Egyptian Navy

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Egyptian Navy
القوات البحرية المصرية
Coat of arms of Egypt.svg
Coat of arms of the Arab Republic of Egypt
BranchEgyptian Coast Guard
Egyptian Navy Thunderbolt
Egyptian Naval Aviation
Size18,500 active[1]
14,000 reserve[1]
32,500 total[1]
245 vessels[2]
Part ofEgyptian Armed Forces
HeadquartersAlexandria, Egypt
Motto(s)Knowledge, Honor, Sacrifice
ColoursBlue, red, white and black
MarchMarch of the Navy
Anniversaries21 October
EquipmentCurrent fleet
EngagementsWahhabi War, Greek War of Independence, Crimean War, Cretan Revolt, Anglo-Egyptian War (1882), World War II, Suez Crisis, North Yemen Civil War, Six-Day War, War of Attrition, Yom Kippur War, Gulf War, Sinai Insurgency
Commander of the NavyRear Admiral Ashraf Ibrahim Atwa
Chief of Staff of the NavyStaff Rear Admiral Ehab Sobhy
Naval Flag of Egypt.svg
Naval Ensign of Egypt.svg
Aircraft flown
AttackRafale, F-16
Northrop Grumman E-2 Hawkeye
FighterRafale, F-16
HelicopterAérospatiale Gazelle, Kaman SH-2G Super Seasprite, Westland Sea King, NH90

The Egyptian Navy (Arabic: القوات البحرية المصرية, romanizedEl-Quwwāt el-Bahareya el-Miṣriyya, lit.'Egyptian Navy Forces'), also known as the Egyptian Naval Force,[3] is the maritime branch of the Egyptian Armed Forces. It is the largest navy in the Middle East as well as Africa, and is the twelfth largest (by the number of vessels) navy in the world.[4] The navy protects more than 2,000 kilometers of coastline of the Mediterranean Sea and the Red Sea, defense of approaches to the Suez Canal,[clarification needed] and it also supports for army operations. The majority of the modern Egyptian Navy was created with the help of the Soviet Union in the 1960s.[citation needed] The navy received ships in the 1980s from China and other Western sources. In 1989, the Egyptian Navy had 18,000 personnel as well as 2,000 personnel in the Coast Guard.[5] The navy received ships from the US in 1990.[6] US shipbuilder Swiftships has built around 30 boats for the Egyptian Navy including mine hunters, survey vessels, and both steel and aluminium patrol boats.[7]


Ramses III at the Battle of the Delta between the Egyptian Navy and the Sea Peoples approximately 1198–1166 BC

Egypt has had a navy since Ancient Egyptian times. The Ancient Egyptian Navy was a vital part of the military of ancient Egypt. It helped to transport troops along the Nile River and fighting many battles such as the Battle of the Delta against the Sea Peoples, and played a major role in Egyptian Wars and battles such as the siege of Avaris in c. 1540 BC.[8] The Ancient Egyptian Navy imported many of their ships from countries such as the Kingdom of Cyprus.[9] Several Ancient Egyptian royal ships are still present today.[citation needed]

In the early 1800s, Egypt under Muhammad Ali Pasha developed a modern European-style army and navy. After intervening in the Greek War of Independence at Ottoman Turkey's request, the Egyptian navy was destroyed in 1827 at the Battle of Navarino by the fleets of Great Britain, France and Russia. With the Egyptian army in Greece then isolated, Muhammad Ali made terms with the British and withdrew a year later.

A replacement fleet was built for the First Egyptian–Ottoman War in 1831, and landed troops at Jaffa in support of the main Egyptian army marching into Syria. In the Second Egyptian–Ottoman War in 1839, following Egyptian victory in the Battle of Nezib, the Ottoman fleet sailed to Alexandria and defected to the Egyptian side. However, these victories provoked decisive European intervention to support the Turks, and while Muhammad Ali's dynasty continued to reign, Egypt ended up being transformed into a British protectorate until being granted independence in 1921.[citation needed]

The Egyptian navy was only peripherally involved in the series of conflicts with Israel. On 22 October 1948, the Egyptian sloop El Amir Farouq was sunk in the Mediterranean Sea off Gaza by a motor explosive boat of the Israeli Navy during the Israeli naval campaign in Operation Yoav as part of the 1948 Arab–Israeli War.[10][11][12] During the Suez Crisis, Egypt dispatched the Ibrahim el Awal, an ex-British Hunt class destroyer, to Haifa with the aim of shelling the city's coastal oil installations. On 31 October the Ibrahim el Awal reached Haifa and began bombarding the city but was driven off by a French warship and then pursued by the Israeli destroyers INS Eilat and INS Yaffo which, with the help of the Israeli Air Force, captured the ship.[13] Egyptian destroyers and torpedo boats engaged larger British vessels in a move aimed at frustrating the amphibious operations of the British and French. On the night of 31 October in the northern Red Sea, the British light cruiser HMS Newfoundland challenged and engaged the Egyptian frigate Domiat, eventually sinking it in a brief gun battle. The Egyptian warship was then sunk by escorting destroyer HMS Diana, with 69 surviving Egyptian sailors rescued.[14]

Egyptian and Ottoman Navy during the war of Greece's independence from the Ottoman Empire

The Egyptian Navy's blockade of Israeli ships in the Strait of Tiran that were headed toward the Israeli port of Eilat was one of the main causes of the Six-Day War. During the war, the Israeli Navy landed six combat divers from the Shayetet 13 naval commando unit to infiltrate Alexandria harbor. The divers sank an Egyptian minesweeper[citation needed] before being taken prisoner. Both Egyptian and Israeli warships made movements at sea to intimidate the other side throughout the war, but did not engage each other. However, Israeli warships and aircraft did hunt for Egyptian submarines throughout the war.

In October 1967, a few months after the cease-fire, the Egyptian Navy was the first navy in history to sink a ship using anti-ship missiles, when an Egyptian Komar-class fast-attack craft sank the Israeli destroyer INS Eilat with two direct hits.[15] This was a milestone of modern naval warfare, and for the first time anti-ship missiles showed their potential, sinking the destroyer 17 km off Port Said.

On the night of 15–16 November 1969, Egyptian Navy frogmen attacked the port of Eilat and caused severe damages to the armed transport ship Bat Yam.[16] On 5–6 February 1970, the frogmen attacked the Israeli landing ships at the same port and same piers causing severe damages to the landing ship Bait Shivaa and transport armed ship Hydroma.[16] On 8 March 1970, the frogmen attacked the Israeli oil drill Keting at the port of Abidjan in Ivory Coast believing that Israel had bought this oil drill from the Netherlands for the purposes of oil exploration in the Suez Gulf.[16]

In the Yom Kippur War, Egypt blocked commercial traffic to Eilat in the Gulf of Aqaba by laying mines; it also attempted to blockade Israeli ports on the Mediterranean.[5] The navy also used the coastal artillery to the east of Port Fouad to support the Egyptian Army in order to prepare for the assault on the Suez Canal.[16] In the Battle of Baltim, three Egyptian Osa-class missile boats were sunk.[citation needed]


Rank group General/flag officers Field/senior officers Junior officers Officer cadet
 Egyptian Navy
Egypt Navy - OF09.svg Egypt Navy - OF08.svg Egypt Navy - OF07.svg Egypt Navy - OF06.svg Egypt Navy - OF05.svg Egypt Navy - OF04.svg Egypt Navy - OF03.svg Egypt Navy - OF02.svg Egypt Navy - OF01b.svg Egypt Navy - OF01a.svg
فريق أول‎‎
Fariq 'awal
ملازم أول
Mulazim awwal
Rank group Senior NCOs Junior NCOs Enlisted
 Egyptian Navy
Blank.svg Blank.svg EgyptianNavyInsignia-StaffSergeant.svg EgyptianNavyInsignia-Sergeant.svg EgyptianNavyInsignia-Corporal.svg Blank.svg
مساعد أول
Mosa'id awwal
رقيب أول
Raqib awwal


Ensign Flag Pennant
Naval Ensign of Egypt.svg
Naval Flag of Egypt.svg
Navy of Egypt - Masthead pennant.svg

Rank flags[edit]

Vice-admiral Rear-admiral Senior on the roads
Flag of an Egyptian Navy vice admiral.svg
Flag of an Egyptian Navy rear admiral.svg
Navy of Egypt - Senior Officer.svg



The Egyptian navy's headquarters and main base is at Alexandria on the Mediterranean Sea with other Mediterranean naval bases at Port Said, Garoub and Mersa Matruh.

Red Sea[edit]

Egyptian naval bases on the Red Sea are Hurghada, Safaga, Berenice, and Suez.

Present fleet[edit]

The Egyptian Navy is structured into two different fleets, one for the Mediterranean sea and the other for the Red Sea. This in a context where the safety of shipping in the Red Sea is becoming increasingly important.[17]



The navy lacked its own air arm and depended on the air force for maritime reconnaissance and protection against submarines. The air force's equipment that supported the navy included twelve Gazelle and five Sea King helicopters mounted with antiship and antisubmarine missiles. In mid-1988 the air force also took delivery of the first of six Grumman E-2c Hawkeye aircraft with search and side-looking radar for maritime surveillance purposes.

The Egyptian Air Force equipment that supports the navy includes the following:

In mid-1988 the air force also took delivery of the first of 6 Grumman E-2C Hawkeye aircraft, now 8 units are operational and are used to secure the maritime borders among other missions; it also operates 6 Beechcraft 1900C aircraft for maritime surveillance purposes with search and side-looking radar. The Egyptian Navy also uses Mil Mi-8 and Sea King helicopters to transport troops.[18] also Russia confirmed the sale of 46 Ka-52Ks to Egypt in December 2015. Russian Helicopters Director-General Alexander Mikheyev said deliveries to Egypt are expected to occur in 2017.[19] In April 2019 Egyptian Navy ordered 24 Agusta Westland AW149 helicopters[20][21][22]

Submarine fleet[edit]

Egypt has 4 Type 209 German submarines and also operates 4 ex-Chinese Romeo-class submarines which have been revitalized to use Western periscopes, trailing GPS, passive sonars , a fire control system, and the ability to fire US-made harpoon missiles.[23]

Amphibious fleet[edit]

Two Egyptian navy amphibious landing craft in 2009

The first Mistral helicopter carrier named after late President Gamal Abdel-Nasser arrived in Alexandria in June 2016. On 16 September 2016, the Egyptian Navy Commander, Admiral Osama Rabie, raised the Egyptian flag on board of the BPC-210 Mistral Class amphibious assault ship (BPC/LHD).[24] Russia and Egypt had signed a deal for Egypt's purchase of 50 Ka-52 Alligator attack helicopters from Russia. The purchase includes the variant of the Ka-52 Katran, which specifically designed for the Mistrals that Russia had intended to acquire.[19]

Surface fleet[edit]

Only those escorts capable of operating troop-lift helicopters (Kaman SH-2G Seasprite) are shown. It must, though, be accepted that all surface ships can launch and recover the rubber assault craft known to be used by the army's commando groups. Additionally the two, 1,702 ton Jianghu I class FFGs and the two, 1,479 ton Descubierta class FFGs can supply naval gunfire support.

Patrol forces[edit]

The Egyptian Navy has a potent fleet of fast attack craft, many fitted with missile systems. These and the navy-manned vessels of the Coast Guard, would be deployed in support of amphibious landings and certainly in their prevention. The US shipbuilder Swiftships is one of the main providers of vessels for the Egyptian Navy. It has built around 30 boats[25] for the Egyptian Navy mainly costal patrol crafts 28m for coastal defense, anti-surface operations, maritime security operations and maritime interdiction, surveillance and intelligence gathering, and search and rescue operations.[26]


Ship to ship/surface missiles[edit]

  • P-270 Moskit/SS-N-22 with 120 km range and 320 kg payload (launched from P-32 Molniya-class missile boat).
  • HY-1 with 85 km range and 513 kg payload (launched from Hegu-class Coastal FAC/M).
  • Harpoon Block II with more than 124 km range and 220 kg payload (launched from Ambassador-class FPB/M, Knox-class frigates, Oliver Hazard Perry-class frigates and Descubierta-class light frigates).
  • Exocet (MM-40 Block 3) with >180 km range and 165 kg payload (launched from Gowind-class corvettes and Fremm-class frigates).
  • Otomat Mk 2 Block III with >180 km range and 210 kg payload (launched from Ramadan-class FPB/M & October-class FAC/M).
  • SS-N-2C Styx with 80 km range and 513 kg payload (launched from OSA I).

Surface to ship/surface missile (coastal defence)[edit]

  • FL-1 with 150 km range and 513 kg payload.
  • KSR-2 (AS-5 "Kelt") with 200 km range and 1000 kg payload. (Modified from air-launched version)
  • Otomat MkII with >180 km range and 210 kg payload.
  • Exocet (MM-40 MK III) with 180 km range and 165 kg payload.

The Egyptian Coast Guard[edit]

The Egyptian Coast Guard is responsible for the onshore protection of public installations near the coast and the patrol of coastal waters to prevent smuggling. Currently consists of one hundred five ships and craft.

Patrol boats[edit]

  • 22 Timsah I/II class
  • 12 Sea Spectre PB Mk III class
  • 9 Swiftships 28m class
  • 6 MV70 class
  • 5 P-6 (Project 183) class
  • 3 Textron class

Patrol craft[edit]

  • 25 Swiftships 26m class
  • 16 SR.N6 class
  • 9 Type 83 class
  • 6 Crestitalia class
  • 12 Spectre class
  • 12 Peterson class
  • 5 Nisr class
  • 29 DC-30 class
  • 3 of 6 MRTP-20 Yonka Onuk MRTP-20 class[27][28][29]

Recent developments[edit]

The Egyptian Navy has adopted the 60m diesel-powered Ambassador MK III fast missile patrol craft.[when?] The construction of the boats began in spring 2001. Egypt already had an older version of the Ambassador patrol craft in service, but the new boats would contain an update in design meant to make the vessels more resistant to radar detection. Design was conducted with the assistance of Lockheed Martin. Throughout recent years, Egypt has been constructing various Ramos-grade shipyards, which are capable of making more recent vessels like larger fast attack craft, low-grade aircraft carriers (such as Oryx-class or Nimitz-class) and nuclear submarines, though none of the aforementioned vessels have been constructed there.

The navy is currently undergoing a modernization of its surface fleet. On 16 February 2015, the Egyptian Navy ordered one FREMM multipurpose frigate from the French shipbuilder DCNS to enter service before the opening of the New Suez Canal, as part of a larger deal (including 24 Rafales and a supply of missiles) worth €5.2bn.[30][31] Egypt has also signed a €1bn contract with DCNS to buy four Gowind 2,500 ton corvettes with an option for two more.[32] The ageing submarine fleet is to be replaced starting in 2016 when the first of four Type 209 submarine's worth €920 million start arriving from Germany.[33]

On 7 August 2015, Le Monde reported that Egypt and Saudi Arabia were in discussions with France to purchase the two amphibious assault ship Mistral class originally intended for Russia. Le Monde quoted a French diplomatic source as confirming that French President, François Hollande, discussed the matter with Egyptian President Abdel Fattah el-Sisi during his visit to Egypt during the inauguration of the New Suez Canal in Ismailia.[34][35] On 24 September 2015, the French presidency announced that an agreement had been reached with Egypt for the supply of the two Mistrals.[36][37]

In May 2016, Swiftships was awarded a Direct Commercial Contract (DCC) for the construction of six additional 28m CPCs for co-production in Egypt under Swiftships Build, Operate and Transfer (BOT) model. Swiftships has delivered six 28m CPCs already to the EN, which were constructed at the Egyptian Ship Building and Repairs Company (ESBRC) in Alexandria, Egypt.[38] In June 2016 Swiftships was awarded a contract to procure four 28 meter long coastal patrol craft kits for local assembly in Alexandria.[7]

Spiegel online(know Der Spiegel) announced on 2 January 2019 that the German federal security council approved the sale of 1 Meko 200 frigate similar to the South African Valour class for 500 million euros, Egypt also intends to buy at least another frigate of the class in the future .[39] In May 2016, Swiftships was awarded a Direct Commercial Contract (DCC) for the construction of six additional 28m CPCs

In April 2019, the German parliament approved the guarantee of 2.3 billion euros for the sale of 6 Meko A200 class frigates for Egypt.[40][41]

In 2020, the Italian government accepted the proposal to sell two Bergamini-class frigates to Egypt for a value of 1.2 billion euros.

On 3 July 2021, President Abdel Fattah al-Sisi inaugurated the "July 3 base" at Gargoub, Matrouh Governorate.[42][43]

In October 2021, it was announced that the UK government had authorised the sale of two withdrawn Fort (I)-class replenishment vessels to Egypt, pending full refurbishment.[44]

In April 2022 Swiftships was awarded another contract for six 28m Coastal Patrol Craft material production kits, Zodiac RIBS, and equipment under a US Foreign Military Sales (FMS) case to Egypt. Swiftships’ 28m boat has a range of 900nmi, which can be extended by afloat refuelling.[45][46]


Fouad Mohamed Abou Zikry, Commander in Chief of the Egyptian Navy between 1967–1969 and 1972–1976.

Egypt Eyalet Navy[edit]

  • Sealord / Muharram Bek
  • Sealord / Osman Nur Al Din Pasha
  • Sealord / Mustafa Motawash Pasha
  • Sealord / Sa'id of Egypt
  • Sealord / Hassan Pasha Al Iskendarani

Khedival Navy[edit]

  • Hafiz Khalil Pasha (1861–1864)
  • Abdul Latif Pasha (1864–1871)
  • Shahin Pasha (1871–1873)
  • Tosun Pasha (1873–1882)

20th century[edit]

After the Egyptian defeat in the Anglo-Egyptian war, the UK abolished the entire military of Egypt and established a small homeland defence force instead even the Navy was abolished and the only maritime force in Egypt was the Coast Guard. In 1908 the Naval Authority was formed as a semi replacement for the former Navy, and was used to control the Egyptian ports and Merchant ships there. In the late 1920s and early 1930s, and after Egypt's independence in 1922 Egypt started building a new modern Navy with British vessels (destroyers, patrol boats, training ships) all under the name 'Naval Authority'. Although a Navy existed but no Naval academy was formed, however, it had a section in the main Military academy. After World War II ended, in 1946, the Naval Authority was renamed into "The Royal Egyptian Navy".

  • Vice Admiral Mahmoud Hamza Pasha (6 June 1946 – 1 October 1948)
  • Vice Admiral Ahmed Bek Badr (2 October 1948 – 30 September 1951)
  • Vice Admiral Mahmoud Bek Badr (1 October 1951 – 27 July 1952)
  • Vice Admiral Mohamed Nashid (28 July 1952 – 14 September 1952)
  • Vice Admiral Suleiman Ezzat (15 September 1952 – 10 June 1967)
  • Admiral Fouad Mohamed Abou Zikry (11 June 1967 – 11 September 1969)
  • Rear Admiral Mahmoud Abdel Rahman Fahmy (12 September 1969 – 24 October 1972)
  • Admiral Fouad Mohamed Abou Zikry (24 October 1972 – 15 October 1976)
  • Vice Admiral Ashraf Refaat
  • Vice Admiral Mohamed Ali Mohamed
  • Vice Admiral Ali Tawfik Gad (April 1983 – October 1987)
  • Vice Admiral Sherif Alsadek (October 1987 – October 1990)
  • Vice Admiral Ahmed Fadel
  • Vice Admiral Ahmed Saber Selim
  • Vice Admiral Tamer Abdel Alim (October 2005 – October 2007)
  • Vice Admiral Mohab Mamish (October 2007 – 11 August 2012)
  • Vice Admiral Osama El-Gendi (14 August 2012 – 12 April 2015 )
  • Vice Admiral Osama Mounir Rabie (13 April 2015 – 16 December 2016)
  • Vice Admiral Ahmed Khaled Hassan Saeed (17 December 2016 – 14 December 2021)
  • Rear Admiral Ashraf Ibrahim Atwa (14 December 2021 – present)

See also[edit]


  1. ^ a b c International Institute for Strategic Studies (25 February 2021). The Military Balance 2021. London: Routledge. p. 334. ISBN 9781032012278.
  2. ^ "Navy Fleet Strength by Country (2021)".
  3. ^ "U.S. Navy on Twitter".
  4. ^ Global Firepower. "Navy Ship Strength by Country".
  5. ^ a b "Navy - Egypt".
  6. ^ "Six more Swiftships patrol craft for Egypt". DefenceWeb. Retrieved 28 April 2022.
  7. ^ a b "Egyptian Navy to get four more vessels from Swiftships". DefenceWeb. Retrieved 6 July 2016.
  8. ^ Manley, Bill. The Penguin Historical Atlas of Ancient Egypt. Penguin Reference History. p. 54.
  9. ^ Kostas (2001)
  10. ^ "El Amir Farouq sloop (1926) – Egyptian Navy (Egypt)". navypedia. Retrieved 27 November 2015.
  11. ^ "El Amir Farouq 1926". TyneBuiltShips. Retrieved 27 November 2015.
  12. ^ Wandres, J., "Ben-Gurion's Bathtub Corps," Military History, March 2016, p. 67.
  13. ^ Max Wurmbrand, The Valiant of Israel, p. 80, Massada Press Ltd (1967)
  14. ^ Pimlott – editor British Military Operations, 1945–1984, London: Guild Publishing 1984 p. 78
  15. ^ Saad El Shazly The Crossing of the Suez p. 23
  16. ^ a b c d "Battles". Archived from the original on 5 December 2011. Retrieved 19 December 2011.
  17. ^ "Egypte : après la FREMM..." (in French). 26 June 2015.
  18. ^ "Egyptian military aviation OrBat". Archived from the original on 12 September 2011. Retrieved 5 April 2008.
  19. ^ a b Martin, Guy. "Russia ready to deliver first Egyptian Ka-52s – defenceWeb".
  20. ^ Cabirol, Michel (25 April 2019). "Armement : mais qu'est-ce qui se passe entre la France et l'Egypte". La Tribune (in French). Archived from the original on 25 April 2019. Retrieved 27 April 2019.
  21. ^ Perry, Dominic (25 April 2019). "AW149 helicopter nets crucial export order from Egypt". Flight Global. London. Archived from the original on 25 April 2019. Retrieved 27 April 2019.
  22. ^[dead link]
  23. ^ Cordesman, Anthony H. (2004). The Military Balance in the Middle East. Greenwood Publishing Group. ISBN 978-0-275-98399-4.
  24. ^ "The Egyptian Navy is Stronger than Ever Before – Israel Defense". 22 September 2016.
  25. ^ "Egyptian Navy to get four more vessels from Swiftships". DefenceWeb. Retrieved 6 July 2016.
  26. ^ "Swiftships gets $22.1M for six more coastal patrol boats for Egypt". Defense Brief. Retrieved 27 April 2022.
  27. ^ "Yonca-Onuk Jv » Onuk MRTP 20 Improved Fast Intervention Craft". Archived from the original on 19 November 2015. Retrieved 18 November 2015.
  28. ^ "قائد القوات البحرية: أحدث لنشات الصواريخ تنضم للخدمة 2013.. وبناء غواصتين من الجيل المتقدم بألمانيا – بوابة الأهرام". Retrieved 5 June 2014.
  29. ^ "First Turkish Interceptor Delivered To Egyptian Navy |". 14 December 2011. Retrieved 5 June 2014.
  30. ^ Lert, Frédéric (16 February 2015). "Egypt officially signs for 24 Rafales, FREMM frigate, and missiles". IHS Jane's Defence Weekly. Retrieved 21 February 2015.
  31. ^ "Official French Navy Statement on the Sale of a FREMM Multi-Mission Frigate to Egypt". 13 February 2015.
  32. ^ "Egyptian Navy would be about to order 4 to 6 Gowind Combat Corvettes from DCNS". 5 March 2014. Retrieved 26 September 2014.
  33. ^ Binnie, Jeremy (3 February 2014). "Egypt reportedly to exercise option for two more subs". IHS Jane's 360. Retrieved 3 September 2014.
  34. ^ "Mistral : l'Arabie saoudite et l'Egypte " sont prêtes à tout pour acheter les deux navires "". Le 7 August 2015.
  35. ^ "france 24 – Egypt, Saudi Arabia 'desperate' to purchase Mistral warships – France 24". France 24. 7 August 2015.
  36. ^ "Vente BPC". Elysee. 23 September 2015. Archived from the original on 25 September 2015. Retrieved 24 September 2015.
  37. ^ "Egypt agrees to buy warships built for Russia from France". BBC News. 23 September 2015. Retrieved 24 September 2015.
  38. ^ "Swiftships to Procure Patrol Craft Kits for Egyptian Navy". MarineLink. Retrieved 9 August 2022.
  39. ^ "Germany approves Meko 200 frigate export to Egypt". Navy recognition. 4 January 2019.
  40. ^ Reuters (5 April 2019). "Germany approves meko frigate sale to egypt". Defenceweb.
  41. ^ "Swiftships gets $22.1M for six more coastal patrol boats for Egypt". Defense Brief. Retrieved 27 April 2022.
  42. ^ "Egypt opens strategic Mediterranean naval base". France 24. 3 July 2021.
  43. ^ "Egypt's Sisi opens naval base close to border with Libya". Reuters. 3 July 2021.
  44. ^ "DESA sells Royal Navy ships to Egypt for first time in more than 30 years". Defence Equipment & Support. 29 October 2021.
  45. ^ "Swiftships awarded contract for Egyptian patrol craft". Shephard. Retrieved 28 April 2022.
  46. ^ "Swiftships gets $22.1M for six more coastal patrol boats for Egypt". Defense Debrief. Retrieved 27 April 2022.

External links[edit]