Ehrenfried Walther von Tschirnhaus
|Ehrenfried von Tschirnhaus|
Ehrenfried Walther von Tschirnhaus.
|Born||10 April 1651
Kieslingswalde, Habsburg Silesia
|Died||11 October 1708
Dresden, Electorate of Saxony
|Academic advisors||Arnold Geulincx
|Notable students||Christian Wolff|
Ehrenfried Walther von Tschirnhaus (or Tschirnhausen, German pronunciation: [ˈeːʁənˌfʁiːt ˈwaltɐ fɔn ˈt͡ʃiːɐ̯nhaʊs]; 10 April 1651 – 11 October 1708) was a German mathematician, physicist, physician, and philosopher. He invented the Tschirnhaus transformation and is considered by some to have been the inventor of European porcelain, an invention long accredited to Johann Friedrich Böttger but others claim porcelain had been made by English manufacturers at an even earlier date.
Von Tschirnhaus attended the Gymnasium at Görlitz. Thereafter he studied mathematics, philosophy, and medicine at the University of Leiden. He traveled considerably in France, Italy, and Switzerland, and served in the army of Holland (1672–1673). During his travels he met Baruch de Spinoza and Christiaan Huygens in the Netherlands, Isaac Newton in England, and Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz (with whom he maintained a lifelong correspondence) in Paris. He became a member of the Académie Royale des Sciences in Paris.
In 1682, Von Tschirnhaus worked out the theory of catacaustics and showed that they were rectifiable. This was the second case in which the envelope of a moving line was determined. One of the catacaustics of a parabola still is known as Tschirnhausen cubic.
In 1696, Johann Bernoulli posed the problem of the brachystochrone to the readers of Acta Eruditorum. Tschirnhaus was one of only five mathematicians to submit a solution. Bernoulli published these contributions (including Tschirnhaus') along with his own in the journal in May of the following year.
Von Tschirnhaus produced various types of lenses and mirrors, some of them are displayed in museums. He erected a large glass works in Saxony, where he constructed burning glasses of unusual perfection and carried on his experiments (1687–1688).
Tschirnhaus was for many years forgotten as a philosopher and the studies treating the subject often discuss Tschirnhaus' connection to other philosophers and scientists at the time. During his time at the University of Leiden he started correspondence with Spinoza and later also Leibniz. Tschirnhaus was one of the first to get a copy of Spinoza's masterpiece Ethics.
Inventor of porcelain
After he returned home to Saxony, Von Tschirnhaus initiated systematic experiments, using mixtures of various silicates and earths at different temperatures, to develop porcelain, which at the time was available only as a costly import from China and Japan. As early as 1704, he showed “porcelan” to Leibniz’s secretary. He proposed the establishment of a porcelain factory to Augustus II of Poland, Elector of Saxony, but was denied. Also in 1704, Von Tschirnhaus became the supervisor of Johann Friedrich Böttger, a nineteen-year-old alchemist who claimed to be able to make gold. Böttger only reluctantly and under pressure started to participate in Tschirnhaus’s work by 1707. The use of kaolin (from Schneeberg, Saxony) and alabaster advanced the work, so that August II named him the director of the porcelain factory he intended to establish. The Elector ordered payment of 2,561 thalers to Von Tschirnhaus, but the recipient requested postponement until the factory was producing. When Von Tschirnhaus died suddenly, on 11 October 1708, the project came to a halt.
Three days after Von Tschirnhaus’s death, there was a burglary at his house and, according to a report by Böttger, a small piece of porcelain was stolen. This report suggests that Böttger himself recognized that Von Tschirnhaus already knew how to make porcelain, a key piece of evidence that Von Tschirnhaus and not Böttger was the inventor. Work resumed on 20 March 1709, by which time Melchior Steinbrück had arrived to assess the dead man’s estate, which included the notes about making porcelain, and had met with Böttger. On 28 March 1709, Böttger went to August II and announced the invention of porcelain. Böttger now was nominated to head the first European manufactory for porcelain. Steinbrück became an inspector and married Böttger’s sister.
Contemporary testimonies of knowledgeable people indicate that Tschirnhaus invented porcelain. In 1719, for example, Samuel Stölzel of the porcelain factory of Meissen went to Vienna with the still-secret recipe and confirmed that it had been invented by Von Tschirnhaus and not by Böttger. In that same year, the General Secretary of the Meissen factory also indicated that the invention was not Böttger's “but by the late Herr von Tschirnhaus[,] whose written science” was handed to Böttger “by the inspector Steinbrück.” Nevertheless, Böttger’s name became closely associated with the invention.
- Medicina corporis, Amsterdam, 1686.
- Medicina mentis, Amsterdam, 1687.
- Medicina mentis et corporis, with an Introduction by Wilhelm Risse. (Anastatic reprint) Hildesheim: Georg Olms, 1964.
- Ehrenfried Walther von Tschirnhaus at the Mathematics Genealogy Project
- Biography of Ehrenfried Walther von Tschirnhaus Tschirnhaus Society, 9 February 2006. Retrieved 28 November 2013. Archived here.
- "The Discovery of European Porcelain Technology" by C.M. Queiroz & S. Agathopoulos, 2005.
- Pots of fame economist.com, 31 March 2010. Retrieved 28 November 2013. Archived October 21, 2012 at the Wayback Machine
- This article or a previous version of it is partially based on the public domain A Short Account of the History of Mathematics (4th edition, 1908) by W.W. Rouse Ball, as transcribed at Some Contemporaries of Descartes, Fermat, Pascal and Huygens: Tchirnhausen
- A significant part of the article is based on the corresponding German Wikipedia website from February 2, 2006 that contains references about the Böttger–Tschirnhaus controversy.
- O'Connor, John J.; Robertson, Edmund F., "Ehrenfried Walther von Tschirnhaus", MacTutor History of Mathematics archive, University of St Andrews.
- Gilman, D. C.; Thurston, H. T.; Colby, F. M., eds. (1905). "Tschirnhausen, Ehrenfried Walter, Count". New International Encyclopedia (1st ed.). New York: Dodd, Mead.
- Hans-Joachim Böttcher: Ehrenfried Walther von Tschirnhaus - Das bewunderte, bekämpfte und totgeschwiegene Genie. Dresden 2014. ISBN 978-3-941757-42-4
- Otto Liebmann (1894), "Tschirnhaus, Walter von", Allgemeine Deutsche Biographie (ADB) (in German) 38, Leipzig: Duncker & Humblot, pp. 722–724
- Ehrenfried Walther von Tschirnhaus in the German National Library catalogue
- Website of the Tschirnhausgesellschaft
- Ehrenfried Walther von Tschirnhaus (site "under construction", with broken image links; not clear that the site has not been abandoned...)
- Gunter E. Grimm: Argumentation und Schreibstrategie. Zum Vulkanismus-Diskurs im Werk von Ehrenfried Walther von Tschirnhaus
- A method for removing all intermediate terms from a given equation English translation (by R.F. Green) of his 1683 paper