El Caracol, Chichen Itza
El Caracol, the Observatory, is a unique structure at pre-Columbian Maya civilization site of Chichen Itza. El Caracol, which means 'snail' in Spanish, is so named due to the spiral staircase inside the tower.
It is suggested that the El Caracol was an ancient Mayan observatory building and provided a way for the Mayan people to observe changes in the sky due to the flattened landscape of the Yucatán with no natural markers for this function around Chichen Itza. The observers could view the sky above the vegetation on the Yucatán Peninsula without any obstruction.
Mayan astronomers knew from naked-eye observations that Venus appeared on the western and disappeared on the eastern horizons at different times in the year, and that it took 584 days to complete one cycle.
They also knew that five of these Venus cycles equaled eight solar years. Venus would therefore make an appearance at the northerly and southerly extremes at eight-year intervals.
Of 29 possible astronomical events (eclipses, equinoxes, solstices, etc.) believed to be of interest to the Mesoamerican residents of Chichén Itzá, sight lines for 20 can be found in the structure. Since a portion of the tower resting on El Caracol has been lost, it is possible that the other measurements will never be ascertained to have been observed.
- Aveni, Anthony F., Gibbs, Sharon L., Hartung, Horst (June 1975). "The Caracol Tower at Chichen Itza: An Ancient Astronomical Observatory?". Science 188 (4192): 977–985. doi:10.1126/science.188.4192.977.
- "Intriguing Facts About Chichen Itza's El Caracol Observatory". STS Travel. Retrieved 13 May 2015.
- Stockton, William (1986-03-25). "Ancient Astronomy Points To New Views Of Mayan Life". The New York Times. Retrieved 2010-05-01.
- "Ancient Observatories: Chichen Itza - El Caracol". Exploratorium.edu. Retrieved June 2013.
- University of Virginia about El Caracol