12:45 PM). Hurricane Wilma Keys Update-Evacuation Continues. Retrieved 2007-06-02.
  6. ^ Collier County Public Schools (October 19, 2005). Hurricane Wilma News Release #1. Retrieved 2007-06-02.
  7. ^ WBBH NBC-2 Collier County issues evacuations. NBC-2.com. Retrieved 2007-06-02. Archived October 18, 2007, at the Wayback Machine.
  8. ^ Weather News AccuWeather.com (link dead)
  9. ^ "Annual Global Climate and Catastrphe Report: 2005" (PDF). AON Reinsurance Services. 2005. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2006-03-18. Retrieved 2007-06-02.  p.33.
  10. ^ Key West Citizen "New commissioners' trial by wind and flood " October 27, 2005
  11. ^ a b Key West Citizen October 25, 2005 pp 1-2, 6
  12. ^ Key West Citizen "Flooded cars litter the Keys" October 27, 2005
  13. ^ Kevin Wadlow (October 28, 2005). "Village Hall is wrecked - Islamorada definitely needs a new Village Hall now". Florida Keys Keynoter. 
  14. ^ Jennifer Babson; Nicole White; Charles Rabin (October 25, 2005). "Storm Surge Isolates Islands". Miami Herald. pp. 6A. 
  15. ^ "'Glades road finally reopens - The main road through Everglades National Park reopens all the way to Flamingo on Sunday". Florida Keys Keynoter. December 16, 2005. 
  16. ^ Patty Brant (October 27, 2005). "Wilma Comes to Visit". NewsZap.com. Retrieved August 18, 2015. [permanent dead link]
  17. ^ John-Thor Dahlburg; Elizabeth Mehren (October 25, 2005). "Wilma Sprints Through Florida". Los Angeles Times. Naples, Florida. p. 1. Retrieved August 19, 2015. 
  18. ^ Situation Report No. 14 Hurricane Wilma (PDF) (Report). Tallahassee, Florida: Florida State Emergency Response Team. October 24, 2005. p. 5. Retrieved August 19, 2015. 
  19. ^ Abhi Raghunathan; Steve Thompson (October 26, 2005). "They had little, now even less". Tampa Bay Times. Clewiston, Florida. Retrieved August 19, 2015. 
  20. ^ Cory Schouten (October 26, 2005). "Lake Okeechobee: Sweet little town is 'tore up'". Sarasota Herald-Tribune. Clewiston, Florida. p. 2. Retrieved August 19, 2015. 
  21. ^ "Hurricane Wilma damages Florida hospitals". American Hospital Association. October 24, 2005. Retrieved August 19, 2015. 
  22. ^ Cory Schouten (October 26, 2005). "Lake Okeechobee: Sweet little town is 'tore up'". Sarasota Herald-Tribune. Clewiston, Florida. p. 1. Retrieved August 19, 2015. 
  23. ^ a b Bill Fabian (October 27, 2005). "Wilma Brings Devastation". The Clewiston News. Clewiston, Florida. p. 10. Retrieved August 18, 2015. 
  24. ^ Rapid Needs Assessment of Two Rural Communities After Hurricane Wilma --- Hendry County, Florida, November 1--2, 2005 (Report). Atlanta, Georgia: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. April 20, 2006. Retrieved August 19, 2015. 
  25. ^ "The Most Exciting Time of the Year". Ah-Tah-Thi-Ki Seminole Indian Museum. May 3, 2010. Retrieved August 19, 2015. 
  26. ^ Rhonda Roff (November 25, 2005). "Wilma made a direct hit on the Big Cypress Reservation" (PDF). The Seminole Tribune. p. 10. Retrieved August 19, 2015. 
  27. ^ Susan Etxebarria (March 16, 2007). "Seminole Family Arts and Crafts Stores Celebrate Tradition, Showcase Culture" (PDF). The Seminole Tribune. p. 4. Retrieved August 19, 2015. 
  28. ^ Barbara S. Butler (November 8, 2005). "Hendry County Board of County Commissioners Tapes 2005-24 & 2005-25". Clewiston, Florida: Hendry County Board of County Commissioners. p. 1. Retrieved August 18, 2015. 
  29. ^ a b c Luisa Yanez (November 8, 2005). "Dade Hit Hardest as Death Toll Reaches 31 Across the State". Miami Herald. pp. 1B. 
  30. ^ "Storm Damage Varies by Community". Miami Herald. October 30, 2005. pp. 4MB. 
  31. ^ Janine Stanwood (January 30, 2013). "Development proposed at site of 'eyesore' in Miami Beach". WPLG. Miami Beach, Florida. Retrieved October 5, 2015. 
  32. ^ "Mess litters Collins Avenue". Orlando Sentinel. Miami Beach, Florida. October 25, 2005. p. A8. 
  33. ^ a b c Teddy Kidder (October 25, 2005). "City-by-city Assessment Of Damage In South Florida". Sun-Sentinel. Retrieved September 13, 2015. 
  34. ^ Brian Bandell; et al. (October 22, 2007). "Wrath of Wilma's aftermath still lingers two years later". Biz Journals. Retrieved October 5, 2015. 
  35. ^ Patty Pensa (October 25, 2005). "No Signals, Debris Make Driving Risky". Sun-Sentinel. Retrieved October 5, 2015. 
  36. ^ Charles Rabin; Michael Vasquez (December 1, 2005). "Orange Bowl Won't Be Torn Down". Miami Herald. p. 1B. 
  37. ^ "Hurricane Briefing". Miami Herald. October 27, 2005. p. 1C. 
  38. ^ Jose Cassola (October 30, 2005). "Trailer Parks Gets a Helping Hand". Miami Herald. p. 3WE. 
  39. ^ Susan Anasagasti (October 27, 2005). "Wilma's Path is Highly Visible". Miami Herald. p. 3WK. 
  40. ^ Cammy Clark (October 25, 2005). "Speedway Sustains Damage". Miami Herald. pp. 19A. 
  41. ^ a b c Hurricane Wilma Post-Storm Beach Conditions and Coastal Impact Report (PDF) (Report). Tallahassee, Florida: Florida Department of Environmental Protection. January 2006. Archived from the original (PDF) on April 30, 2006. Retrieved August 16, 2015. 
  42. ^ Amy Driscoll; Hannah Sampson (November 8, 2005). "$100M School Repairs, 3 Years of Work Likely". Miami Herald. pp. 1B. 
  43. ^ Elizabeth Baier; Douane D. James (November 2, 2005). "City Services And Curfews". Sun-Sentinel. Retrieved October 4, 2015. 
  44. ^ Daniella Aird (November 15, 2005). "Wilma Damage Unplugs Holiday Fantasy Of Lights". Sun-Sentinel. Retrieved October 4, 2015. 
  45. ^ a b Shannon O'Boye; Elizabeth Baier; John Maines (November 6, 2005). "County Struggles To Track Damaged Homes". Sun-Sentinel. Retrieved October 4, 2015. 
  46. ^ Susannah Bryan (November 10, 2005). "Beaches Took Major Beating In North County". Sun-Sentinel. Retrieved October 4, 2015. 
  47. ^ "City-by-City Damage Assessment". Sun-Sentinel. October 26, 2005. pp. 1–2. Retrieved October 4, 2015. 
  48. ^ Eliot Kleinberg (October 27, 2005). "Massive Marine Shed Collapses, Damaging Boats Worth Millions". The Palm Beach Post. p. 7C. 
  49. ^ CNN. First U.S victim reported by CNN. Retrieved on 2007-01-26. Archived February 6, 2007, at the Wayback Machine.
  50. ^ a b Nikki Waller (November 1, 2005). "Structural Damage is Adding Up to Fiscal Disaster for Small Town". Miami Herald. 
  51. ^ Nikki Waller (November 27, 2005). "Wilma Ravages Boy Scout Camp". Miami Herald. p. 1. 
  52. ^ Nick Sortal (June 25, 2012). "Scout camp battered by hurricane reopens". Sun-Sentinel. Retrieved September 30, 2015. 
  53. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r Luis F. Perez; Angel Streeter; Ushma Patel (December 18, 2005). "Adding Up Wilma's Fur: $2.9 Billion Countywide - More than 55,000 Homes, 3,600 Businesses Damaged". Sun-Sentinel. Retrieved September 9, 2015. 
  54. ^ Jennifer Peltz; et al. (October 25, 2005). "Hammered". Sun-Sentinel. p. 1. Retrieved August 17, 2015. 
  55. ^ a b c "City by City: What You Need to Know". The Palm Beach Post. October 31, 2005. p. 4B. 
  56. ^ Ben Harkanson (December 2005). "Impact on Boats" (PDF). Environmental Times. West Palm Beach, Florida: Palm Beach County Department of Environmental Resources Management. p. 4. Retrieved August 14, 2015. 
  57. ^ a b c d e f g h i j "City by City: What You Need to Know". The Palm Beach Post. October 25, 2005. p. 3B. 
  58. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad Palm Beach County Affordable Housing Study (PDF) (Report). West Palm Beach, Florida: Palm Beach County Department of Economic Sustainability. p. 5 - 3. Retrieved August 15, 2015. 
  59. ^ a b Tamara Lush (November 8, 2005). "Wilma wanes, but not for rural Pahokee". Tampa Bay Times. Pahokee, Florida. Retrieved August 15, 2015. 
  60. ^ a b "City by City: What You Need to Know". The Palm Beach Post. November 2, 2005. p. 3B. 
  61. ^ "Palm Beach County Historic Resources Review Board: Minutes of the August 6, 2013 Meeting" (PDF). West Palm Beach, Florida: Palm Beach County Historic Resources Review Board. August 6, 2013. p. 6. Retrieved September 9, 2015. 
  62. ^ "City by City: What You Need to Know". The Palm Beach Post. October 28, 2005. p. 3B. 
  63. ^ "Canal Point". West Palm Beach, Florida: Historical Society of Palm Beach County. 2009. Retrieved September 9, 2015. 
  64. ^ Cristina A. Ugarte; Laura A. Brandt; Stefani Melvin; Frank J. Mazzotti; Danielle Oguracek; Ken G. Rice (2006). Hurricane Impacts to Tree Islands in Arthur R. Marshall Loxahatchee National Wildlife Refuge, Florida. University of Florida (Report). Homestead, Florida: United States Geological Survey. Retrieved August 17, 2015. 
  65. ^ Maria Herrera (October 18, 2009). "Center Provides Indoor Glimpse Of The Everglades". Sun-Sentinel. Retrieved August 17, 2015. 
  66. ^ a b c Jennifer Peltz; et al. (October 25, 2005). "Hammered". Sun-Sentinel. p. 2. Retrieved August 17, 2015. 
  67. ^ Nirvi Shah (October 27, 2005). "Widespread Damage Threatens Monday Reopening". The Palm Beach Post. Retrieved August 17, 2015. 
  68. ^ a b c d e f "City-By-City Services". Sun-Sentinel. October 30, 2005. Retrieved September 6, 2015. 
  69. ^ Angel Streeter (November 18, 2005). "Sections Of Wellington Center Closed". Sun-Sentinel. Wellington, Florida. Retrieved August 15, 2015. 
  70. ^ a b c Marc Freeman (December 30, 2005). "Officials Working To Repair Campuses". Sun-Sentinel. Retrieved August 15, 2015. 
  71. ^ Thomas W. Wenham (February 11, 2008). Statement of the Village of Wellington (PDF) (Report). Wellington, Florida: Village of Wellington. p. 2. Retrieved August 15, 2015. 
  72. ^ Bill DiPaolo (November 2, 2005). "Areas Evaluate Damage From Wilma". The Palm Beach Post. p. 1. 
  73. ^ a b c Kit Bradshaw (November 2, 2005). "Wilma costs area $28 million". Jupiter Courier. p. A1. 
  74. ^ a b Bill DiPaolo (November 9, 2005). "Jupiter Farms Sheriff's Substation in Ruins". The Palm Beach Post. p. 1. 
  75. ^ a b c d Bill DiPaolo (November 9, 2005). "Area Storm Damage Estimates at $42 million". The Palm Beach Post. p. 1. 
  76. ^ a b c "City by City: What You Need to Know". The Palm Beach Post. October 29, 2005. p. 6C. 
  77. ^ "City by City: What You Need to Know". The Palm Beach Post. October 31, 2005. p. 4B. 
  78. ^ Pat Beall (November 2, 2005). "Owner Vows to Reopen Ocean Mall". The Palm Beach Post. p. 7B. 
  79. ^ a b c "30 Deaths in Florida". The Palm Beach Post. November 6, 2005. p. 4. 
  80. ^ a b c d e "City-By-City Services". Sun-Sentinel. November 1, 2005. p. 3B. 
  81. ^ a b c d Susan Spencer-Wendel; Kathleen Chapman; Jane Musgrave (October 25, 2005). "Frankel: 'Streets Are Mess Right Now'". The Palm Beach Post. p. 5B. 
  82. ^ "City-By-City Services". Sun-Sentinel. October 26, 2005. p. 3B. 
  83. ^ "The Sporting Life". West Palm Beach, Florida: Historical Society of Palm Beach County. 2009. Retrieved September 10, 2015. 
  84. ^ a b Andrew Abramson (February 10, 2010). "The 1515 tower implosion: Life's a blast for this building-busting clan". Palm Beach Post. Archived from the original on February 11, 2010. Retrieved September 6, 2015. 
  85. ^ Jane Musgrave (October 30, 2005). "More Disruptive Than Destructive (so far)". The Palm Beach Post. p. 1C. 
  86. ^ Angie Francalancia (December 14, 2005). "Yesteryear Shows Staying Power During Wilma". The Palm Beach Post. p. 1. 
  87. ^ "Storm Swipe at Zoo worse that [sic] '04". Palm Beach Daily News. October 28, 2005. p. A1. 
  88. ^ Tim O'Meilia (December 16, 2005). "Back after Wilma, Zoo Struts its Stuff". The Palm Beach Post. p. 1C. 
  89. ^ a b Ivette M. Yee (November 5, 2005). "Decades-old, Damaged Trees Get Help To Stand". West Palm Beach, Florida: Sun-Sentinel. Retrieved September 10, 2015. 
  90. ^ "2005 - Hurricane Wilma". Sun-Sentinel. Retrieved September 6, 2015. 
  91. ^ "Cross in Lake Worth". Sun-Sentinel. Retrieved September 13, 2015. 
  92. ^ Lady Hereford (December 14, 2005). "Enjoy Holiday Music, Help Lake Worth Playhouse". The Palm Beach Post. p. 6. 
  93. ^ Jennifer Peltz (November 28, 2005). "Library at PBCC Faces Wilma Repairs - Storm Broke Windows, Dusted Books with Glass". Sun-Sentinel. Retrieved September 30, 2015. 
  94. ^ Lady Hereford (November 2, 2005). "Wilma Badly Damaged Damages Some Area Landmarks". The Palm Beach Post. p. 1. 
  95. ^ Tim Pallesen (November 2, 2005). "Area Storm Damage Worse Than Last Year". The Palm Beach Post. p. 1. 
  96. ^ "City-By-City Services". Sun-Sentinel. October 29, 2005. p. 3B. 
  97. ^ Marcia Heroux Pounds; Doreen Hemlock (October 26, 2005). "Businesses Try To Stay Optimistic". Sun-Sentinel. Retrieved August 17, 2015. 
  98. ^ "City-By-City Services". Sun-Sentinel. October 28, 2005. p. 3B. 
  99. ^ Ushma Patel (January 29, 2006). "Repair Process Is Slow". Sun-Sentinel. Delray Beach, Florida. Retrieved August 15, 2015. 
  100. ^ Luis F. Perez (November 17, 2005). "Boca Airport Tab Nears $12 Million". Sun-Sentinel. Boca Raton, Florida. Retrieved August 15, 2015. 
  101. ^ Nicol Jenkins (October 30, 2005). "School's Out for Wilma". Boca Raton News. p. 2. Retrieved August 15, 2015. 
  102. ^ Hannon Deutsch (October 30, 2005). "Hurricane Wilma tears up athletic schedules". Boca Raton News. p. 15. Retrieved August 15, 2015. 
  103. ^ Bob Norman (August 21, 2009). "Updated: Boca Raton News Shut Down". New Times Broward-Palm Beach. Retrieved August 15, 2015. 
  104. ^ Craig B. Swill (October 30, 2005). "Boca News returns; resumes regular print schedule Thursday". Boca Raton News. p. 2. Retrieved August 15, 2015. 
  105. ^ a b c d e f Storm Data and Unusual Weather Phenomena (PDF). National Climatic Data Center (Report). Asheville, North Carolina: National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. October 2005. Archived from the original (PDF) on August 14, 2015. Retrieved August 14, 2015. 
  106. ^ a b c Dennis M. Decker; Jackie Cartwright; Scott M. Spratt (January 12, 2006). Post Tropical Cyclone Report...Hurricane Wilma. National Weather Service Office Melbourne, Florida (Report). Melbourne, Florida: National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved August 14, 2015. 
  107. ^ "20051023's Storm Reports". Storm Prediction Center. Norman, Oklahoma: National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. 2005. Retrieved August 14, 2015. 
  108. ^ Shannon Colavecchio-Van Sickler (October 28, 2005). "County's lone Wilma casualty died helping pal". Tampa Bay Times. Tampa, Florida. Retrieved August 14, 2015. 
  109. ^ Hurricane Wilma Power Briefing Sheet (Report). Tallahassee, Florida: Florida Department of Environmental Protection. October 25, 2005. Retrieved August 14, 2015. 
  110. ^ Abby Goodnough (October 25, 2005). "Hurricane Rips Across Florida, Killing at Least 7". The New York Times. Naples, Florida. Retrieved August 14, 2015. 
  111. ^ "Designated Areas: Florida Hurricane Wilma". Washington, D.C.: Federal Emergency Management Agency. October 24, 2005. Retrieved August 19, 2015.