Eid al-Ghadir

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Eid al-Ghadeer in Fatima Masumeh Shrine- Iran 2016 by tasnimnews.com 05.jpg
Eid al-Ghadeer celebration at a shrine in Iran
Also calledEid Al-Ghadeer; Yawm al-mithaq (Day of the Covenant)
Observed byShia Muslims
TypeIslam
SignificanceAppointment of Ali as the successor of Muhammad.
ObservancesPrayers, gift-giving, festive meals, as well as reciting the Du'a Nudba,
Date18 Dhu al-Hijjah
2021 date29 July[1]
2022 date17 July[2]

Eid al-Ghadir (Arabic: عید الغدیر, romanizedʿīd al-ghadīr, lit.'feast of the pond') is an Islamic commemorative holiday, and is considered to be among the significant holidays of Shi'ite and Sufi Muslims. The Eid is held on 18 Dhul-Hijjah at the time when the Islamic prophet Muhammad was said to have appointed Ali ibn Abi Talib as his successor. According to Shia hadiths, this Eid has been named "Eid-e Bozorg-e Elāhi" (Persian: عید بزرگ الهی; i.e. the greatest divine Eid),[3] "Eid Ahl al-Bayt Muhammad"[4][5] and Ashraf al-A'yaad (i.e. the supreme Eid).[6][7]

Religious background[edit]

Ten years after the migration (Hijrah), the Islamic prophet Muhammad ordered his followers to call upon people everywhere to join him in his first and last pilgrimage. Islamic scholars believe more than seventy thousand people followed Muhammad on his way to Mecca, where, on the fourth day of the month of Dhu'l-Hijjah, there were more than one hundred thousand Muslims present for his entry into the city.[8][9] While returning from this pilgrimage, on 18 Dhu'l-Hijjah 10 AH (March 632 CE) at an area known as Ghadir Khumm, Muhammad delivered a well-known sermon during which he called up his cousin brother and son-in-law Ali ibn Abi Talib and declared, "to whomsoever I am Mawla, Ali is also their Mawla". While the meaning of the word Mawla can be interpreted in "master", and thus see the sermon as being the official designation of Ali as Muhammad's successor.[10] As a result, the date of the sermon is considered to be one of the foundational events of Shia Islam, with the anniversary becoming one of its most important annual celebrations as "Eid al-Ghadir".[11][12]

Celebration[edit]

Shia Muslims throughout the world celebrate this event annually with diverse customs.[13][14] It is held in different countries, including Iran,[15][16][17] India, Pakistan, Azerbaijan,[18] Iraq,[19][20] UAE, Yemen, Afghanistan, Lebanon, Turkey,[21] Bahrain, and Syria. Shia Muslims also celebrate Eid Ghadir in Europe and the Americas, including the U.S., Canada, UK, Germany, France.[22][23][24][25]

In 2022, a 10-km long festival was held in Tehran marking the Ghadir ceremony with hundreds of thousands of the people pouring in Valiasr streets and the nearby streets.[26]

Customs[edit]

According to the narrations, Hassan ibn Ali used to hold ceremonies in Kufa on the day of Ghadir. Ali ibn Abitalib used to participate the ceremony accompanied by a group of his followers. After the ceremony, Hassan ibn Ali would give people gifts. Greeting, hand shaking, wearing new cloths, using perfume, making donations, helping others, saying prayers, feeding others, making others happy and giving gifts to others are among the suggested customs reported in narrations.[27] Also people can go to see the customs from shia hhusna alii.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Eid-e-Ghadir in Iran in 2022".
  2. ^ "Dhul Hijjah 1443". Islamic Finder. Retrieved 11 June 2022.
  3. ^ Al-Hurr al-Aamili, Wasā'il al-Shīʿa, V.8, P.89
  4. ^ The celebration of Ghaidr mashreghnews.ir Retrieved 15 September 2018
  5. ^ Sayyed Ibn Tawus, Iqbal al-A'mal, V.2, P.261
  6. ^ Eid Ghadir (Ghadeer) yjc.ir
  7. ^ Muhammad ibn Ya'qub al-Kulayni, Kitab al-Kafi, V.4, P.148
  8. ^ Ghadir Khum Archived 15 September 2020 at the Wayback Machine al-islam.org
  9. ^ Event of Ghadir Khumm Irfan.ir
  10. ^ Vaglieri, Laura Veccia (2012). "G̲h̲adīr K̲h̲umm". Encyclopædia of Islam, Second Edition. Brill Online. Retrieved 11 October 2019.
  11. ^ Lindsay, James E. (1957). Daily Life in the Medieval Islamic World. Greenwood Press. p. 163. ISBN 9780313322709.
  12. ^ Campo, Juan Eduardo (2009). Encyclopedia of Islam. Infobase Publishing. pp. 257–58. ISBN 9781438126968.
  13. ^ The celebration of the event of Ghadir Khum irna.ir
  14. ^ Eid (feast) Ghadir-Khum afkarnews.com
  15. ^ Ghadir Khum (Eid) farsnews.com
  16. ^ Ghadir celebration, Ahwaz, Iran aparat.com
  17. ^ Ghadir celebration Archived 29 June 2020 at the Wayback Machine irinn.ir Retrieved 22 September 2018
  18. ^ Islamic countries, Eid Ghadir Khum hawzah.net
  19. ^ Iraq, Eid Ghadir-Khum alalam.ir Retrieved 22 September 2018
  20. ^ Eid Ghadir Khum, Iraq shia-news.com Retrieved 22 September 2018
  21. ^ "Gadir Hum Bayramı kutlanıyor (Gadir Hum Bayramı nedir? Gadiri Hum Bayramı'nı kimler, ne zaman kutlar?)".
  22. ^ Ghadir Khum, celebration Archived 26 June 2020 at the Wayback Machine alkawthartv.com
  23. ^ Eid Ghadir-Khum, in Georgia iribnews.ir
  24. ^ The celebration of Ghadir, in Saudi Arabia shia-news.com
  25. ^ Ghadir celebration in various countries of the world iqna.ir
  26. ^ "3 million Tehraners attend 10-km long Ghadir festival". Mehr News Agency. 18 July 2022. Retrieved 19 July 2022.
  27. ^ "The customs and traditions of Eid al-Ghadir". Hawzah information center. Retrieved 23 July 2021.

External links[edit]