Einstein–Cartan–Evans theory

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Einstein–Cartan–Evans theory was an attempted unified theory of physics proposed by Myron W. Evans, which claimed to unify general relativity, quantum mechanics and electromagnetism.[1][2][3][4] The hypothesis was largely published in the journal Foundations of Physics Letters between 2003 and 2005. Several of Evans' central claims were later shown to be mathematically incorrect[5][6][7][8] and, in 2008, the editor of Foundations of Physics published an editorial note effectively retracting the journal's support for the hypothesis.[9]


Earlier versions of the theory were called "O(3) dynamics".

The theory has been used to justify the motionless electromagnetic generator, a perpetual motion machine.[10]

In 1998 Evans founded the Alpha Institute for Advanced Studies (AIAS) to keep developing his theory.[11] Its website collects papers on the theory and recent developments.[11]


Evans' claims are not accepted by the mainstream physics community. In an editorial note in Foundations of Physics the Nobel laureate Gerard 't Hooft discussed the "revolutionary paradigm switch in theoretical physics" promised by ECE theory. He concluded that activities in the subject "have remained limited to personal web pages and are absent from the standard electronic archives, while no reference to ECE theory can be spotted in any of the peer reviewed scientific journals".[9]

Several of the published contributions in this theory have been shown to be mathematically incorrect.[5][6][7][8] In response to these demonstrations, 't Hooft's editorial note concludes, "Taking into account the findings of Bruhn, Hehl and Obukhhov, the discussion of ECE theory in the journal Foundations of Physics will be concluded herewith unless very good arguments are presented to resume the matter."[9]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ Evans 2005
  2. ^ Evans 2006a
  3. ^ Evans 2006b
  4. ^ Evans 2007
  5. ^ a b Bruhn 2008
  6. ^ a b Bruhn, Hehl & Jadczyk 2008
  7. ^ a b Rodrigues & Souza 2005
  8. ^ a b Trovon de Carvalho & Rodrigues 2001
  9. ^ a b c 't Hooft 2008
  10. ^ Anastasovski, P. K.; Bearden, T. E.; Ciubotariu, C.; Coffey, W. T.; Crowell, L. B.; Evans, G. J.; Evans, M. W.; Flower, R.; Labounsky, A.; Lehnert, B.; Mészáros, M.; Molnár, P. R.; Moscicki, J. K.; Roy, S.; Vigier, J.P. (2001), "Explanation of the motionless electromagnetic generator with O(3) dynamics", Foundations of Physics Letters, 14 (1): 87–94, doi:10.1023/A:1012085429802 
  11. ^ a b Alpha Institute for Advanced Studies (AIAS) 


External links[edit]