Egosyntonic and egodystonic
Egosyntonic and egodystonic are terms used in psychoanalysis. Egosyntonic is a term referring to behaviors, values, and feelings that are in harmony with or acceptable to the needs and goals of the ego, or consistent with one's ideal self-image. Egodystonic (or ego alien) is the opposite of egosyntonic and refers to thoughts and behaviors (e.g., dreams, impulses, compulsions, desires, etc.) that are in conflict, or dissonant, with the needs and goals of the ego, or, further, in conflict with a person's ideal self-image.
Abnormal psychology has studied egosyntonic and egodystonic concepts in some detail. Many personality disorders are egosyntonic, which makes their treatment difficult as the patients may not perceive anything wrong and view their perceptions and behavior as reasonable and appropriate. This corresponds to the general concept in psychiatry of poor insight. Anorexia nervosa, a difficult-to-treat Axis I disorder characterized by a distorted body image and fear of gaining weight, is also considered egosyntonic because many of its sufferers deny that they have a problem. Problem gambling however is sometimes seen as egosyntonic, depending partly on the reactions of the individual involved and whether they know that their gambling is problematic.
Obsessive compulsive disorder is considered to be egodystonic as the thoughts and compulsions experienced or expressed are not consistent with the individual's self-perception, meaning the patient realizes the obsessions are unreasonable. In contrast, obsessive-compulsive personality disorder is egosyntonic, as the patient generally perceives their obsession with orderliness, perfectionism, and control, as reasonable and even desirable.
The Freudian heritage
"Ego syntonic" was introduced as a term in 1914 by Freud in On Narcissism, and remained an important part of his conceptual armoury. Freud saw psychic conflict arising when "the original lagging instincts...come into conflict with the ego (or ego-syntonic instincts)".
Otto Fenichel distinguished between morbid impulses, which he saw as ego-syntonic, and compulsive symptoms which struck their possessors as ego-alien. Anna Freud stressed how defences which were ego-syntonic were harder to expose than ego-dystonic impulses, because the former are familiar and taken for granted. Heinz Hartmann, and after him ego psychology, also made central use of the twin concepts.
Later psychoanalytic writers emphasised how direct expression of the repressed was ego-dystonic, and indirect expression more ego-syntonic.
- Howard Rosenthal, Human Services Dictionary (2003) p. 102
- D. Williams, The Jumbled Jigsaw (2005) p. 294
- E. Hollander, Obsessive-Compulsive Spectrum Disorders (2010) p. 44
- Jon Halliday/Peter Fuller eds., The Psychology of Gambling (London 1974) p. 236 and p. 31
- E. Hollander, Obsessive-Compulsive Spectrum Disorders (2010) p. 92
- Aardema, F. & O'Connor. (2007). The menace within: obsessions and the self. International Journal of Cognitive Therapy, 21, 182-197.
- Aardema, F. & O'Connor. (2003). Seeing white bears that are not there: Inference processes in obsessions. Journal of Cognitive Psychotherapy, 17, 23-37.
- J. Palombo et al, Guide to Psychoanalytic Developmental Theories (2009) p. 55
- Teresa Brennan, The Interpretation of the Flesh (1992) p. 82
- Sigmund Freud, Case Studies II (PFL 9) p. 206
- Otto Fenichel, The Psychoanalytic Theory of Neurosis (London 1946) p. 382 and p. 367=8
- Janet Malcolm, Psychoanalysis: The Impossible Profession (London 1988) p.36
- Daniel Rancour-Laferriere, Sign and Subject (1978) p. 52