Eighth Amendment of the Constitution of Ireland

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Eighth Amendment of the Constitution of Ireland
To recognise the equal right to life of the mother and the unborn
Location Republic of Ireland Ireland
Date 7 September 1983 (1983-09-07)
Results
Votes %
Yes 841,233 66.90%
No 416,136 33.10%
Valid votes 1,257,369 99.32%
Invalid or blank votes 8,625 0.68%
Total votes 1,265,994 100.00%
Registered voters/turnout 2,358,651 53.67%

The Eighth Amendment of the Constitution Act 1983 amended the Constitution of Ireland by inserting a subsection recognising the equal right to life of the pregnant woman and the unborn. Abortion had been subject to criminal penalty in Ireland since 1861; the amendment ensured that legislation or judicial interpretation would be restricted to allowing abortion in circumstances where the life of a pregnant woman was at risk. It was approved by referendum on 7 September 1983 and signed into law on 7 October 1983.

The amendment was adopted during the Fine GaelLabour Party coalition government led by Garret FitzGerald but was drafted and first suggested by the previous Fianna Fáil government of Charles Haughey. The amendment was supported by Fianna Fáil and some of Fine Gael, and was generally opposed by the political left. Most of those opposed to the amendment, insisted that they were not in favour of legalising abortion. The Catholic hierarchy and many lay Catholics supported the amendment, but it was opposed by the authorities of other mainstream churches.[1] After a bitter referendum campaign, the amendment was passed by 67% voting in favour to 33% voting against.

On 25 May 2018, a referendum was passed overwhelmingly to delete the constitutional ban on abortion, and is awaiting being signed into the law.

Changes to the text[edit]

The Amendment inserted a new sub-section after section 3 of Article 40. The resulting Article 40.3.3º read:

The State acknowledges the right to life of the unborn and, with due regard to the equal right to life of the mother, guarantees in its laws to respect, and, as far as practicable, by its laws to defend and vindicate that right.

Background[edit]

Under sections 58 and 59 of the Offences against the Person Act 1861, abortion was already illegal in Ireland. However, pro-life campaigners feared the possibility of a judicial ruling in favour of allowing abortion. In McGee v. Attorney General (1973), the Supreme Court of Ireland had ruled against provisions of the Criminal Law Amendment Act 1935 prohibiting the sale and importation of contraception on the grounds that the reference in Article 41 to the "imprescriptable rights, antecedent and superior to all positive law" of the family conferred upon spouses a broad right to privacy in marital affairs.

The Pro-Life Amendment Campaign (PLAC) was founded in 1981 to campaign against a ruling in Ireland similar to Roe v. Wade.[2] Prior to the 1981 general election, PLAC lobbied the major Irish political parties – Fianna Fáil, Fine Gael and the Labour Party – to urge the introduction of a Bill to allow the amendment to the constitution to prevent the Irish Supreme Court so interpreting the constitution as giving a right to abortion. The leaders of the three parties – respectively Charles Haughey, Garret FitzGerald and Frank Cluskey – agreed although there was little consultation with any of their parties' ordinary members.[3] All three parties were in government over the following eighteen months but it was only in late 1982, just before the collapse of a Fianna Fáil minority government, that a proposed wording for the amendment was produced.

Oireachtas debate[edit]

The Eighth Amendment of the Constitution Bill 1982 was introduced on 2 November 1982 by Minister for Health Michael Woods. The bill introduced by the Fianna Fáil minority government proposed to add Article 40.3.3º to the Constitution, with the wording shown above.

On 4 November, the Fianna Fáil government led by Charles Haughey as Taoiseach lost a motion of confidence in the Dáil, leading to the November 1982 general election. After the election, a coalition government of Fine Gael and the Labour Party was formed, with Garret FitzGerald as Taoiseach. Minister for Health Barry Desmond declined to reintroduce the amendment; instead, it was Minister for Justice Michael Noonan who on 2 February moved to restore the Eighth Amendment to the Order Paper.[4]

Attorney General Peter Sutherland advised that the wording as proposed was dangerously flawed. Speaking against the original wording during the Dáil debate Alan Shatter argued:

The irony is that I have no doubt, not merely from the interpretation the Attorney General has given but from the other interpretations that can be validly taken from the amendment, that if it in its present form becomes part of our Constitution it will essentially secure a constitutional judgment in the not too distant future requiring the House to enact legislation to permit women to have abortions.

— Dáil Eireann Debate Vol. 340 No. 3 Col. 533.[5]

To remedy the perceived weaknesses in the original wording of the amendment bill, the government proposed an amendment to the bill during the committee stage with the following alternative wording:

3° Nothing in this Constitution shall be invoked to invalidate, or to deprive of force or effect, any provision of a law on the ground that it prohibits abortion.

This alternative wording was criticised by the opposition for not being "pro-life". Speaking against the alternative wording Michael Woods said:

The amendment proposed by Fine Gael would not protect the constitutional right to life of the mother against attack by any future legislation which sought to prohibit abortion in all circumstances even when the life of the mother was at risk. This is a defect which could be important in the future. Such legislation could not be declared unconstitutional on the grounds that it ignored a mother's right to life because the Fine Gael wording provides that nothing in the Constitution may be invoked to invalidate any law which prohibits abortion.

— Dáil Éireann Debate Vol. 341 No. 10 Col. 2021[5]

A number of backbench Fine Gael TDs supported the Fianna Fáil wording, and voted against the government amendment, which was defeated by 87 to 65. The majority of Fine Gael TDs then abstained in subsequent votes. The original wording proposed by Fianna Fáil was then approved by 85 votes to 11 votes in the Dáil and by 14 votes to 6 in the Seanad and put to a referendum.

Dáil vote on Final Reading of Eighth Amendment of the Constitution Bill, 1982
Absolute majority: 83/166
Vote Parties Votes
Yes Fianna Fáil (73), Fine Gael (7), Labour Party (5), Independent Fianna Fáil (1)
85 / 165
No Labour Party (8), Workers' Party (2), Independent (1)
11 / 165
Not voting Fine Gael (63), Labour Party (3), Fianna Fáil (1), Ceann Comhairle (1)
70 / 165
Source: Eighth Amendment of the Constitution Bill, 1982: Committee Stage (Resumed) and Final Stages.

Referendum campaign[edit]

The referendum was supported by PLAC, Fianna Fáil, some members of Fine Gael, the Catholic hierarchy and opposed by various groups under the umbrella name of the Anti-Amendment Campaign (AAC), including Labour senator (and future President of Ireland) Mary Robinson,[6] feminist campaigners, and trade unions.[6][7][8] Few in Fine Gael or Labour campaigned against the referendum, and before the vote, Garret FitzGerald declared that he would vote against it. Sinn Féin[9] and the Workers' Party opposed the amendment[10] and the Irish Council of Churches (representing the main Protestant churches) campaigned against it.[11]

Anti-Amendment campaigners warned the vague nature of the amendment,[7] the sectarian nature of it, the possible risk to the health treatment to pregnant women,[12] and to the possible legal consequences for contraception, which the Pro-Life Amendment Campaign denied.[13]

The Amendment passed on 7 September 1983 endorsed by 67% of those who voted.

Result[edit]

Eighth Amendment of the Constitution of Ireland referendum[14]
Choice Votes %
Referendum passed Yes 841,233 66.90
No 416,136 33.10
Valid votes 1,257,369 99.32
Invalid or blank votes 8,625 0.68
Total votes 1,265,994 100.00
Registered voters and turnout 2,358,651 53.67
Results by constituency[14]
Constituency Electorate Turnout (%) Votes Proportion of votes
Yes No Yes No
Carlow–Kilkenny 75,490 52.0% 26,751 12,134 68.8% 31.2%
Cavan–Monaghan 74,237 55.3% 33,165 7,556 81.4% 18.6%
Clare 61,747 48.9% 22,136 7,838 73.8% 26.2%
Cork East 54,309 57.1% 22,131 8,657 71.8% 28.2%
Cork North-Central 63,272 49.0% 19,877 10,862 64.6% 35.4%
Cork North-West 40,873 62.3% 20,554 4,694 81.4% 18.6%
Cork South-Central 69,102 55.7% 21,342 16,909 55.8% 44.2%
Cork South-West 41,614 58.0% 18,446 5,510 77.0% 23.0%
Donegal North-East 42,203 53.1% 18,475 3,807 82.9% 17.1%
Donegal South-West 45,823 47.2% 17,693 3,838 82.2% 17.8%
Dublin Central 70,403 49.6% 21,508 13,174 62.0% 38.0%
Dublin North 41,713 53.2% 11,898 10,228 53.7% 46.3%
Dublin North-Central 55,426 60.7% 19,203 14,301 57.3% 42.7%
Dublin North-East 46,686 58.6% 13,393 13,831 49.2% 50.8%
Dublin North-West 51,277 49.9% 13,354 12,105 52.5% 47.5%
Dublin South 72,964 62.2% 20,517 24,659 45.4% 54.6%
Dublin South-Central 73,510 51.0% 21,016 16,170 56.5% 43.5%
Dublin South-East 64,222 53.4% 16,814 17,292 49.3% 50.7%
Dublin South-West 58,429 55.3% 15,794 16,294 49.2% 50.8%
Dublin West 72,040 52.3% 20,510 16,960 54.7% 45.3%
Dún Laoghaire 73,030 58.6% 17,876 24,651 42.0% 58.0%
Galway East 43,043 50.0% 17,166 4,219 80.3% 19.7%
Galway West 78,497 41.0% 20,624 11,353 64.5% 35.5%
Kerry North 43,752 54.0% 18,027 5,383 77.0% 23.0%
Kerry South 41,929 54.3% 18,458 4,112 81.8% 18.2%
Kildare 69,559 48.4% 19,856 13,551 59.4% 40.6%
Laois–Offaly 73,073 55.0% 31,017 8,859 77.8% 22.2%
Limerick East 65,823 55.7% 24,963 11,520 68.4% 31.6%
Limerick West 42,822 54.3% 18,296 4,768 79.3% 20.7%
Longford–Westmeath 59,062 53.1% 23,665 7,363 76.3% 23.7%
Louth 59,415 55.0% 22,828 9,647 70.3% 29.7%
Mayo East 41,861 52.4% 18,261 3,534 83.8% 16.2%
Mayo West 41,445 47.9% 16,040 3,705 81.2% 18.8%
Meath 69,136 54.1% 27,117 10,054 72.9% 27.1%
Roscommon 41,302 54.6% 18,738 3,626 83.8% 16.2%
Sligo–Leitrim 59,682 54.5% 24,891 7,379 77.1% 22.9%
Tipperary North 41,069 58.5% 18,911 4,905 79.4% 20.6%
Tipperary South 54,267 53.8% 22,041 6,907 76.1% 23.9%
Waterford 57,531 53.2% 20,917 9,481 68.8% 31.2%
Wexford 67,557 59.0% 28,843 10,752 72.8% 27.2%
Wicklow 59,456 53.6% 18,121 13,548 57.2% 42.8%
Total 2,358,651 53.7% 841,233 416,136 66.9% 33.1%

Judicial interpretation[edit]

In a number of cases, the Supreme Court had held that this provision of the Constitution prohibited information within the state on the availability of abortion services outside of the state. In AG (SPUC) v Open Door Counselling Ltd. (1988), the courts injunction restraining two counseling agencies from assisting women to travel abroad to obtain abortions or informing them of the methods of communications with such clinics, and in SPUC v Grogan (1989), the courts granted an injunction restraining three students' unions from distributing information in relation to abortion available outside the state. These rulings were overturned by the Thirteenth Amendment and Fourteenth Amendment in 1992, which explicitly gave people the right to travel abroad for an abortion, and to receive information in Ireland about abortion available abroad.

In Attorney General v. X (the X Case) in early 1992, the High Court granted an injunction to the Attorney General restraining a fourteen-year-old girl who had been raped from obtaining an abortion in England. On appeal, Supreme Court found that as the girl had shown a risk of suicide, to safeguard "the equal right to life of the mother" in Article 40.3.3º, abortion was permissible in this instance.

The Pro Life Campaign, a successor to PLAC, accused the Supreme Court of misinterpreting both the law and the will of the people. The Government and former Attorney-General Peter Sutherland dismissed such claims, arguing that, as they had claimed in 1983, the 'Pro-Life Amendment' was so poorly worded and ambiguous that it could facilitate either pro-choice or anti-abortion interpretations in different circumstances. The Amendment was not reinterpreted by the Supreme Court on the grounds originally voiced by Peter Sutherland that it would lead to abortion prior to viability or kill women by refusing standard treatments for ectopic pregnancies, cancerous wombs, etc. There was no medical evidence called during the X case hearings.

In PP v. HSE (2014), the High Court held that the constitution did not require a woman who was medically brain dead to be kept on life support to keep the foetus within her alive, because the chance of the foetus being born alive were "virtually non-existent". It is unclear how the case would have been decided if the pregnancy was further along.[15]

In HSE v. B. (2016), the High Court declined to grant an order sought by the Health Service Executive permitting it to carry out a caesarean section against the will of a pregnant mother.[16][17][18]

In an application for leave seeking judicial review of an order for deportation of a Nigerian man, Humphreys J held for the High Court in August 2016 that leave should be granted, in part on the family rights of the unborn child at the time of the deportation.[19] The state appealed this decision. On 7 March 2018, the Supreme Court upheld the High Court and dismissed the state's appeal in a unanimous decision that the Minister is obliged to take into account the fact of pregnancy; however, it reversed other sections of the High Court and ruled the Minister is accordingly not obliged to treat the unborn as having constitutional rights other than the rights contained in Article 40.3.3º.[20]

Later referendums[edit]

Three referendums were held in November 1992. The Twelfth Amendment of the Constitution Bill, 1992 sought to exclude "a risk of self-destruction" as grounds for abortion, to overturn the central element of the decision in the X Case. This was rejected by 65% to 35%. The Thirteenth Amendment, permitting travel to obtain abortion in another jurisdiction, was approved by 62% to 38%. The Fourteenth Amendment, permitting information about services in other countries, was approved by 60% to 40%.

After these amendments, Article 40.3.3º now reads,

The State acknowledges the right to life of the unborn and, with due regard to the equal right to life of the mother, guarantees in its laws to respect, and, as far as practicable, by its laws to defend and vindicate that right.

This subsection shall not limit freedom to travel between the State and another state.

This subsection shall not limit freedom to obtain or make available, in the State, subject to such conditions as may be laid down by law, information relating to services lawfully available in another state.

A further referendum which proposed to insert legislation into the Constitution which would permit abortion where there was a threat to life but not where there was a risk of suicide, the Twenty-fifth Amendment of the Constitution of Ireland Bill 2002, was narrowly defeated by 50.4% to 49.6%.

Maastricht protocol[edit]

The Treaty on European Union, or the Maastricht Treaty, was signed on 7 February 1992. To assuage fears that free movement of services would lead to access in Ireland to abortion services, the government secured a protocol to the Treaty protecting the constitutional provision.[21] The Maastricht Treaty was approved in a referendum in June 1992 by 69% to 31%. Following amendments to the Treaty on European Union affected by the Lisbon Treaty in 2009, this provision now reads:[22]

Nothing in the Treaties, or in the Treaty establishing the European Atomic Energy Community, or in the Treaties or Acts modifying or supplementing those Treaties, shall affect the application in Ireland of Article 40.3.3º of the Constitution of Ireland.

Legislation[edit]

The Protection of Life During Pregnancy Act 2013 replaced the abortion offences in the Offences against the Person Act 1861 and made statutory provision for the limited right to abortion established by the X Case. It replaced the offence of "unlawfully procuring a miscarriage" punishable to life imprisonment with the offence of "destruction of unborn human life", punishable by up to 14 years' imprisonment.[23][24]

Campaign to Repeal the Eighth Amendment[edit]

The Campaign to Repeal the Eighth Amendment has its roots in the unsuccessful Anti-Amendment Campaign in 1983. There was a campaign to Repeal the Eight Amendment after the X Case in 1992, and the three abortion referendums which followed it (the 12th, 13th and 14th).[25][26][27][28] The campaign lay dormant for more than 20 years until the death of Savita Halappanavar in 2012.[29][30][31] The Abortion Rights Campaign was founded in 2012. The #RepealThe8th hashtag was started on Twitter in 2012.[32]

This campaign is led by a coalition of pro-choice groups including the Coalition to Repeal the Eighth, the Abortion Rights Campaign, Doctors for Choice, the Termination for Medical Reasons group, etc., and has support from a number of legal academics and members of the medical profession, including the Institute of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists.[33][34][35] In the run up to the 2016 general election, a number of parties committed to a referendum to repeal the Eighth Amendment (Labour,[36] Green Party,[37] Social Democrats,[38] Sinn Féin[39] and Workers' Party)[40] as well as a group of feminist law academics published model legislation to show what a post-Eighth Amendment abortion law could look like.[41] In June 2016, Minister for Health Simon Harris stated his support for a referendum on repealing the 8th.[42]

On 27 July 2016, the government appointed Supreme Court judge Mary Laffoy as chair of a Citizens' Assembly to consider a number of topics, including the Eighth Amendment.[43] The Assembly recommended a referendum to remove and replace the 8th Amendment. In September 2017 the Oireachtas Committee on the 8th Amendment began its work considering how to give effect to this recommendation.

The 5th Annual March for Choice, organised by the Abortion Rights Campaign, took place in Dublin on Saturday 24 September 2016 marking the Global Day of Action for Access to Safe and Legal Abortion. The theme of the rally was Rise and Repeal. The attendance was estimated to be around 20,000.[44] The 2017 March for Choice attracted 40,000 marchers, according to organisers.[45]

On Saturday 21 July 2017, the Rally for Life was organised by prominent pro-life groups including the Life Institute, Youth Defence, and the Northern Ireland group Precious Life, in opposition to the campaign.[46] A march held on 10 March 2018 at Merrion Square was estimated to have had a turnout of 15,000,[47][48] although organisers claim up to 100,000 attended.[49]

On 14 June 2017, the Taoiseach Leo Varadkar announced his government's intention to bring forward legislation to facilitate the holding of a referendum on abortion in 2018.[50] On 9 March 2018, debate began in the Dáil on the Thirty-sixth Amendment of the Constitution Bill 2018, which would replace the current provisions on Article 40.3.3º with the following clause:

Provision may be made by law for the regulation of termination of pregnancy.

On 25 May 2018, the Irish people voted by 66.4% to remove the Eighth Amendment, choosing to replace it with the above text as a part of the Thirty-sixth Amendment to the Constitution, permitting the Oireachtas (parliament) to legislate for the regulation of termination of pregnancy. When signed in to law by the President of Ireland, it will supersede the 8th, 13th and 14th amendments. 39 of the 40 Constituencies voted in favour, the constituency of Donegal being the only one to vote against.[51]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

Fiona de Londras, Mairead Enright Repealing the 8th: Reforming Abortion Law in Ireland

Oireachtas debates[edit]

House 1st stage 2nd stage Committee stage Report stage Final stage
Dáil 2 Nov 1982; 2 Feb 1983 Feb 9, 17 (1) 17 (2), 23; Mar 2, 8, 24 Apr 27 (1), 27 (2) Apr 27
Seanad May 4, 5, 10, 11 May 18, 19 (1), 19 (2) May 25 (1) 25 (2) 25 (3), 26 May 26

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Walsh, Dick (6 April 1983). "Bishop defends Hierarchy on amendment". Irish Times. p. 11. the views expressed by the Church of Ireland Primate, Dr Armstrong, on Sunday, about the divisive and denominational nature of the proposed constitutional amendment. … What was being attempted, he [Dr. Armstrong] said, was to force the theological thinking of one Church on all the people. 
  2. ^ Government of Ireland. All-Party Oireachtas Committee on the Constitution, ed. Green Paper on Abortion (PDF). Fifth Progress Report: Abortion. Dublin: Stationery Office. p. A589. ISBN 0-7076-6161-7. Archived from the original (PDF) on 21 July 2011. 
  3. ^ Barry Gilheany (1998). Vicky Randall, ed. The state and the discursive construction of abortion. Gender, Politics and the State (Reprint ed.). Routledge. p. 72. ISBN 9780415164023. 
  4. ^ O'Regan, Michael (19 February 2018). "FitzGerald 'railroaded' into 1983 abortion referendum, Barry Desmond claims". The Irish Times. Retrieved 10 March 2018. 
  5. ^ a b "Dáil Eireann Debate ''Vol. 340 No. 3'' Col. 533". Oireachtasdebates.oireachtas.ie. 2015-04-21. Retrieved 2018-04-09. 
  6. ^ a b Walsh, Caroline (28 January 1983). "Group pledges fight to defeat amendment". The Irish Times. p. 4. Retrieved 5 August 2016. 
  7. ^ a b "Abortion amendment 'dodges issue'". The Irish Times. 10 December 1982. p. 15. Retrieved 5 August 2016. 
  8. ^ "ICTU praised on amendment stand". The Irish Times. 7 January 1983. p. 6. Retrieved 5 August 2016. The Anti-Amendment Campaign yesterday welcomed the recent statement opposing the constitutional amendment on abortion made by the Irish Congress of Trade Unions 
  9. ^ Michael Foley and Colm Boland (1 November 1982). "Sinn Fein to build on electoral successes". The Irish Times. p. 16. It is understood that during the debate, which was closed to the media, delegates made it cleat that disapproval of the proposed amendmend did not mean that they were pro-abortion. 
  10. ^ Maev Kennedy (23 May 1983). "Garland calls for CND support". The Irish Times. p. 6. 
  11. ^ "1982: Irish Council of Churches opposed anti-abortion amendment". The Journal. Retrieved 5 August 2016. 
  12. ^ "Abortion poll date queried". The Irish Times. 22 January 1983. p. 17. Retrieved 5 August 2016. Dr Maura Woods said that treatment for women with cancer who became pregnant could be stopped if the amendment was passed 
  13. ^ Doherty, Judi (2 February 1983). "Referendum campaigners on both sides step up efforts". The Irish Times. p. 5. Retrieved 5 August 2016. 
  14. ^ a b "Referendum Results 1937–2015" (PDF). Department of Housing, Planning and Local Government. p. 37. Retrieved 16 March 2018. 
  15. ^ Carolan, Mary (26 December 2014). "Court clears way for clinically dead pregnant woman to be taken off life support". The Irish Times. Retrieved 8 August 2016. 
  16. ^ "Health Service Executive v. B [2016] IEHC 605". Irish Reports. 2: 350. 2016. 
  17. ^ Carolan, Mary (2 November 2016). "Judge refused to order woman to undergo Caesarean section". The Irish Times. Retrieved 21 March 2018. 
  18. ^ "Forced C-section 'a step too far' court decides". Raidió Teilifís Éireann. 2 November 2016. Retrieved 21 March 2018. 
  19. ^ "'Unborn child' has significant legal rights, judge rules". The Irish Times. 2 August 2016. Retrieved 5 August 2016. 
  20. ^ "M -v- The Minister for Justice & ors [2018] IESC 14". 
  21. ^ "Official Journal of the European Communities, C 191, 29 July 1992". Retrieved 24 April 2018. 
  22. ^ "Consolidated versions of the Treaty on European Union and the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union Consolidated version of the Treaty on European Union Consolidated version of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union Protocols Annexes to the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union Declarations annexed to the Final Act of the Intergovernmental Conference which adopted the Treaty of Lisbon, signed on 13 December 2007 Tables of equivalences". Retrieved 24 April 2018. 
  23. ^ "Protection of Life During Pregnancy Act 2013, §22". Irish Statute Book. Attorney-General of Ireland. 30 July 2013. Retrieved 11 February 2015. 
  24. ^ "Head 18: Repeal and Consequential Amendments and Head 19: Offence" (PDF). General Scheme of the Protection of Life During Pregnancy Bill 2013 (PDF). Irish Government News Service. 30 April 2013. pp. 30–32. Retrieved 11 February 2015. 
  25. ^ Keena, Colm (9 April 1992). "Both sides in abortion row might vote "no"". The Irish Press. p. 4. The Repeal the Eight Amendment Campaign which was founded yesterday ... It also wants a referendum on the abortion issue to include the option of voting or the repeal of Article 40.3.3 
  26. ^ "REAC protest". Irish Examiner. 3 October 1992. p. 3. Members of the Repeal the Eight Amendment Campaign (REAC) from Dublin, Cork, Waterford and other towns will be on the streets with a variety of music, street theatre and colourful banners in protest 
  27. ^ Kahn, Frank (8 October 1992). "Repeal group says the wording must be changed". Irish Independent. p. 8. 
  28. ^ Mac Dubhgaill, Uinsionn (28 February 1992). "Campaign urges repeal of amendment". The Irish Times. p. 5. The Repeal the Eight Amendment Campaign is to hold a protest outside the GPO in DUblin at 6:30pm today, a spokeswoman for the campaign said. The campaign, which will be formally launched on Sunday week - International Women's Day 
  29. ^ Janet O'Sullivan [@Sharrow_ie] (11 September 2016). "@lalonde @chebegeek yes during and after the x case, then went dormant for nearly 20 years" (Tweet) – via Twitter. 
  30. ^ Holland, Kitty (31 July 2013). "Enactment of Abortion Bill 'very sad day' for Ireland". The Irish Times. p. 7. Pro-choice groups will announce campaign in autumn to have amendment repealed...Pro-choice groups would announce details of a campaign to repeal the 1983 Eighth Amendment to the Constitution at the end of September, she said. Labour Party TD Aodhán Ó Riordáin said he and party colleague, Senator Ivana Bacik, would propose at the constitutional convention in the autumn that it recommend a referendum be held on repealing the Eighth Amendment 
  31. ^ Holland, Kitty (27 July 2013). "Abortion law: what comes next". The Irish Times. p. 39. plans are underway by numerous pro-choice groups for a campaign to get it repealed. 
  32. ^ @MsFrugalone (25 November 2012). "@MauriceDockrell I hope that happens too #RepealThe8th @savitaslaws @Berlinnaeus #marian" (Tweet) – via Twitter. 
  33. ^ Hunter, Niall (13 November 2016). "Master calls for new termination law". IrishHealth.com. 
  34. ^ McMahon, Aine (20 November 2015). "Irish doctors call for decriminalisation of abortion". The Irish Times. Retrieved 29 September 2016. The letter has been signed by some of the leading figures in Irish healthcare, which include Dr Peter Boylan, Consultant Obstetrician and Gynaecologist at the National Maternity Hospital on Holles Street and Dr Veronica O’Keane, Professor in psychiatry at Trinity College Dublin and consultant psychiatrist. The letter warns that criminalising abortion puts women’s and girls’ health and lives at risk. 
  35. ^ McDonald, Henry (20 November 2015). "Doctors from 44 countries call on Ireland to relax abortion laws". The Guardian. Retrieved 29 September 2016. Some of Ireland’s most prominent physicians among hundreds of medics joining Amnesty campaign to decriminalise abortion 
  36. ^ "Reproductive Healthcare". Labour Party. Retrieved 5 August 2016. Our plan for the next five years: Hold a referendum to remove Article 40.3.3 (the 8th Amendment) from the Constitution 
  37. ^ "Reproductive Rights". Green Party. Retrieved 5 August 2016. The Green Party supports the holding of a referendum to allow the people of Ireland determine whether or not the 8th Amendment should be repealed. 
  38. ^ http://astaines.eu/wp-content/uploads/2016/02/Social-Democrats-2016-Building-a-Better-Future-2016-2026-Social-Democr.pdf
  39. ^ "Sinn Féin support the Amnesty Ireland Repeal the 8th Campaign- Lynn Boylan MEP". Sinn Féin. Retrieved 5 August 2016. Sinn Féin MEP Lynn Boylan joined Amnesty Ireland campaigners and her Sinn Féin colleagues outside Leinster House today calling for a referendum to repeal the 8th amendment. 
  40. ^ "Workers Party manifesto". Workers' Party. 
  41. ^ Enright, Mairead; Conway, Vicky; Londras, Fiona de; Donnelly, Mary; Fletcher, Ruth; McDonnell, Natalie; McGuinness, Sheelagh; Murray, Claire; Ring, Sinead (28 June 2015). "General Scheme of Access to Abortion Bill 2015". feminists@law. 5 (1). ISSN 2046-9551. 
  42. ^ "Simon Harris wants a referendum on repealing the 8th". Newstalk. 30 June 2016. 
  43. ^ "Government appoints Chairperson to Citizens' Assembly". MerrionStreet.ie. 27 July 2016. Retrieved 5 August 2016. 
  44. ^ "Thousands taking part in pro-choice rally in Dublin". The Irish Times. Retrieved 16 November 2016. 
  45. ^ "Tens of thousands take part in March for Choice rally". RTÉ. 30 September 2017. Retrieved 6 April 2018. 
  46. ^ "Thousands march in Dublin in support of Eighth Amendment". The Irish Times. Retrieved 24 January 2018. 
  47. ^ John Kilraine (10 March 2018). "Tens of thousands march in favour of Eighth Amendment". Rte.ie. Retrieved 9 April 2018. 
  48. ^ Drohan, Niamh (10 March 2018). "Thousands march in favour of keeping the Eighth Amendment at Dublin rally". Irish Mirror Online. Retrieved 9 April 2018. 
  49. ^ "Huge crowds join pro-life march in city - Independent.ie". 
  50. ^ "Ireland's new leader announces abortion referendum despite Pope visit". 15 June 2017. Retrieved 4 July 2017. 
  51. ^ McCarthy, Justin (2018-05-26). "Landslide victory for Yes side in referendum". RTE.ie. Retrieved 26 May 2018. 

External links[edit]