Egyptian Army

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This article is about the Ground forces. For Egyptian Ground forces, see Egyptian Armed Forces.
Egyptian Army
القوات البرية المصرية
Flag of the Army of Egypt.svg
Egyptian Army Insignia
Active 1805 (211 years)
Country  Egypt
Allegiance Egyptian Armed Forces
Type Army
Role Land warfare
Size 310,000 active[1]
Part of Coat of arms of Egypt (on flag).svg Egyptian Armed Forces
Motto Victory or Martyrdom
Colors Red, White and Black
            
March "We painted on the heart the face of our nation" (Arabic: رسمنا على القلب وجه الوطن‎, rasamna ala al qalb wagh al watan)
Commanders
Second Field Army Major General Mohammed el-Shahat
Third Field Army Major General Osama Askar

The Egyptian Army is the largest service branch within the Egyptian Armed Forces, and is the largest army in Africa.

The modern army was established during the reign of Muhammad Ali Pasha (1805-1849), who is considered to be the "founder of modern Egypt". Its most significant engagements in the 20th Century were in Egypt's five wars with the State of Israel (in 1948, 1956, 1967, 1967-1970, and 1973), one of which, the Suez Crisis of 1956, also saw it do combat with the armies of Britain, and France. The Egyptian army was also engaged heavily in the protracted North Yemen Civil War, and the brief Libyan-Egyptian War in July 1977. Its last major engagements was Operation Desert Storm, the liberation of Kuwait from Iraqi occupation in 1991, in which Egyptian army constituted the second largest contingent of allied forces.

As of 2014, the army has an estimated strength of 310,000 soldiers, of which, approx. 90-120,000 are professionals with the rest being conscripts.[1]

Egyptian Military history[edit]

Ancient Military[edit]

First regular army in the world was established in Egypt around the year 3400 BC. After the unification of King Menes of Egypt, sitting on her throne. And it became the most powerful army in the world and thanks to him the Egyptians created the first empire in the world stretching from Turkey in the north to the south of Somalia and Iraq in the east to the west of Libya, was this is the golden age of the Egyptian army. Ancient Egyptian military and made many great leaders, and the Egyptian army force that the main point was the texture of the Egyptians, not foreign mercenaries, and through the compulsory service system and call for service during the war. The army consists of infantry and horse-drawn carriages, Spears, soldiers bayonets and other branches and the fleet, which was protected marine coast of Egypt are all in addition to the Nile River.

Ahmose I the Egyptian army commander fighting the Hyksos in 1700 BC.

After the Macedonian conquest of Egypt in 332 BC. By Alexander the Great, that's just passed away on June 13, 323 BC. The third has not been thirty years old. In the wake of his death divided the states of Macedonian Empire between his commanders, Egypt was named commander of the share of Ptolemy, and so Egypt has entered the era of the Ptolemies. During that era he brought the first Ptolemy and his successors the Greeks and the like to serve in the Ptolemaic belligerent forces. So boarding Ptolemy IV throne of Egypt, and attacking Antiochus III of the limits of the Ptolemaic state in Syria, terrifying Ptolemy IV organizing the army and incorporated for the first time a large number of Egyptians in the army and trained and armed them according to the assets arts of modern warfare was credited in his victory over his enemy in the battle of Rafah in 217 BC, and proved to the Egyptians during their competence battle in the field of war and their superiority on the pad martial arts in this era of the Greeks and the Macedonians stimulate victory in those Egyptians battle to do in the face of their rulers tyrants and Revolution them, as increased external threats against the Ptolemies, and increased conflicts between the family ruling, and worked to get close to Rome, paving her way to extend its influence on Egypt as a result of the weakness inherent in the Ptolemaic rulers nights, so even elevated to the throne of Egypt Cleopatra last rulers of the Ptolemies, which seized control of the Roman emperor Julius Caesar and later Marc Antony, and remained on the throne of Egypt Even the victory of Octavius on Marc Antony at the Battle of Actium in 31 BC, and that ended the Ptolemaic era and the beginning of the Roman era in Egypt. During this era the Romans did not use the Egyptians in the ranks of the military and their protection in Egypt but to the citizens of Greek cities due to the ongoing revolutions Egyptians against them. After the split the Romanian Empire to East and West, Egypt became a subsidiary of the Empire Romania and East known about the Byzantine Empire in 323 AD during the reign of Emperor Constantine I.

It has been argued that only the relatively good performance of the Egyptian Army in the October War of 1973, especially during the crossing of the Suez Canal (Operation Badr) and in the Battle of Suez and in the Mansoura Air Battle and in the Battle of Ismailia, which allowed the Egyptians to claim victory and take part in the 1977 Camp David Accords.

Overview[edit]

The army has always been the largest and most important branch of the armed forces. The army had an estimated strength of 320,000 in 1989. About 180,000 of these were conscripts. Before the June 1967 War, the army divided its personnel into four regional commands. After the 1967 debacle, the army was reorganized into two field armies--the Second Army and the Third Army, both of which were stationed in the eastern part of the country. Most of the remaining troops were stationed in the Nile Delta region, around the upper Nile, and along the Libyan border. These troops were organized into eight military districts. Commandos and paratroop units were stationed near Cairo under central control but could be transferred quickly to one of the field armies if needed. District commanders, who generally held the rank of major general, maintained liaisons with governors and other civil authorities on matters of domestic security.

The army's principal tactical formations in 1988 were believed to include four armored divisions (each with two armored brigades and one mechanized brigade); six mechanized infantry divisions (each with two mechanized brigades and one armored brigade); and two infantry divisions (each with two infantry brigades and one mechanized brigade). Independent brigades included four infantry brigades, three mechanized brigades, one armored brigade, two air mobile brigades, one paratroop brigade, and the Republican Guard armored brigade. These brigades were augmented by two heavy mortar brigades, fourteen artillery brigades, two surface-to-surface missile (SSM) regiments, and seven commando groups. Each consisted of about 1,000 men.

Although disposition of the forces was secret, foreign military observers estimated that five Egyptian divisions were in camps west of the Suez Canal while half a division was in Sinai. The Second Army was responsible for the area from the Mediterranean Sea to a point south of Ismailia; the Third Army was responsible from that point southward to the Red Sea. The government deployed the armies in this way partly because of a desire to protect the canal and the capital from a potential Israeli invasion and partly because the housing facilities and installations for the two armies had long been located in these areas. The commander of the Western District controlled armored forces supplemented by commando, artillery, and air defense units (possibly totaling the equivalent of a reinforced division) that were stationed at coastal towns in the west and in the Western Desert (also known as the Libyan Desert) facing Libya.

Even though the Egyptian military became oriented toward the West after the October 1973 War, it still had large amounts of Soviet equipment in its arms inventory. As of 1989, an estimated five of the twelve divisions and portions of other units had made the transition to American equipment and order of battle. The stock of main battle tanks consisted of 785 M60A3s from the United States, together with more than 1,600 Soviet-made T-54, T-55, and T-62 models. Some of these older Soviet tanks were being refitted in the West with 105mm guns, diesel engines, fire-control systems, and external armor. Armored personnel carriers (APCs) consisted of 1,000 M-113A2s from the United States, more than 1,000 BTR-50s and OT-62s from the Soviet Union, and about 200 Fahds, which were manufactured in Egypt based on a design from the Federal Republic of Germany (West Germany). The army also had more than 700 infantry combat vehicles that were manufactured by the Soviet Union and Spain. Egypt also launched a program to increase the mobility of artillery and rockets by mounting them on the chassis of tanks and APCs.

The army possessed a variety of antitank rockets and missiles, including older Soviet models, Egyptian rocket systems derived from the Soviet ones, and Milan missiles from France, Swingfire missiles produced in Egypt under British license, and TOW (tube-launched, optically sighted, wire-guided) missiles from the United States. The army mounted the TOWs and Swingfires on locally built jeeps. A plan to add TOWs to Fahd APCs was still at the prototype stage

During the 1980s, the armed forces implemented a program to improve the quality and efficiency of its defense system by introducing modern armaments while reducing the number of personnel. The army was expected to lose more personnel than the other branches of the military. The army, however, had little incentive to cut its enlisted strength because doing so would further reduce the need for officers, who were already in excess of available positions. Moreover, service in the army helped relieve the nation's unemployment situation and provided some soldiers with vocational training. Nevertheless, plans called for a reduction in army strength by as much as 25 percent.

During each of the wars with Israel, the army had demonstrated weaknesses in command relationships and communications. Under the influence of Soviet military doctrine, higher commanders had been reluctant to extend operational flexibility to brigade and battalion commanders. Rigidity in planning was another shortcoming. Commanders reacted slowly in battlefield situations; the system did not encourage initiative among frontline officers. Prior to the October 1973 War, the army made many improvements in the way it prepared officers for combat. Moreover, the complex planning that preceded the Egyptian crossing of the Suez Canal and the execution of the initial attack demonstrated a high level of military competence. Later, however, when Israel launched its counterattack, the Egyptian high command reacted with hesitation and confusion, enabling Israel to gain the initiative in spite of determined Egyptian resistance.

Decision making in the army continued to be highly centralized during the 1980s. Officers below brigade level rarely made tactical decisions and required the approval of higher-ranking authorities before they modified any operations. Senior army officers were aware of this situation and began taking steps to encourage initiative at the lower levels of command.

A shortage of well-trained enlisted personnel became a serious problem for the army as it adopted increasingly complex weapons systems. Observers estimated in 1986 that 75 percent of all conscripts were illiterate when they entered the military and therefore faced serious obstacles when trying to learn how to use high-technology weaponry. Soldiers who had acquired even the most basic technical skills were eager to leave the army as soon as possible in search of higher-paying positions in the civilian sector. By United States standards, the army underutilized its noncommissioned officers (NCOs), many of whom were soldiers who had served a long time but had not shown any special aptitude. Officers with ranks as high as major often conducted training that would be carried out by NCOs in a Western army. In a move to retain welltrained NCOs, the army in the 1980s started providing career enlisted men with higher pay, more amenities, and improved living conditions.

The Frontier Corps, a lightly armed paramilitary unit of about 12,000 men, mostly beduins, was responsible for border surveillance, general peacekeeping, drug interdiction, and prevention of smuggling. In the late 1980s, the army equipped this force with remote sensors, night-vision binoculars, communications vehicles, and high-speed motorboats.

Structure[edit]

Under the Ministry of Defence (Egypt) is the Egyptian Military Operations Authority with its headquarters in Cairo.[2] The Egyptian Armed Forces' Chief of Staff's office is in Cairo. He is also chief of staff of the army. Formally, he is also chief of staff of the air force and navy as well, but apparently the commanders of the other two services frequently report directly to the Minister of Defence/Commander-in-Chief.[3] From the Chief of Staff's office are directed three command-and-control headquarters and nine command-and-control field headquarters.

Structure of the First Field Army (click to enlarge)
Structure of the Second Field Army (click to enlarge)
Structure of the Third Field Army (click to enlarge)

HQ, Central Military High Command: Heliopolis, Cairo[edit]

  • HQ, Central Military Region: Greater Cairo
    • Field HQ, Heliopolis, Central Military Region
    • Field HQ, El Qanater, Central Military Region
      • Sub-Field HQ, Tanta, Central Military Region
      • Sub-Field HQ, Zagazig, Central Military Region
    • Field HQ, Qom Ushim, El Fayum, Central Military Region
    • Field HQ, Beni Suef, Central Military Region

HQ, Northern Military Region: Alexandria[edit]

  • Field HQ, Alexandria, Northern Military Region
    • Sub-Field HQ, Abou Qir, Northern Military Region
    • Sub-Field HQ, Mariout, Northern Military Region
  • Field HQ, Rashid, Northern Military Region
  • Field HQ, Damietta, Northern Military Region

HQ, Eastern Military Region: El Suez[edit]

  • Field HQ, Port Said, Northern Suez Canal Military Region
  • Field HQ, Ismaelia, Central Suez Canal Military Region
  • Field HQ, El Mansoura, El Daqahliya, Eastern Delta Military Region
  • Field HQ, El Suez, Southern Suez Canal Military Region
  • Field HQ, Cairo-Suez Highway Military Region
  • Field HQ, Hurghada, Red Sea Military Region

HQ, Western Military Region: Mersa Matruh[edit]

  • Field HQ, Sidi Barrani, Western Military Region
  • Field HQ, Marsa Alam, Western Military Region
  • Field HQ, Salloum, Western Military Region

HQ, Southern Military Region: Assiut[edit]

  • Field HQ, El Menia, Southern Military Region
  • Field HQ, Qena, Southern Military Region
  • Field HQ, Sohag, Southern Military Region
  • Field HQ, Aswan, Southern Military Region

Field armies[edit]

  • First Field Army: H.Q. in Cairo (H.Q. Command & 3 field H.Q.)
    • 1st Corps: Field H.Q. In Heliopolis, Cairo, Central Military Region
      • 1st Republican Guard Armoured Division
      • 24th Independent Mechanized Brigade
      • 116th Field Artillery Brigade
      • 117th Field Artillery Brigade
      • 135th Special Forces Regiment
    • 2nd Corps: Field H.Q. in Alexandria, Northern and Western Military Regions
      • 6th Mechanized Division
      • 18th Independent Armoured Brigade
      • 218th Independent Infantry Brigade
      • 118th Field Artillery Brigade
      • 119th Field Artillery Brigade
      • 129th Special Forces Regiment
    • 3rd Corps: Field H.Q. in Assiut, Western and Southern Military Regions
      • 8th Mechanized Division
      • 36th Independent Armoured Brigade
      • 120th Field Artillery Brigade
      • 121st Field Artillery Brigade
      • 222nd Air-mobile Brigade
  • Second Field Army: H.Q. Ismaelia (H.Q. Command & 3 field H.Q.)
    • 1st Corps: Field H.Q. in Port Said, Northern Suez Canal Military Zone
      • 21st Armoured Division
      • 7th Mechanized Division (former 2nd Infantry Division)
      • 122nd Field Artillery Brigade
      • 123rd Field Artillery Brigade
      • 412th Airborne Brigade
      • 117th Special Forces Regiment
    • 2nd Corps: Field H.Q. in Ismaelia, Central Suez Canal Military Zone
      • 4th Armoured Division
      • 17th Mechanized Division
      • 124th Field Artillery Brigade
      • 125th Field Artillery Brigade
      • 123rd Special Forces Regiment
    • 3rd Corps: Field H.Q. in El Mansoura, El Daqahliya, Eastern Delta Military Region
      • 6th Armoured Division
      • 19th Mechanized Division
      • 219th Independent Infantry Brigade
      • 126th Field Artillery Brigades
      • 815th Heavy Mortar Brigade
      • 153rd Special Forces Regiment
  • Third Field Army: H.Q. Suez (H.Q. Command & 3 field H.Q.)
    • 1st Corps: Field H.Q. in Cairo-Suez Highway Military Region
      • 9th Armoured Division
      • 23rd Mechanized Division
      • 94th Independent Mechanized Brigade
      • 127th Field Artillery Brigade
      • 224th Air-mobile Brigade
      • 159th Special Forces Regiment
    • 2nd Corps: Field H.Q. in Suez, Suez Canal Military Zone
      • 36th Mechanized Division
      • 44th Independent Armoured Brigade
      • 128th Field Artillery Brigade
      • 129th Field Artillery Brigade
      • 816th Heavy Mortar Brigade
      • 141st Special Forces Regiment
    • 3rd Corps: Field H.Q. in Hurghada, Red Sea Military Region
      • 16th Mechanized Division
      • 82nd Independent Armoured Brigade
      • 110th Independent Mechanized Brigades
      • 111th Independent Mechanized Brigades (former 130th Amphibious Brigade))
      • 130th Field Artillery Brigade
      • 147th Special Forces Regiment

Corps[edit]

  • Republican Guard Corps: (1 H.Q. Command)
    • Republican Guard Armoured Division (1st)
      • Republican Guard Armoured Brigade (33rd)
      • Republican Guard Armoured Brigade (35th)
      • Republican Guard Mechanized Brigade (510th)
      • Republican Guard Mechanized Brigade (512th)
  • Tactical Missile Command Corps:
    • 1st and 2nd SSM Brigades
  • Armored Corps: (1 H.Q. Command, 3 Field H.Q.)
    • 2nd, 4th, 7th, and 9th Armoured Divisions
    • 18th, 36th, 44th, and 82nd Independent Armoured Brigades
    • 33rd and 35th Republican Guard Armoured Brigades
  • Mechanized Corps: (1 H.Q. Command, 3 Field H.Q.)
    • Mechanized Division (6th)
    • Mechanized Division (7th)
    • Mechanized Division (8th)
    • Mechanized Division (16th)
    • Mechanized Division (17th)
    • Mechanized Division (19th)
    • Mechanized Division (23rd)
    • Mechanized Division (36th)
    • Independent Mechanized Brigade (24th)
    • Independent Mechanized Brigade (94th)
    • Independent Mechanized Brigade (110th)
    • Independent Mechanized Brigade (111th) (former 130th Amphibious Brigade)
    • Republican Guard Mechanized Brigade (510th)
    • Republican Guard Mechanized Brigade (512th)
  • Infantry Corps: (1 H.Q. Command, 2 Field H.Q.)
    • Independent Infantry Brigade (218th)
    • Independent Infantry Brigade (219th)
    • ATGW Brigade (33rd)
    • ATGW Brigade (44th)
    • ATGW Brigade (55th)
    • ATGW Brigade (66th)
    • ATGW Brigade (77th)
    • ATGW Brigade (88th)
  • Artillery Corps: (1 H.Q. Command, 3 Field H.Q.)
    • Republican Guard's S/P Field Artillery Brigade (10th)
    • S/P Field Artillery Brigade (101st)
    • S/P Field Artillery Brigade (102nd)
    • S/P Field Artillery Brigade (103rd)
    • S/P Field Artillery Brigade (104th)
    • S/P Field Artillery Brigade (105th)
    • S/P Field Artillery Brigade (106th)
    • S/P Field Artillery Brigade (107th)
    • S/P Field Artillery Brigade (108th)
    • S/P Field Artillery Brigade (109th)
    • S/P Field Artillery Brigade (111th)
    • S/P Field Artillery Brigade (113th)
    • S/P Field Artillery Brigade (115th)
    • Field Artillery Brigade (116th)
    • Field Artillery Brigade (117th)
    • Field Artillery Brigade (118th)
    • Field Artillery Brigade (119th)
    • Field Artillery Brigade (120th)
    • Field Artillery Brigade (121st)
    • Field Artillery Brigade (122nd)
    • Field Artillery Brigade (123rd)
    • Field Artillery Brigade (124th)
    • Field Artillery Brigade (125th)
    • Field Artillery Brigade (126th)
    • Field Artillery Brigade (127th)
    • Field Artillery Brigade (128th)
    • Field Artillery Brigade (129th)
    • Field Artillery Brigade (130th)
    • Heavy Mortar Brigade (815th)
    • Heavy Mortar Brigade (816th)
  • Airborne Corps: (1 H.Q. Command, 2 Field H.Q.)
    • Airborne Brigade (414th)
  • Air Mobile Corps: (1 H.Q. Command, 2 Field H.Q.)
    • Air Mobile Brigade (222nd)
  • Special Forces Corps: (1 H.Q. Command, 3 Field H.Q.)
    • Special Forces Regiment/Group (117th)
    • Special Forces Regiment/Group (123rd)
    • Special Forces Regiment/Group (129th)
    • Special Forces Regiment/Group (135th)
    • Special Forces Regiment/Group (141st)
    • Special Forces Regiment/Group (147th)
    • Special Forces Regiment/Group (153rd)
    • Special Forces Regiment/Group (159th)
  • Signal Corps: (1 H.Q. Command & 9 Field Signal H.Q.)
    • 18 Signal Battalions (601 to 619th)
  • Engineering Corps: (H.Q. COM. & 6 Field Engineers Command H.Q.)
    • Field Engineers Brigade (35th)
    • Field Engineers Brigade (37th)
    • Field Engineers Brigade (39th)
    • Field Engineers Brigade (41st)
    • Field Engineers Brigade (43rd)
    • Field Engineers Brigade (45th)
  • Medical Corps: (1 H.Q. Command & 9 Field Medical H.Q.) (18 Military Hospitals, 3 Hospital Ships, 4 Hospital Barges)
    • 27 Field Medical Battalions (1st to 27th)
      • 108 Field Medical Companies (201st to 308th)
  • Supply Corps: (1 H.Q. Command & 9 Field Supply H.Q.)
    • 36 Field Supply Battalions (501st to 536th)
  • Quartermasters Corps: (1 H.Q. Command & 9 Field Quartermasters H.Q.)
    • 9 Central Military depots
    • 16 Regional Military depots
    • 32 Field Military depots
  • Military Police Corps: (1 H.Q. Command & 9 Field H.Q.)
    • 12 Inland MP Battalions (222, 224, 226, 228, 230, 232, 234, 236, 238, 240, 242, 244)
    • 12 Field MP Battalions (221, 223, 225, 227, 229, 231, 233, 235, 237, 239, 241, 243)
  • Frontier Corps (1 H.Q. Command & 5 Field H.Q.)
    • 20 Battalions: 12,000 men, mostly Bedouins, lightly armed paramilitary forces equipped with remote sensors, night-vision binoculars, communications vehicles, and high-speed motorboats and responsible for:
      • Border surveillance: 10 battalions
      • General peacekeeping: 2 battalions
      • Drug interdiction: 5 battalions
      • Prevention of smuggling: 3 battalions

Order of battle[edit]

These commands include the following formations:

  • 4 Armoured Divisions (4th, 6th, 9th & 21st) 4 H.Q. Commands (4 C3 H.Q.)
    • 8 Armoured Brigades (312th, 314th, 316th, 318th, 320th, 322nd, 324th, 326th)
      • 24 Armoured Battalions (1st to 24th)
        • 80 Armoured Companies
        • 8 Command Companies
        • 8 Signal/Recon Companies
      • 8 Mechanized Battalions (1st to 8th)
        • 24 Mechanized Companies
        • 4 Command Companies
        • 4 Signal/Recon Companies
    • 4 Mechanized Brigades (512th, 516th, 520th & 524th)
      • 12 Mechanized Battalions (13th to 25th)
        • 24 Mechanized Companies
        • 4 Command Companies
        • 4 Signal/Recon Companies
      • 4 Armoured Battalions (25th to 28th)
        • 12 Armoured Companies
        • 2 Command Companies
        • 2 Signal/Recon Companies
    • 4 S/P Artillery Brigades (102nd, 104th, 106th, 108th)
    • 4 S/P Artillery Command H.Q. (Brigade level)
      • 16 S/P Artillery Battalions (36th to 51st)
        • 48 S/P Artillery Batteries
  • 8 Mechanized Infantry Divisions (2nd, 3rd, 7th, 16th, 18th, 19th, 23rd, 36th) 8 H.Q. Commands (8 C3 H.Q.)[4]
    • 16 Mechanized Brigades (712th to 727th)
      • 36 Mechanized Battalions (111th to 145th)
        • 120 Mechanized Companies
        • 12 Command Companies
        • 12 Signal/Recon Companies
      • 18 Armoured Battalions (30th to 47th)
        • 54 Armoured Companies
        • 9 Command Companies
        • 9 Signal/Recon Companies
    • 8 Armoured Brigades (10th to 17th)
      • 24 Armoured Battalions (65th to 88th)
        • 80 Armoured Companies
        • 8 Command Companies
        • 8 Signal/Recon Companies
      • 8 Mechanized Battalions (41st to 48th)
        • 24 Mechanized Companies
        • 8 Command Companies
        • 8 Recon Companies
    • 8 S/P Artillery Brigades (101st, 103rd, 105th, 107th, 109th, 111th, 113th, 115th)
      • 24 S/P Artillery Battalions (6th to 29th)
        • 96 S/P Batteries
  • 1 Republican Guard Armoured Division (1st) H.Q. Command (C3 H.Q.)
    • 2 Armoured Brigades (33rd & 35th)
      • 4 Armoured Battalions (118th, 119th, 120th, 121st)
        • 16 Armoured Companies
        • 4 Command Companies
        • 4 Signal/Recon Companies
      • 2 Mechanized Battalions (41st & 42nd)
        • 8 Mechanized Companies
        • 2 Command Companies
        • 2 Signal/Recon Companies
    • 2 Mechanized Brigades (510th & 512th)
      • 6 Mechanized Battalions (41st, 42nd, 43rd, 44th, 45th, 46th)
        • 18 Mechanized Companies
        • 3 Command Companies
        • 3 Signal/Recon Companies
      • 2 Armoured Battalions (116th & 117th)
        • 6 Armoured Companies
        • 1 Command Company
        • 1 Signal/Recon Company
    • 1 S/P Artillery Brigade (10th) Command H.Q. (Brigade level)
      • 4 S/P Artillery Battalions (1st to 4th)
        • 16 S/P Artillery Batteries
  • 4 Independent Armoured Brigades (18th, 36th, 44th & 82nd)
    • 12 Armoured Battalions (77th, 78th, 79th, 80th, 81st, 82nd, 83rd, 84th, 85th, 86th, 87th, 88th)
      • 36 Armoured Companies
      • 6 Command Companies
      • 6 Signal/Recon Companies
    • 4 Mechanized Battalions (91st, 92nd, 93rd, 95th)
      • 12 Mechanized Companies
      • 2 Command Companies
      • 2 Signal/Recon Companies
  • 4 Independent Mechanized Brigades (24th, 94th, 110th, 111th [former 130th Amphibious Brigade])
    • 12 Mechanized Battalions (33rd, 34th, 35th, 36th, 37th, 38th, 39th, 40th, 41st, 42nd, 43rd, 44th)
      • 36 Mechanized Companies
      • 12 Com/Recon Companies
    • 4 Armoured Battalions (96th, 97th, 98th, 99th)
      • 12 Armoured Companies
      • 2 Command Companies
      • 2 Signal/Recon Companies
  • 2 Independent Infantry Brigades (218th & 219th)
    • 4 Infantry Battalions (712th, 713th, 714th, 715th)
      • 10 Infantry Companies
      • 4 Command Companies
      • 2 Signal/Recon Companies
    • 4 Mechanized Battalions (100th, 101st, 102nd, 103rd)
      • 12 Mechanized Companies
      • 2 Command Companies
      • 2 Signal/Recon Companies
    • 2 Armoured Battalions (17th & 18th)
      • 6 Armoured Companies
      • 1 Command Company
      • 1 Signal/Recon Company
  • 1 Air Mobile Brigade (222nd) (1 H.Q.)
    • 3 Air Mobile Mechanized Battalions (5th, 6th, 7th)
      • 9 Mechanized Companies
      • 1 Command Company
      • 1 Recon/Signal Company
      • 1 Air Defense Company
    • 1 Air Mobile Armored Battalion (56th)
      • 3 Air Mobile Light Armored Companies
      • 1 Air Mobile Command/Recon Company
  • 1 Airborne Brigade (414th) (1 H.Q.)
    • 3 Airborne Battalions (224th, 225th, 226th)
      • 10 Airborne Companies
      • 1 Airborne Command Company
      • 1 Airborne Recon Company
    • 1 Airborne Mechanized Battalion (176th)
      • 3 Mechanized Companies
      • 1 Command/Recon/Signal Company
  • 8 Special Forces Regiments/Groups (Brigade level) (117th, 123rd, 129th, 135th, 141st, 147th, 153rd, 159th) (1 H.Q.) (of which 3 Lightning/Saaqa regiments and 3 Commandos regiments, the remaining 2 are the Marine Commandos and the Infiltration Anti-terror units)
    • 18 Commandos Battalions: (230th to 247th)
      • 72 Commandos Companies
    • 3 Marine Commandos Battalions (515th, 616th, 818th)
      • 12 Marine Commandos Companies
    • 3 Infiltration Anti-terror Battalions (777th, 888th, 999th)
      • 12 Infiltration Companies
  • 15 Heavy Artillery Brigades (116th to 130th) 15 S/P Artillery Command H.Q. (Brigade level)
    • 60 Artillery Battalions (314th to 373rd)
      • 240 Artillery Batteries (1st to 240th)
  • 2 Heavy Mortar Brigades (815th & 816th) 8 S/P Heavy Mortar Command H.Q. (Brigade Level)
    • 8 S/P Heavy Mortar Battalions (333rd, 334th, 335th, 336th, 337th, 339th, 340th 341st)
      • 32 S/P Heavy Mortar Batteries (1st to 32nd)
  • 6 ATGW Brigades (33rd, 44th, 55th, 66th, 77th, 88th)
  • 6 Engineering Brigades (35th, 37th, 39th, 41st, 43rd, 45th)
    • 12 Engineers Battalions (65th to 82nd)
    • 6 Field Engineers Battalions (610th to 615th)
      • 6 Construction Engineering Companies
      • 6 Demolition Engineering Companies
      • 6 Mine Clearance Engineering Companies
      • 6 Maintenance & Logistics Engineering Companies
    • 4 Field Engineering Salvage Battalions
    • 2 Field Engineering Special Operations Battalions
  • 2 Tactical SSM Brigades (1st, 2nd), comprising:

Ranks and insignia[edit]

Main article: Egyptian Army ranks

Commissioned Officers[edit]

Commissioned Officer rank insignia of the Egyptian Army
Lieutenant First Lieutenant Captain Major Lieutenant Colonel Colonel Brigadier Major General Lieutenant General Colonel General Field Marshal
Arabic: ملازم Arabic: ملازم أول Arabic: نقيب Arabic: رائد Arabic: مقدم Arabic: عقيد Arabic: عميد Arabic: لواء Arabic: فريق Arabic: فريق أول Arabic: مشير
EgyptianArmyInsignia-Lieutenant.svg
EgyptianArmyInsignia-FirstLieutenant.svg
EgyptianArmyInsignia-Captain.svg
EgyptianArmyInsignia-Major.svg
EgyptianArmyInsignia-LieutenantColonel.svg
EgyptianArmyInsignia-Colonel.svg
EgyptianArmyInsignia-BrigadierGeneral.svg
EgyptianArmyInsignia-MajorGeneral.svg
EgyptianArmyInsignia-LieutenantGeneral.svg
EgyptianArmyInsignia-ColonelGeneral.svg
EgyptianArmyInsignia-FieldMarshal.svg

Enlisted personnel[edit]

Warrant Officer rank insignia Non-commissioned Officer rank insignia Enlisted rank insignia
First Warrant Officer Warrant Officer First Sergeant Sergeant Corporal Private
Arabic: مساعد أول' Arabic: مساعد Arabic: رقيب أول Arabic: رقيب Arabic: عريف Arabic: جندى
EgyptianArmyInsignia-ChiefWarrantOfficer.svg
EgyptianArmyInsignia-WarrantOfficer.svg
EgyptianArmyInsignia-StaffSergeant.svg
EgyptianArmyInsignia-Sergeant.svg
EgyptianArmyInsignia-Corporal.svg

Uniform[edit]

Main article: Egyptian Army Uniform

The Egyptian Army uses a British style ceremonial outfit, and a desert camouflage overall implemented in 2012. The Identification between different branches in the Egyptian Army depends on the branch insignia on the left upper arm and the color of the beret. Also, the airborne, Thunderbolt, and republican guard each has its own camouflage overall.

Camouflage Suit[edit]

Main article: Egyptian Army Uniform
Egyptian Army Thunderbolt camouflage uniform Egyptian Army Thunderbolt camouflage uniform Egyptian Army Thunderbolt camouflage uniform Egyptian Republican Guard camouflage uniform
Army Airborne Thunderbolt Republican Guard

Berets[edit]

Branch Beret
Officer Brigadier General
Airborne
Paratroops Beret - Egyptian Army.png
Paratroops brigadier Beret - Egyptian Army.png
Paratroops general Beret - Egyptian Army.png
Armored
Armored corps Beret - Egyptian Army.png
Armored corps brigadier Beret - Egyptian Army.png
Armored corps general Beret - Egyptian Army.png
Artillery
Artillery Beret - Egyptian Army.png
Artillery brigadier Beret - Egyptian Army.png
Artillery General Beret - Egyptian Army.png
Border Guard
Borderguard Beret - Egyptian Army.png
Borderguard brigadier Beret - Egyptian Army.png
Borderguard general Beret - Egyptian Army.png
Infantry
Infantry Beret - Egyptian Army.png
Infantry brigadier Beret - Egyptian Army.png
General command Beret - Egyptian Army.png
Military Police
Military police Beret - Egyptian Army.png
Military police brigadier Beret - Egyptian Army.png
Military police general Beret - Egyptian Army.png
Moral affairs
Moral Afaires Beret - Egyptian Army.png
Moral Affaires brigadier Beret - Egyptian Army.png
Moral Affaires general Beret - Egyptian Army.png
Reconnaissance
Reconnaissance Beret - Egyptian Army.png
Reconnaissance brigadier Beret - Egyptian Army.png
Reconnaissance general Beret - Egyptian Army.png
Thunderbolt
Thunderbolt Beret - Egyptian Army.png
Thunderbolt brigadier Beret - Egyptian Army.png
Thunderbolt General Beret - Egyptian Army.png
Others
Egyptian Army Beret.png
Egyptian Army Brigadier Beret.png
Egyptian Army General Beret.png

Weapons inventory[edit]

Egypt's varied army weapons inventory complicates logistical support for the army. National policy since the 1970s has included the creation of a domestic arms industry (including the Arab Organization for Industrialization) capable of indigenous maintenance and upgrades to existing equipment, with the ultimate aim of Egyptian production of major ground systems.[5] This target was finally met with the commencement of M-1 Abrams production in 1992.[6] (Egypt had received permission to build an M-1 factory in 1984.) Prior to this, large acquisitions had included nearly 700 M-60A1 main battle tanks from the US from March 1990, as well as nearly 500 Hellfire anti-tank guided missiles.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b International Institute for Strategic Studies (3 Feb 2014). The Military Balance 2014. London: Routledge. pp. 315–318. ISBN 9781857437225. 
  2. ^ See also Order of Battle at http://www.orbat.com/site/cwa_open/toc.htm, accessed August 2009
  3. ^ John Keegan, World Armies, Second Edition, MacMillan, 1983, ISBN 978-0-333-34079-0
  4. ^ Historical Notes and Scenarios Booklet, Suez '73: The Battle of the Chinese Farm (boardgame), Game Designers' Workshop, 1981
  5. ^ Chris Westhorp (ed.) 'The World's Armies,' Salamander Books, 1991, 'Egypt,' p.115
  6. ^ http://www.janes.com/articles/Janes-Sentinel-Security-Assessment-North-Africa/Procurement-Egypt.html, accessed August 2009

Further reading[edit]