Einsatzgruppen reports

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Einsatzgruppen reports
Karte - Einsatzgruppen in der Sowjetunion 1941.png
Vileyka
Vileyka
EG-A
EG-A
EG-B
EG-B
EG-C
EG-C
EG-D
EG-D
Map of the Einsatzgruppen operations with the location of the first shooting of Jewish women and children (along with the men), July 30, 1941.
Bundesarchiv Bild 183-B0716-0005-007, Oberstes Gericht, Globke-Prozess, Beweisstück.jpg
The Jäger Report, December 1, 1941.
Incident type The Einsatzgruppen shootings
Organizations Schutzstaffel (SS)

The Einsatzgruppen Operational Situation Reports (OSRs), or ERM for the German: Die Ereignismeldung UdSSR (plural: Ereignismeldungen), were dispatches of the Nazi death squads (Einsatzgruppen), which documented the progress of the Holocaust behind the German-Soviet frontier in the course of Operation Barbarossa, during World War II. The extant reports were sent between June 1941 and April 1942 to the Chief of the Security Police and the SD (German: Chef des Sicherheitspolizei und SD) in Berlin, from the occupied eastern territories including modern-day Poland, Belarus, Ukraine, Russia, Moldova, and the Baltic Countries. During the Nuremberg War Crimes Trials the originals were grouped according to year and month and catalogued using a consecutive numbering system, as listed in the below table. The original photostats are held at the National Archives in Washington D.C..[1][2]

Background[edit]

Following the onset of Operation Barbarossa, during the first 5 weeks of their shooting actions, the Einsatzgruppen squads targeted primarily male Jews. This changed on July 29, 1941, when Reinhard Heydrich himself, quoted at an SS meeting in Vileyka (Polish Wilejka), criticized their leaders for the low execution figures. It was therefore ordered that the Jewish women and children be included in all subsequent shooting operations. The first women and children were killed along with the men on July 30, 1941, in Vileyka.[3]

The Nazi Einsatzgruppen were not the only formation tasked with the mass killings. Other formations included the Order Police battalions from Germany (Orpo) participating equally in the mass murder of Polish and Soviet Jews regardless of their age and sex,[4] including in the territories of the formerly Soviet-occupied Poland (see the Red Friday massacre), the Baltic states, and in the USSR proper.[5] Significant numbers of women and children were murdered behind all front lines not only by the Germans but also by the local Ukrainian and Lithuanian auxiliary forces.[6] The largest mass shooting of Soviet Jews took place on September 29, 1941, in the ravine of Babi Yar near Kiev, where 33,771 Jews of all ages were machine-gunned (Situation Report No. 101).[7]

Original German cables[edit]

After World War II, the reports were grouped and numbered by the Allies in order to summarize their content. The actual German cables were sent in their own differing sequence including by the Einsatzgruppe A (EG–A) attached to Army Group North, Einsatzgruppe B (EG–B) attached to Army Group Center, Einsatzgruppe C (EG-C) attached to the Army Group South, and Einsatzgruppe D (EG–D) attached to the 11th Army.[8] In the OSRs, individual Ereignismeldungen UdSSR (morning reports) abbr. EM, from EG–A appear in 103 different places. The reports from EG–B appear in 64 OCRs (as arranged by the Allies). The EG-C reports are listed in 77 different OCRs, and the reports from EG–D (with the least representation at source) are featured in 63 OCRs. Occasionally, large gaps appear between individual reports, caused by the lack of time or other complications including broken telephone lines in the East.[9] Notably, in Operational Situation Report number 19, Einsatzgruppe C was changed to Einsatzgruppe B and vice versa, thus confusing further reports of their shooting actions.[8]

The OSRs are far from being equal. Some of them, such as OSR 156, include translated cables from several cities and weeks of shooting actions not yet concluded with tens of thousands of victims mentioned;[10] while other Operational Situation Reports, such as OSR 67, resemble long essays describing mere investigations into partisan activities in rural countryside resulting in dozens of executions.[11] Notably, the reports do not include all killings before the end of 1942.[9]

Operational Situation Report (OSR) with dates: [Shootings]
  • OSR 8 [A: Jul 2, 1941; Kaunas]
  • OSR 10 [B,C: Jul 2, 1941; Lvov] [12]
  • OSR 12 [A: Jul 4, 1941; Riga]
  • OSR 13 [C,B: Jul 5, 1941]
  • OSR 14 [A,B,C: Jul 6, 1941]
  • OSR 17 [C: Jul 7, 1941]
  • OSR 19 [A,C,D: Jul 11, 1941]
  • OSR 21 [B: Jul 13, 1941]
  • OSR 24 [A,B,C: Jul 16, 1941]
  • OSR 25 [D: Jul 17, 1941]
  • OSR 26 [A,B: Jul 18, 1941]
  • OSR 27 [B,C: Jul 19, 1941]
  • OSR 34 [B: Jul 26, 1941]
  • OSR 38 [C: Jul 30, 1941; Vileyka] [3]
  • OSR 45 [D: Aug 7, 1941]
  • OSR 61 [D: Aug 23, 1941]
  • OSR 63 [C,D: Aug 25, 1941]
  • OSR 64 [D: Aug 1941]
  • OSR 66 [Aug, 28 1941]
  • OSR 67 [A,B,D: Aug 29, 1941]
  • OSR 73 [B: Sep 4, 1941]
  • OSR 78 [?: Sep 9, 1941; Genbezirke]
  • OSR 80 [C: Sep 9, 1941]
  • OSR 81 [C: Sep 12, 1941]
  • OSR 86 [A,C: Sep 17, 1941]
  • OSR 88 [A,C,D: Sep 19, 1941]
  • OSR 91 [Sep 27, 1941]
  • OSR 94 [A,C: Sep 27, 1941; Ostland]
  • OSR 97 [C: Sep 27, 1941; Kiev]
  • OSR 101 [C,D: Oct 2, 1941; Kiev] [13]
  • OSR 103 [D: Oc 4, 1941]
  • OSR 106 [C: Oct 7, 1941] [14]
  • OSR 108 [B: Oct 9, 1941]
  • OSR 112 [C: Oct 13, 1941]
  • OSR 113 [D: Oct 15, 1941]
  • OSR 116 [A: Oct 17, 1941]
  • OSR 117 [D: Oct 18, 1941]
  • OSR 119 [C: Oct 20, 1941]
  • OSR 120 [?: Oct 21, 1941; Serbia]
  • OSR 126 [?: Oct 27, 1941; Lvov, G.G.]
  • OSR 128 [C: Nov 2, 1941]
  • OSR 129 [D: Nov 5, 1941]
  • OSR 131 [A: Nov 10, 1941]
  • OSR 132 [C: Oct 27, 1941]
  • OSR 133 [B: Nov 14, 1941]
  • OSR 135 [C: Nov 19, 1941]
  • OSR 136 [A,D: Nov 21, 1941]
  • OSR 140 [A: Dec 1, 1941; Minsk]
  • OSR 143 [C: Dec 8, 1941; Kiev]
  • OSR 148 [B: Dec 19, 1941; Smolensk]
  • OSR 149 [B: Dec 22, 1941]
  • OSR 150 [A,D: Jan 2, 1942; Leningrad]
  • OSR 151 [?: Jan 5, 1942; Riga]
  • OSR 153 [D: Jan 9, 1942]
  • OSR 156 [A,C,D: Jan 16, 1942]
  • OSR 157 [D: Jan 19, 1942; Crimea]
  • OSR 164 [A,C: Feb 4, 1942]
  • OSR 173 [C: Feb 25, 1942]
  • OSR 175 [A: Mar 2, 1942]
  • OSR 176 [A: Mar 4, 1942]
  • OSR 177 [C: Mar 6, 1942]
  • OSR 178 [A,D: Mar 9, 1942]
  • OSR 179 [B: Mar 11, 1942]
  • OSR 183 [A: Mar 20, 1942]
  • OSR 184 [A,D: Mar 23, 1942]
  • OSR 186 [A: Mar 20, 1942]
  • OSR 191 [A: Apr 10, 1942]
  • OSR 193 [D: Apr 17, 1942]
  • OSR 195 [A: Apr 24, 1942] [1][15]

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ a b Holocaust Education & Archive Research Team. "Index". Einsatzgruppen Operational Situation Reports. HolocaustResearchProject.org. 
  2. ^ Yitzhak Arad, with Shmuel Krakowski and Shmuel Spector (1989), The Einsatzgruppen reports: selections from the dispatches of the Nazi Death Squads’ campaign against the Jews July 1941-January 1943, New York, N.Y.: Holocaust Library. Edition details.
  3. ^ a b Kay, Alex J. (2016). The Making of an SS Killer. Cambridge University Press. pp. 57, 72. ISBN 1107146348. 
  4. ^ Browning (2004), p. 232.
  5. ^ Browning (1998), p. 11: On the eve of Operation Barbarossa Major Weiss disclosed to his men the directives of Hitler's 'Barbarossa Decree'.
  6. ^ Browning (2004), p. 261.
  7. ^ Laqueur & Baumel (2001), p. 51.
  8. ^ a b Yitzhak Arad (2009). The Holocaust in the Soviet Union. Google Book. University of Nebraska Press. p. 126. ISBN 080322270X. Retrieved 25 March 2015. 
  9. ^ a b Ronald Headland (1992). Messages of Murder: A Study of the Reports of the Einsatzgruppen of the Security Police and the Security Service, 1941-1943. Tables of Killing Statistics: Einsatzgruppe A, B, C, and D. Fairleigh Dickinson Univ Press. pp. 27, 92, 98–101, 146. ISBN 0838634184. 
  10. ^ H.E.A.R.T (2008). "Einsatzgruppen Operational Situation Reports #156". Translated by Hermann Feuer. HolocaustResearchProject.org. 
  11. ^ H.E.A.R.T (2008). "Einsatzgruppen Operational Situation Reports #67". Translated by Hermann Feuer. HolocaustResearchProject.org. 
  12. ^ H.E.A.R.T (2007), Operational Situation Report No. 10. NARA.
  13. ^ H.E.A.R.T (2007), Operational Situation Report No. 101. NARA.
  14. ^ H.E.A.R.T (2007), Operational Situation Report No. 106. NARA.
  15. ^ Ken Lewis (December 30, 1997). "Summary of Operational Situation Reports: Shootings". Table of Contents : Einsatzgruppe A, B, C and D. The Einsatzgruppen Archives.com. Archived from the original on December 6, 2003 – via Internet Archive. 

References[edit]