Egyptian Air Defense Forces
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|Egyptian Air Defense Command
قوات الدفاع الجوي
|Active||1968 - Present|
|Type||Land Based Aerial Defense Network|
|Part of||Egyptian Armed Forces|
|Motto||إيمان, عزم, مجد
Faith, Will, Glory
|Commander Of The Egyptian Air Defense||Lt. Gen. Abd Al-Moniem Al-Terras|
|Chief of Air Defense Staff||Maj. Gen. Abou-elmagd Ahmed Haroun|
|Insignia||Egyptian Army ranks|
The Egyptian Air Defense Command or EADC (Arabic: قوات الدفاع الجوي, Quwwat El-Difa' El-Gawwi), is Egypt's military command responsible for air defense, part of the Military of Egypt. Egypt patterned its Air Defense Force (ADF) after the Soviet Air Defence Forces, which integrated all its air defense capabilities – antiaircraft guns, rocket and missile units, interceptor planes, and radar and warning installations.
The Commander in Chief is Lieutenant General Abd Al-Moniem Al-Terras and the Chief of Air Defense Staff is major general abou-elmagd ahmed haroun. The Egyptian air defense forces consists of 30,000 officers & soldiers plus 40,000 conscripts.
- 1 History
- 2 Weaponry
- 3 Regional Air Defense Missile Systems
- 4 Field Point Defense Surface to Air Systems
- 5 Commanders of the Egyptian Air Defense Command
- 6 Operational Structure
- 7 Egyptian Air Defense Equipment
- 8 Beret
- 9 Notes
- 10 External links
After most of the country's aircraft was destroyed on ground by Israel during the Six-Day War in 1967, the military placed responsibility for air defense under one commander, the results of which proved positive by the air defense's performance in the 1973 Yom Kippur War.
It is undergoing extensive modernization with bugdetary constraints being the only hindrance to what was once dubbed by Israeli air force generals during the 1973 Ramadan (Yom Kippur) war as "the most extensive and sophisticated air-defense system in the world after the one defending the U.S.S.R...". Currently, it is believed to possess the following weaponry:
Modern low, medium and high altitude SAMs of American, French, Russian design or local license built, including:
Regional Air Defense Missile Systems
Regional/Strategic Perimeter level SAM
- MIM-104(PAC-3) missile: 4 Batteries (8 Stationary (towed) units per Battery, 16 missiles per unit plus 2 reloads each)
- Modernized MIM-23 HAWK "Improved HAWK" missile: 18 Batteries (6 SP units per Battery, 3 missiles per unit plus 2 reloads each) (Medium/High Altitude, Medium Range SAM)
- 9K37 Buk-M1 missile: 10 batteries purchased in 2005
- 9M317 Buk-M2 missile: Purchased in 2013. [in service with unspecified number]
- Modernized SA-3 2M Pechora missile: 43 Batteries (each with 2 Stationary units, 4 missiles per Stationary unit plus 1 reload each) (Low/Medium Altitude, Medium Range SAM)
- Indigenous Tayer el-sabah (Morning Bird) (reverse-engineered and modernized SA-2 Guideline S-75 Dvina missile: 40 Batteries (6 single units per Battery, 2 reloads each)(Medium/High Altitude, Long Range SAM)
Army Corps and Division level SAM
- SLAMRAAM (pending US Federal Government Approval\congressional oversight)'
- 9K331 Tor-M1 missile : 16 firing units
- 9K332 Tor-M2 :Purchased in 2013 [in service with unspecified numbers]
- Modernized SA-3 2M Pechora missile: 10 Batteries (6 SP units per Battery, 2 missiles per S/P unit plus 1 reload per unit) (Low/Medium Altitude, Medium Range SAM)
- Modernized SA-6 Gainful missile: 14 Batteries (6 SP units per Battery, 3 missiles per unit plus 1 reload each)(Low/Medium Altitude, Medium Range SAM)
Field Point Defense Surface to Air Systems
Brigade and Battalion level SAM
- Skyguard "Amoun" anti-aircraft system Aspide 2000 missile: 40 Batteries " 18 battalion + 4 batteries for training " (2 4-cell Aspide missile launchers and 2 Oerlikon GDF-005 twin 35mm guns with one Skyguard Fire Control System per battery).
- Modernized Crotale NG missile: 16 Batteries (9 units per Battery, 4 Missiles per unit plus 2 reloads each)(SP Low/Medium Altitude, Short Range SAM)
- MIM-72/M48 Chaparral low-altitude SAM AIM-9 "Sidewinder": 86 SP units (4 Missiles per unit plus 2 reloads each)(SP Low Altitude, Short Range SAM)
- AN/TWQ-1 Avenger : 75 Batteries ( 4/8 ready-to-fire FIM-92 Stinger missiles + .50 caliber machine gun with an electronic trigger that can be fired from both the Remote Control Unit (RCU) located in the drivers cab, and from the handstation located in the Avenger turret )( provides mobile, short-range air defense protection for ground units against cruise missiles, unmanned aerial vehicles, low-flying fixed-wing aircraft, and helicopters )
By the end of 2008, With the Support of The United-States (through FMF and private contractors\firms) all missile, radar, observation posts, command and control systems are to be linked into a complex multi-level, national computerized early-warning air defense command (C3I4) via modified EC-130H Hercules (modified to AWACS-like specifications) transport aircraft, EW AWACS "Grumman" E-2C Hawkeye 2000, EW ECM Beechcraft 1900 ELINT, underground sheltered-reinforced fiber-optic network.
Commanders of the Egyptian Air Defense Command
- June 1969 to January 1975 Field Marshal Mohammed Aly Fahmy
- January 1975 to December 1979 Lieutenant general Helmy Afify Abd El-Bar
- December 1979 to January 1986 Lieutenant general El-Said Hamdy
- January 1986 to October 1987 Lieutenant general Adel Khalil
- October 1987 to December 1990 Lieutenant general Mostafa El-Shazly
- December 1990 to April 1993 Lieutenant general Zaher Abd El-Rahman
- April 1993 to April 1996 Lieutenant general Ahmed Abou Talib
- April 1996 to 19 July 2001 Lieutenant general Mohammed Elshahat
- 19 July 2001 to 30 October 2005 Lieutenant general Sami Hafez Anan
- 30 October 2005 to 12 August 2012 Lieutenant general Abd El Aziz Seif-Eldeen
- 12 August 2012 to Incumbent Lieutenant general Abdul Meniem Al-Toras
In 1970 Egyptian Air Defense consisted of 4 divisions:
- 5th Air Defense division placed in Cairo
- 8th Air Defense division placed in Abu Suwayr
- 10th Air Defense division placed in Alexandria
- 12th Air Defense division placed in Aswan 
Egyptian Air Defense Equipment
|S-300||Russia||Long Range Air Defense||S-300VM (SA-23)||0 (+12)||In December 2014 production of 12 units was completed for a foreign customer. With Egypt the only country which showed interest in procurement of this type of AA it is save to assume that it was built for them, though the Russian official quickly denied it saying that there is no formal contract between the two counties. 12 units would create 3 air defense batteries.
AA Range = 200 km, AA Ceiling = 30 km, Speed = Mach 5, ABM Range = 40 km.
|MIM-104 Patriot||United States||Long Range Air Defense||MIM-104-F/PAC-3||32||In 1999, Egypt acquired 32 missile systems from the United States for $1.3 billion. |
|Skyguard AMOUN||Egypt||Short/Medium Range Air Defense||Unknown||A Skyguard battery consists of two launchers, each with four missiles, two 35 mm guns, and a fire control radar. "AMOUN" is the Egyptian name for the point- defense system designed to protect high value assets, such as airports and cities.|
|Dvina||Egypt||Medium Range Air Defense||Tayer el-Sabah
|100||100 units were delivered by USSR from 1970 to 1972 for use in the Yom Kippur War. The Egyptian like the performance and purchased the production rights from USSR
AA Range = 45 km, AA Ceiling = 25 km, Speed = Mach 3.5, ABM = none
|SLAMRAAM|| United States
|Medium Range Air Defense||x
AA Range = 50 km, AA Ceiling = ?km, Speed = Mach 4
|Buk||Russia||Medium Range Air Defense||M1-2
|The Buk-M2 was not previously known to be in Egyptian service until it was revealed in a video of an air defence exercise released on 2 November 2014 by the MoD.
AA Range = 30 km, AA Ceiling = 14 km, Speed = Mach 3.0
|MIM-23 Hawk||United States||Medium Range Air Defense||Phase III||62||On 25 February 2014, Egypt ordered new 186 rocket motors to extend the live of their Hawk batteries. Since there are 3 missiles per launch unit then one can deduce that Egypt plans to maintain 62 launcher systems.
AA Range = 50 km, AA Ceiling = 14 km, Speed = Mach 2.4
|Pechora|| Soviet Union
|Medium Range Air Defense||2M (SA-3)||70||Originally Egypt received 200 units from USSR between 1970 and 1972and they were used greatly during the Yom Kippur War. These units aged and some of them were upgraded to Pechora-2M version. As of December 2008, 70 Pechora-2M upgraded ramp-launched missiles had been ordered by Egypt. 
AA Range = 35 km, AA Ceiling = 18 km, Speed = Mach 3.1
|Kub||Soviet Union||Medium Range Air Defense||SA-6||56||Purchased from the Soviet Union after the disastrous 6 Day War and was used to great effect in the Yom Kippur War virtually denying the entire air space of Egypt to Israel. The system was modernized and is still in service.
AA Range = 24 km, AA Ceiling = 14 km, Speed = Mach 2.8
|Tor||Russia||Short Range Air Defense||M1
|16||16 units were purchased from Russia.  The Tor-M2 was not previously known to be in Egyptian service until it was revealed in a video of an air defence exercise released on 2 November 2014 by the MoD.
AA Range = 12 km, AA Ceiling = 6 km, Speed = Mach 2.5
|AN/TWQ-1 Avenger||United States||Short Range Air Defense||75||Egypt originally ordered 50 units, but in 2006 it chose to order a further 25 units which all were delivered by September 2008.
AA Range = 8 km, AA Ceiling = 8 km, Speed = Mach 2.2
|Crotale||France||Short Range Air Defense||VT-1||36||Purchased from France in 1980.
AA Range = 11 km, AA Ceiling = 6 km, Speed = 3.53
|MIM-72 Chaparral||United States||Short Range Air Defense||MIM-72C||80||Purchased from U.S. stock in 1987
AA Range = 9 km, AA Ceiling = 4 km, Speed = Mach 1.5
|Strela-1||Soviet Union||Short Range Air Defense||SA-9||20||x
AA Range = 4.2 km, AA Ceiling = 3.5 km, Speed = Mach 1.8
|M113 AA|| United States
|Upgraded version of the ZU-23-2 twin 23 mm self-propelled anti-aircraft guns radar guided (148) with Sakr Eye SAM 2X2 on M113, Upgraded version of the ZU-23-2 twin 23 mm self-propelled anti-aircraft guns radar guided with Stinger SAM (3X2) (72) on M113, 108|
|ZSU-57-2||Soviet Union||SPAAG||40||100 ordered in 1960 from Soviet Union and delivered between 1961 and 1962, with 40 remaining in storage today.|
|Oerlikon GDF||Switzerland||Towed AA (35 mm)||Amoun||72|
|M167 VADS||United States||Towed AA (20 mm)||72|
|ZPU||Soviet Union||Towed AA (12.7 mm)||200|
|ZU-23-2||Soviet Union||Towed AA (23 mm)||280|
|61-K||Soviet Union||Towed AA (37 mm)||200||700|
|S-60||Soviet Union||Towed AA (57 mm)||200||600|
|52-K||Soviet Union||Towed AA (85 mm)||400|
|KS-19||Soviet Union||Towed AA (100 mm)||200|
|KS-30||Soviet Union||Towed AA (130 mm)||120|||
future of air defense
|S-400 Triumf||Russia||N/A||Egypt has expressed its interest in buying S-400 systems.|
|Pantsir-S1||Russia||N/A||There is a definite possibility to contract Pantsir-S1 to protect S-300VM platforms.|
- "According sources, Russia would start deliveries of Antey-2500 missile systems to Egypt". 6 March 2015.
- "Commanders of the Egyptian Air Defense Command". http://www.mmc.gov.eg/. Retrieved 15 July 2013.
|last1=in Authors list (help)
- "K.M. Molodtsov, 'Experience of Egyptian air defense use in combat during 1968 - 1972' (in Russian)".
- . Institute for National Security Studies http://www.inss.org.il/index.aspx?id=4538&articleid=8232. Retrieved 2015-04-03. Missing or empty
- "S-300 & Variants". Air Power Australia. Retrieved 17 April 2015.
- "Arms and Warfare". Retrieved 11 April 2015.
- "Egypt reveals air defence upgrades". janes.com (in Eng).
- Binnie, Jeremy (26 February 2014). "Egypt, Jordan to extend the life of HAWK missiles". IHS Jane's 360. Retrieved 3 September 2014.
- "S-125". deagel.com (in Eng).
- IISS 2012 Military Balance, pp. 322
- "Tor (SA-15 Gauntlet)". Military Today.com. Retrieved 2015-04-12.
- "Egypt reveals air defence upgrades". janes.com (in Eng).
- "Avenger Low Level Air Defense System, United States of America". Army Technology.com. Retrieved 2015-04-10.
- "The Middle East Military Balance, 2004". Retrieved 2015-04-13.
- "Arms Diffusion: The Spread of Military Innovations in the Middle East". Retrieved 2015-04-23.
- "Egypt buys improved Chaparral" (PDF). Retrieved 2015-04-23.
- "The Middle East Military Balance, 2001-2002". Retrieved 2015-04-10.
- "SIPRI Arms Transfers Database". Armstrade.sipri.org. Retrieved 2011-09-14.
- "Силы и средства ПВО вооруженных сил арабских государств" [Air Defense Forces of Arab States] (in Russian). Retrieved 2015-04-06.
- "Chief Designer Ardalion Rastov". Military Parade. 31 August 1998. Retrieved 23 August 2008.
- "Egypt wants S-400 to counter Iran". Defaiya.com. 2009-07-02. Retrieved 2013-10-29.
- Jane's Defence news on Egyptian S-125 upgrade, April 2006
- Defencetalk on Egyptian S-125 upgrade, October 2006