Eggshell membrane is primarily composed of fibrous proteins such as collagen type I. Eggshell membranes also contain glycosaminoglycans, such as dermatan sulfate, chondroitin sulfate, and sulfated glycoproteins including hexosamines, such as glucosamine. Other components identified in eggshell membranes are hyaluronic acid, sialic acid, desmosine, isodesmosine, ovotransferrin, lysyl oxidase, lysozyme, and β-N-acetylglucosaminidase.
Sources for dietary supplement production
Eggshell membrane is derived commercially from the eggshells of industrial egg processors. In the United States, egg-breaking facilities generate more than 24 billion broken eggshells every year. There are various ways in which the membrane of an eggshell is separated from the shell, including chemical, mechanical, steam, and vacuum processes. For its use as a dietary supplement, the isolated membrane is then partially hydrolyzed and dried to produce a powder.
- Wong, M.; Hendrix, M.J.; van der Mark, K.; Little, C.; Stern, R. (July 1984). "Collagen in the egg shell membranes of the hen". Dev Biol. 104 (1): 28–36. doi:10.1016/0012-1606(84)90033-2. PMID 6203793.
- Ruff, Kevin J.; DeVore, Dale P.; Leu, Michael D.; Robinson, Mark A. (2009). "Eggshell membrane: A possible new natural therapeutic". Clinical Interventions in Aging. 4: 235–240. doi:10.2147/cia.s5797. PMC 2697588. PMID 19554094.
- "ESM History". ESM Technologies. Retrieved 13 June 2014.