Eight-thousander

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Locations of the world's 14 eight-thousanders, which are split between the Himalayan (right), and the Karakoram mountain ranges (left)

The International Mountaineering and Climbing Federation (UIAA) recognises eight-thousanders as the 14 mountains that are more than 8,000 metres (26,247 ft) in height above sea level, and are considered to be sufficiently independent from neighbouring peaks. However, there is no precise definition of the criteria used to assess independence, and, since 2012, the UIAA has been involved in a process to consider whether the list should be expanded to 20 mountains. All eight-thousanders are located in the Himalayan and Karakoram mountain ranges in Asia, and their summits are in the death zone.

From 1950 to 1964, all 14 of the eight-thousanders were summited in the summer (the first was Annapurna I in 1950, and the last was Shishapangma in 1964), and from 1980 to 2021, all 14 were summited in the winter (the first being Everest in 1980, and the last being K2 in 2021). On a variety of statistical techniques, the deadliest eight-thousander is consistently Annapurna I (one death – climber or climber support – for every three summiters), followed by K2 and Nanga Parbat (one death for every four to five summiters), and Dhaulagiri, and Kangchenjunga (one for every six to seven summiters).

The first person to summit all 14 eight-thousanders was Italian Reinhold Messner in 1986, who did not use supplementary oxygen. In 2010 Spaniard Edurne Pasaban became the first woman to summit all 14, but with the aid of supplementary oxygen. In 2011 Austrian Gerlinde Kaltenbrunner became the first woman to summit all 14 without the aid of supplementary oxygen. In 2013, South Korean Kim Chang-ho climbed all 14 in 7 years and 310 days, without the aid of supplementary oxygen. In 2019, British-Nepalese climber Nirmal Purja, climbed all 14 in 6 months and 6 days, with supplementary oxygen.

Issues with false summits (e.g. Cho Oyu, Annapurna I and Dhaulagiri), or separated dual summits (e.g. Shishapangma and Manaslu), have led to disputed claims of ascents, and in 2021, a team of international experts started a project to re-verify which climbers, if any, have actually been on the true summit of all 14 eight-thousanders.[1]

Climbing history[edit]

Flight over Khumbu-region; six eight-thousanders are visible
Comparison of the heights of the Eight-thousanders (red triangles) with the Seven Summits and Seven Second Summits
The 30–highest peaks in the world with over 500 m (1,640 ft) in prominence.[2]

First ascents[edit]

The first recorded attempt on an eight-thousander was when Albert F. Mummery, Geoffrey Hastings and J. Norman Collie tried to climb Pakistan's Nanga Parbat in 1895. The attempt failed when Mummery and two Gurkhas, Ragobir Thapa and Goman Singh, were killed by an avalanche.[3]

The first recorded successful ascent of an eight-thousander was by the French Maurice Herzog and Louis Lachenal, who reached the summit of Annapurna on 3 June 1950 during the 1950 French Annapurna expedition.[4] The first winter ascent of an eight-thousander was done by a Polish team led by Andrzej Zawada on Mount Everest. Two climbers Leszek Cichy and Krzysztof Wielicki reached the summit on 17 February 1980.[5] The final eight-thousander to be climbed in the winter was K2, which summit was ascended by a 10-person Nepalese team on 16 January 2021.[6]

Polish climber Jerzy Kukuczka established the highest number of new routes on the 14 eight-thousanders, with ten first ascents.[7] Italian Simone Moro made the most first winter ascents of eight-thousanders at four first ascents; Kukuczka also made four winter ascents, but one was a repetition.

All 14[edit]

The first person to climb all 14 eight-thousanders was Italian Reinhold Messner, on 16 October 1986. In 1987 Polish climber Jerzy Kukuczka became the second person to accomplish this feat. Messner summited each of the 14 peaks without the aid of bottled oxygen, a feat that was only repeated nine years later by the Swiss Erhard Loretan in 1995.

Phurba Tashi of Nepal has completed the most climbs of the eight-thousanders, with 30 ascents between 1998 and 2011.[8] Spaniard Juanito Oiarzabal has completed the second most, with a total of 25 ascents between 1985 and 2011 (Oiarzabal completed the climb of all 14 in 1999).[9]

In 2010, Spanish climber Edurne Pasaban became the first woman to summit all 14 eight-thousanders with no disputed climbing.[10] In August 2011, Austrian climber Gerlinde Kaltenbrunner became the first woman to climb the 14 eight-thousanders without the use of supplementary oxygen.[11][12]

The first couple and team who summited all 14 eight-thousanders together were the Italians Nives Meroi (second woman without supplementary oxygen), and her husband Romano Benet [it] in 2017. The couple climbed alpine style, without the use of supplementary oxygen and other aids.[13]

On 20 May 2013, South Korean climber Kim Chang-ho set a new speed record of climbing all 14 eight-thousanders, without the use of supplementary oxygen, in 7 years and 310 days. On 29 October 2019, the British-Nepali climber Nirmal Purja set a speed record for climbing all 14 eight-thousanders, with the use of supplementary oxygen, in 6 months and 6 days.[14][15][16]

Deadliest[edit]

The extreme altitude and the fact that the summits of all eight-thousanders lie in the Death Zone mean that climber mortality (or death rate), is particularly high.[17] Two metrics are quoted to establish a death rate that is used to rank the eight-thousanders in order of deadliest (note that they are also the world's overall deadliest mountains).[18][19]

The first metric is the ratio of successful climbers summiting to total deaths[a] on the mountain over a given period.[18] The Guinness Book of World Records uses this metric to name Annapurna I as the deadliest eight-thousander, and the world's deadliest mountain with roughly one person dying for every three people who successfully summit, i.e. a ratio of circa 30%.[20] Using consistent data from 1950 to 2012, mountaineering statistician Eberhard Jurgalski (see table below) also verify that under this metric, Annapurna is the deadliest mountain (31.9%), followed by K2 (26.5%), Nanga Parbat (20.3%), Dhaulagiri (15.4%) and Kangchenjunga (14.1%).[18] Other statistical sources including MountainIQ, used a mix of data periods from 1900 to Spring 2021, but with broadly similar results showing Annapurna still being the deadliest mountain (27.2%), followed by K2 (22.8%), Nanga Parbat (20.75%), Kangchenjunga (15%), and Dhaulagiri (13.5%).[19][17] Cho Oyu as the safest at 1.4%.[18][19]

The drawback of the first metric is that it includes the deaths of any support climbers or climbing sherpas that went above base camp in assisting the climb; therefore, rather than being the probability that a climber will die attempting to summit an eight-thousander, it is more akin to the total human cost in getting a climber to the summit.[21] In the Himalayan Database (HDB) tables, the climber (or member) "Death Rate" is the ratio of deaths above base camp, of all climbers who were hoping to summit and who went above base camp (calculated for 1950 to 2009), and is closer to a true probability of death (see table below).[21] The data is only for the Nepalese Himalaya and therefore does not include K2 or Nanga Parbat.[21] HDB estimates that the probability of death for a climber who is attempting the summit of an eight-thousander is still highest for Annapurna I (4%), followed by Kangchenjunga (3%) and Dhaulagiri (3%); the safest mountain is still Cho Oyu at 0.6%.[21]

The summary tables from the HDB report for all mountains above 8,000 meters also imply that the death rate of climbers for the period 1990 to 2009 (e.g. modern expeditions), is roughly half that of the combined 1950 to 2009 period, i.e. climbing is becoming safer for the climbers attempting the summit.[21]

List of first ascents[edit]

From 1950 to 1964, all 14 of the eight-thousanders were summited in the summer (the first was Annapurna I in 1950, and the last was Shishapangma in 1964), and from 1980 to 2021, all 14 were summited in the winter (the first being Everest in 1980, and the last being K2 in 2021).

Selected data for the 14 eight-thousanders[22][23]
Mountain[22] First ascent[22] First winter ascent[22] From 1950 to March 2012[23] Climber
Death
Rate
[21][24][b]
Name Height[25] Prom.[25] Isolation[25] Country Date Summiter(s) Date Summiter(s) Total
Ascents[c]
Total
Deaths[a]
Deaths/
Ascents[d]
Everest 8,849 m
(29,032 ft)[26]
8,849 m
(29,032 ft)
Not applicable Nepal Nepal
China China
29 May 1953 New Zealand Edmund Hillary

Nepal Tenzing Norgay
on British expedition

17 February 1980
Poland Krzysztof Wielicki
Poland Leszek Cichy
5656 223 3.9% 1.52%
K2 8,611 m
(28,251 ft)
4,020 m
(13,190 ft)
1,315.6 km (817.5 mi) Pakistan Pakistan
China China[27]
31 July 1954 Italy Achille Compagnoni
Italy Lino Lacedelli

on Italian expedition

16 January

2021[6]

United Kingdom NepalNirmal Purja[28][29][30]

Nepal Gelje Sherpa

Nepal Mingma David Sherpa

Nepal Mingma Gyalje Sherpa

Nepal Sona Sherpa

Nepal Mingma Tenzi Sherpa

Nepal Pem Chhiri Sherpa

Nepal Dawa Temba Sherpa

Nepal Kili Pemba Sherpa

Nepal Dawa Tenjing Sherpa

306 81 26.5% [e]
Kangchenjunga 8,586 m
(28,169 ft)
3,922 m
(12,867 ft)
124.2 km (77.2 mi) Nepal Nepal
India India[31]
25 May 1955 United Kingdom George Band
United Kingdom Joe Brown
on British expedition
11 January 1986 Poland Krzysztof Wielicki
Poland Jerzy Kukuczka
283 40 14.1% 3.00%
Lhotse 8,516 m
(27,940 ft)
610 m
(2,000 ft)
2.4 km (1.5 mi) Nepal Nepal
China China
18 May 1956 Switzerland Fritz Luchsinger
Switzerland Ernst Reiss
31 December 1988 Poland Krzysztof Wielicki 461 13 2.8% 1.03%
Makalu 8,485 m
(27,838 ft)
2,378 m
(7,802 ft)
17.2 km (10.7 mi) Nepal Nepal
China China
15 May 1955 France Jean Couzy
France Lionel Terray
on French expedition
9 February 2009 Italy Simone Moro
Kazakhstan Denis Urubko
361 31 8.6% 1.63%
Cho Oyu 8,188 m
(26,864 ft)
2,344 m
(7,690 ft)
27.7 km (17.2 mi) Nepal Nepal
China China
19 October 1954 Austria Joseph Joechler
Nepal Pasang Dawa Lama
Austria Herbert Tichy
12 February 1985 Poland Maciej Berbeka
Poland Maciej Pawlikowski
3138 44 1.4% 0.64%
Dhaulagiri I 8,167 m
(26,795 ft)
3,357 m
(11,014 ft)
317.4 km (197.2 mi) Nepal Nepal 13 May 1960 Austria Kurt Diemberger
Germany Peter Diener
Nepal Nawang Dorje
Nepal Nima Dorje
Switzerland Ernst Forrer
Switzerland Albin Schelbert
21 January 1985 Poland Andrzej Czok
Poland Jerzy Kukuczka
448 69 15.4% 2.94%
Manaslu 8,163 m
(26,781 ft)
3,092 m
(10,144 ft)
105.5 km (65.6 mi) Nepal Nepal 9 May 1956 Japan Toshio Imanishi
Nepal Gyalzen Norbu
12 January 1984 Poland Maciej Berbeka
Poland Ryszard Gajewski
661 65 9.8% 2.77%
Nanga Parbat 8,125 m
(26,657 ft)
4,608 m
(15,118 ft)
187.9 km (116.8 mi) Pakistan Pakistan 3 July 1953 Austria Hermann Buhl
on German–Austrian expedition
26 February 2016 Pakistan Muhammad Ali Sadpara
Italy Simone Moro
Spain Alex Txikon
335 68 20.3% [e]
Annapurna I 8,091 m
(26,545 ft)
2,984 m
(9,790 ft)
33.7 km (20.9 mi) Nepal Nepal 3 June 1950 France Maurice Herzog
France Louis Lachenal

on French expedition

3 February 1987 Poland Jerzy Kukuczka
Poland Artur Hajzer
191 61 31.9% 4.05%
Gasherbrum I
(Hidden Peak)
8,080 m
(26,510 ft)
2,155 m
(7,070 ft)
23.4 km (14.5 mi) Pakistan Pakistan
China China
5 July 1958 United States Andrew Kauffman
United States Pete Schoening
9 March 2012 Poland Adam Bielecki
Poland Janusz Gołąb
334 29 8.7% [e]
Broad Peak 8,051 m
(26,414 ft)
1,701 m
(5,581 ft)
8.6 km (5.3 mi) Pakistan Pakistan
China China
9 June 1957 Austria Fritz Wintersteller
Austria Marcus Schmuck
Austria Kurt Diemberger
Austria Hermann Buhl
5 March 2013 Poland Maciej Berbeka
Poland Adam Bielecki
Poland Tomasz Kowalski
Poland Artur Małek
404 21 5.2% [e]
Gasherbrum II 8,034 m
(26,358 ft)
1,524 m
(5,000 ft)
5.3 km (3.3 mi) Pakistan Pakistan
China China
7 July 1956 Austria Fritz Moravec
Austria Josef Larch
Austria Hans Willenpart
2 February 2011 Italy Simone Moro
Kazakhstan Denis Urubko
United States Cory Richards
930 21 2.3% [e]
Shishapangma 8,027 m
(26,335 ft)
2,897 m
(9,505 ft)
90.8 km (56.4 mi) China China 2 May 1964 China Xu Jing
China Chang Chun-yen
China Wang Fuzhou
China Chen San
China Cheng Tien-liang
China Wu Tsung-yue
China Sodnam Doji
China Migmar Trashi
China Doji
China Yonten
14 January 2005 Poland Piotr Morawski
Italy Simone Moro
302 25 8.3%

List of climbers of all 14[edit]

There is no single undisputed source for verified Himalayan ascents; however, Elizabeth Hawley's The Himalayan Database,[32] is considered as an important source for the Nepalese Himalayas.[33][34] Online ascent databases pay close regard to The Himalayan Database, including the website AdventureStats.com,[35] and the Eberhard Jurgalski List.[36][37][38] Various mountaineering journals, including the Alpine Journal and the American Alpine Journal, maintain extensive records and archives but do not always opine on ascents.[36][37]

Verified ascents[edit]

Reinhold Messner, first to climb all 14 eight-thousanders, and first to do so without supplementary oxygen.
Edurne Pasaban, first woman to climb all 14 eight-thousanders after Oh Eun-sun’s claim was disputed.
Gerlinde Kaltenbrunner 2015-07-02 001
Gerlinde Kaltenbrunner, first woman to climb all 14 eight-thousanders without supplementary oxygen.
  First male to have summited all 14 eight-thousanders, and first to do so without supplementary oxygen
  First female to have summited all 14 eight-thousanders; with supplementary oxygen
  First female to have summited all 14 eight-thousanders; no supplementary oxygen
  Fastest ascent of all 14 eight-thousanders; with supplementary oxygen
  Youngest person to climb all 14 eight-thousanders
  First disabled person to have summited all 14 eight-thousanders

The "No O2" column lists people who have climbed all 14 eight-thousanders without supplementary oxygen.

List of climbers who have summited all 14 eight-thousanders[39]
Order Order
(No O2)
Name Period climbing
eight-thousanders
Born Age Nationality
1 1 Reinhold Messner 1970–1986 1944 42 Italy Italian
2 Jerzy Kukuczka 1979–1987 1948 39 Poland Polish
3 2 Erhard Loretan 1982–1995 1959 36 Switzerland Swiss
4 [40] Carlos Carsolio 1985–1996 1962 33 Mexico Mexican
5 Krzysztof Wielicki 1980–1996 1950 46 Poland Polish
6 3 Juanito Oiarzabal 1985–1999 1956 43 Spain Spanish
7 Sergio Martini 1983–2000 1949 51 Italy Italian
8 Park Young-seok 1993–2001 1963 38 South Korea Korean
9 Um Hong-gil 1988–2001 1960[41] 40 South Korea Korean
10 4 Alberto Iñurrategi 1991–2002[42] 1968 33 Spain Spanish
11 Han Wang-yong 1994–2003 1966 37 South Korea Korean
12 5[43] Ed Viesturs 1989–2005 1959 46 United States American
13 6[44][45][46] Silvio Mondinelli 1993–2007 1958 49 Italy Italian
14 7[47] Ivan Vallejo 1997–2008 1959 49 Ecuador Ecuadorian
15 8[48] Denis Urubko 2000–2009 1973 35 Kazakhstan Kazakhstani
16 Ralf Dujmovits 1990–2009 1961[49] 47 Germany German
17 9 Veikka Gustafsson 1993–2009 1968 41 Finland Finnish
18[50] Andrew Lock 1993–2009 1961[51] 48 Australia Australian
19 10 João Garcia 1993–2010 1967 43 Portugal Portuguese
20[52] Piotr Pustelnik 1990–2010 1951 58 Poland Polish
21[53] Edurne Pasaban 2001–2010 1973 36 Spain Spanish
22[54] Abele Blanc 1992–2011[55][56] 1954 56 Italy Italian
23 Mingma Sherpa 2000–2011[55] 1978 33 Nepal Nepali
24 11 Gerlinde Kaltenbrunner 1998–2011[55] 1970 40 Austria Austrian
25 Vassily Pivtsov 2001–2011[55] 1975 36 Kazakhstan Kazakhstani
26 12 Maxut Zhumayev 2001–2011[55] 1977 34 Kazakhstan Kazakhstani
27 Kim Jae-soo 2000–2011[55] 1961 50 South Korea Korean
28[57] 13 Mario Panzeri 1988–2012 1964 48 Italy Italian
29[58] Hirotaka Takeuchi 1995–2012[58] 1971 41 Japan Japanese
30 Chhang Dawa Sherpa 2001–2013[55] 1982 30 Nepal Nepali
31 14 Kim Chang-ho 2005–2013[55] 1970 43 South Korea Korean
32 Jorge Egocheaga 2002–2014[59] 1968 45 Spain Spanish
33 15 Radek Jaroš 1998–2014[55] 1964 50 Czech Republic Czech
34/35[60] 16/17[60] Nives Meroi 1998–2017[61][62] 1961 55 Italy Italian
34/35[60] 16/17[60] Romano Benet [it] 1998–2017[61][62][63] 1962 55 Italy Italian
Slovenia Slovenian
36 Peter Hámor 1998–2017[64][65][66] 1964 52 Slovakia Slovak
37 18 Azim Gheychisaz 2008–2017[67] 1981 37 Iran Iranian
38 Ferran Latorre 1999–2017[68] 1970 46 Spain Spanish
39 19 Òscar Cadiach 1984–2017[69] 1952 64 Spain Spanish
40 Kim Mi-gon 2000–2018[70][71] 1973 45 South Korea Korean
41 Sanu Sherpa 2006–2019[72] 1975 44 Nepal Nepali
42 Nirmal Purja 2014–2019[16][73][f] 1983 36 United KingdomBritish[28][29][30]
43 Mingma Gyabu Sherpa 2010–2019[74][75] 1989 30 Nepal Nepali
44 Kim Hong-bin 2006–2021[76][77][78] 1964 57 South Korea Korean

Disputed ascents[edit]

Claims have been made for summiting all 14 peaks for which not enough evidence was provided to verify the ascent; the disputed ascent in each claim is shown in parentheses in the table below. In most cases, the Himalayan chronicler Elizabeth Hawley is considered a definitive source regarding the facts of the dispute. Her The Himalayan Database is the source for other online Himalayan ascent databases (e.g. AdventureStats.com).[33][34] The Eberhard Jurgalski List is also another important source for independent verification of claims to have summited all 14 eight-thousanders.[36][37]

Name and details Period climbing
eight-thousanders
Born Age Nationality
Fausto De Stefani (Lhotse 1997)[79]
His partner Sergio Martini reclimbed Lhotse in 2000 to verify his 14, see above.
1983–1998 1952 46 Italy Italian
Alan Hinkes (Cho Oyu 1990)[80][81]
Hinkes rejected Hawley's decision to "unrecognise" his ascent, see "Cho Oyu dispute".
1987–2005 1954 53 United Kingdom British
Vladislav Terzyul (Shishapangma (West) 2000, Broad Peak 1995[82][83])[84][85]
As he did not claim the main summit of Shishapangma, this status is unlikely to change.
1993–2004
(deceased)
1953 49 Ukraine Ukrainian
Oh Eun-sun (Kangchenjunga 2009)[86][87][88]
As the potential first female climber of all 14, this dispute was followed internationally.[87]
1997–2010 1966 44 South Korea Korean
Carlos Pauner (Shishapangma 2012)[89]
Pauner acknowledged his uncertainty as it was dark; said he might reclimb.[90]
2001–2013 1963 50 Spain Spanish
Zhang Liang (Shishapangma 2018)[91][92][93]
Suspected the 2018 Chinese Shishapangma expedition stopped at central summit.
2000–2018 1964 54 China Chinese

Verification issues[edit]

A recurrent problem with verification is the confirmation that the climber reached the true peak of the eight-thousander. Eight-thousanders present unique problems in this regard as they are so infrequently summited, their summits have not yet been exhaustively surveyed, and summiting climbers are often suffering the extreme altitude and weather effects of being in the death zone.[36][37]

Cho Oyu for example, is a recurrent problem eight-thousander as its true peak as it is a small hump about thirty minutes walk into the large flat summit plateau that lies in the death zone, and which is often obscured in very poor weather, and which led to the disputed ascent (per the table above) of British climber, Alan Hinks (who has refused to re-climb the peak).[94][95] Shishapangma is another problem peak because of its dual summits, which despite being close in height, are up to two hours climbing time apart and require the crossing of an exposed and dangerous snow ridge.[36][96] When Hawley judged that Ed Viesturs had not reached the true summit of Shishapangma (which she deduced from his summit photos and interviews), he then re-climbed the mountain to definitively establish his ascent.[97][36]

In a May 2021 interview with the New York Times, Jurgalaski pointed out further issues with false summits on Annapurna I (a large summit plateau, like Cho Oyu), Dhaulagiri (misleading false summit metal pole), and Manaslu (additional sharp and dangerous ridge to the true summit, like Shishapangma), noting that of the existing 44 accepted claims (per the table earlier), at least 7 have serious question marks (these are in addition to the table of disputed ascents), and even noting that "It is possible that no one has ever been on the true summit of all 14 of the 8,000-meter peaks".[36] In June 2021, Australian climber Damien Gildea wrote an article in the American Alpine Journal on the work that Jurgalaski and a team international experts are doing in this area, including publishing detailed surveys of the problem summits using data from the German Aerospace Center.[37] For example, their work to date implies that over half of climbers summiting Annapurna I did not stand on the true peak, while most climbers summiting Manaslu have not stood on the true peak (a situation made worse by trekking companies leading clients who do not have the climbing expertise to make the dangerous ridge crossing to the true peak).[37]

Proposed expansion[edit]

In 2012, to relieve capacity pressure and overcrowding on the world's highest mountain, greater restrictions were placed on expeditions to the summit of Mount Everest.[98] To address the growing capacity constraints, Nepal lobbied the International Climbing and Mountaineering Federation (or UIAA) to reclassify five subsidiary summits (two on Lhotse and three on Kanchenjunga), as standalone eight-thousanders, while Pakistan lobbied for a sixth subsidiary summit (on Broad Peak) as a standalone eight-thousander.[99] See table below for list of all subsidiary summits of eight-thousander mountains.

In 2012, the UIAA initiated the ARUGA Project, with an aim to see if these six new 8,000 m (26,247 ft)-plus peaks could feasibly achieve international recognition.[99] The proposed six new eight-thousander peaks have a topographic prominence above 60 m (197 ft), but none would meet the wider UIAA prominence threshold of 600 m (1,969 ft) (the lowest prominence of the existing 14 eight-thousanders is Lhotse, at 610 metres (2,001 ft)).[100][101] Critics noted that of the six proposed, only Broad Peak Central, with a prominence of 181 metres (594 ft), would even meet the 150 metres (492 ft) prominence threshold to be a British Isles Marilyn.[100] The appeal noted the UIAA's 1994 reclassification of Alpine four-thousander peaks used a prominence threshold of 30 m (98 ft),[g] amongst other criteria; the logic being that if 30 m (98 ft) worked for 4,000 m (13,123 ft) summits, then 60 m (197 ft) is proportional for 8,000 m (26,247 ft) summits.[102]

As of November 2018, there has been no conclusion by the UIAA and the proposals appear to have been set aside.

  Proposed to the UIAA in 2012 for reclassification as standalone eight-thousanders.[99]
List of the subsidiary peaks of the 14 eight-thousanders.[103]
Proposed new eight-thousander Height
(m)
Prominence
(m)
Dominance
(Prom / Height)[104]
Dominance
classification[104]
Broad Peak Central 8011 181 2,26 B2
Kangchenjunga W-Peak (Yalung Kang) 8505 135 1,59 C1
Kangchenjunga S-Peak 8476 116 1,37 C2
Kangchenjunga C-Peak 8473 63 0,74 C2
Lhotse C-Peak I (Lhotse Middle) 8410 65 0,77 C2
Lhotse Shar 8382 72 0,86 C2
K 2 SW-Peak 8580 30 0,35 D1
Lhotse C-Peak II 8372 37 0,44 D1
Everest W-Peak 8296 30 0,36 D1
Yalung Kang Shoulder 8200 40 0,49 D1
Kangchenjunga SE-Peak 8150 30 0,37 D1
K 2 P. 8134 (SW-Ridge) 8134 35 0,43 D1
Annapurna C-Peak 8013 49 0,61 D1
Nanga Parbat S-Peak 8042 30 0,37 D1
Annapurna E-Peak 7986 65 0,81 C2
Shisha Pangma C-Peak 8008 30 0,37 D1
Everest NE-Shoulder 8423 19 0,23 D2
Everest NE-Pinnacle III 8383 13 0,16 D2
Lhotse N-Pinnacle III 8327 10 0,12 D2
Lhotse N-Pinnacle II 8307 12 0,14 D2
Lhotse N-Pinnacle I 8290 10 0,12 D2
Everest NE-Pinnacle II 8282 25 0,30 D2

Gallery[edit]

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ a b As recorded by Eberhard Jurgalski and being any death (climber or other) above Base Camp.[18]
  2. ^ Per The Himalayan Database (HDB) tables, the Climber (or Member) Death Rate is the ratio of deaths above base camp, of all climbers who were hoping to summit and who went above base camp, for 1950 to 2009, and is closer to a true probability of death; the data is only for Nepalese Himalaya. Summary tables from the HDB report for all mountains above 8,000 metres, imply that the death rate for the period 1990 to 2009 (e.g. modern expeditions), is roughly half that of the combined 1950 to 2009 period.[21]
  3. ^ As recorded by Eberhard Jurgalski
  4. ^ This should not be mistaken as being a death rate; it does not imply a probability of death for a climber attempting to climb an eight-thousander as it includes all deaths from all activities undertaken above base camp (e.g. training or reconissance trips, camp stocking activities by porters who will not be summiting the mountain, rescue attempts etc.). It therefore compares deaths from the larger group of people who were, and were not, making a summit attempt, with the smaller group who were making a summit attempt. While it is not a probability, the statistic does reflect the ratio of people who died above base camp for each climber who summited.
  5. ^ a b c d e Data is not available for the Pakistani Himalayas
  6. ^ Nirmal Purja climbed all fourteen 8,000m peaks between April 2019 and October 2019, but climbed his first, Dhaulagiri, in 2014.
  7. ^ The UIAA main list also includes summits that have a prominence far lower than 30 metres.

References[edit]

  1. ^ Branch, John (12 May 2021). "What is a Summit". New York Times. Retrieved 6 February 2022.
  2. ^ PEAKBAGGER: World 7200-meter Peaks (Ranked Peaks have 500 meters of Clean Prominence)
  3. ^ "Fast Facts About Nanga Parbat". climbing.about.com. Retrieved 29 May 2015.
  4. ^ Herzog, Maurice (1951). Annapurna: First Conquest of an 8000-meter Peak. Translated from the French by Nea Morin and Janet Adam Smith. New York: E.P Dutton & Co. p. 257.
  5. ^ Zawada, Andrzej (1984). Translated by Doubrawa-Cochlin, Ingeborga; Cochlin, Peter. "Mount Everest: The First Winter Ascent" (PDF). The Alpine Journal: 50–59.
  6. ^ a b Farmer, Ben (16 January 2021). "Former Gurkha Nirmal Purja among Nepalese climbers to complete first winter ascent of deadly K2". The Daily Telegraph. Archived from the original on 11 January 2022. Retrieved 16 January 2021.
  7. ^ Nicholas Hobley (24 October 2019). "Remembering Jerzy Kukuczka, the legendary Polish mountaineer". www.planetmountain.com. Retrieved 10 December 2021.
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  103. ^ Eberhard Jurgalski. "Subsidiary Peaks". 8000ers.com. Retrieved 23 November 2018. There are several different subsidiary peaks! Here are the geographical facts, from the one "relative independent Main-Peak" (EU category B) over the important subsidiary peaks (C) to the major notable points (D1) Especially the last category is just guessed by contours or from photographs.
  104. ^ a b Eberhard Jurgalski. "Dominance". 8000ers.com. Retrieved 23 November 2018. Accordingly, the author introduced altitude classes (AC) and a proportional prominence, which he named orometrical dominance (D). D is calculated easily but fittingly: (P/Alt) x 100. Thus, it indicates the percentage of independence for every elevation, no matter what the altitude, prominence or mountain type it is. From a scientific point of view, altitude could be seen as the thesis, prominence as the antithesis, whereas dominance would be the synthesis.

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