El Paso County, Colorado

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El Paso County, Colorado
El Paso County Justice Center by David Shankbone.jpg
El Paso County Justice Center
Map of Colorado highlighting El Paso County
Location in the U.S. state of Colorado
Map of the United States highlighting Colorado
Colorado's location in the U.S.
Founded November 1, 1861
Named for Spanish language name for Ute Pass
Seat Colorado Springs
Largest city Colorado Springs
Area
 • Total 2,130 sq mi (5,517 km2)
 • Land 2,127 sq mi (5,509 km2)
 • Water 2.7 sq mi (7 km2), 0.1%
Population (est.)
 • (2015) 674,471
 • Density 293/sq mi (113/km²)
Congressional district 5th
Time zone Mountain: UTC-7/-6
Website www.elpasoco.com
Footnotes:
Most populous Colorado county Texas of the Rockies
An isolated rural house next to a mountain in northern El Paso County.
Summer greenery of El Paso County

El Paso County is one of the 64 counties of the U.S. state of Colorado. As of the 2014 Census, the population was 663,519.[1] The Census Bureau's 2014 estimate indicates it is the second most populous county in Colorado, after the City and County of Denver. The county seat is Colorado Springs,[2] the second most populous city in Colorado.

El Paso County is included in the Colorado Springs, CO Metropolitan Statistical Area.

El Paso County is located in Colorado's 5th congressional district. Since its creation in 1871, El Paso County has typically voted for the Republican presidential candidate in presidential elections; the last Democratic nominee to win the county was Lyndon B. Johnson in 1964. The Democratic Party won El Paso County four additional times prior, and the Populist Party won in 1892, with General James B. Weaver.

In 2004, the voters of Colorado Springs and El Paso County established the Pikes Peak Rural Transportation Authority (PPRTA) and adopted a 1% sales tax dedicated to improving the region's transportation infrastructure. Together with state funding for COSMIX (2007 completion) and the I-25 interchange with Highway 16 (2008 completion), significant progress has been made since 2003 in addressing the transportation needs of the area. In 2010 and 2014 the county voted pro-marijuana.[3]

History[edit]

In July 1858, gold was discovered along the South Platte River in Arapahoe County, Kansas Territory. This discovery precipitated the Pike's Peak Gold Rush. Many residents of the mining region felt disconnected from the remote territorial governments of Kansas and Nebraska, so they voted to form their own Territory of Jefferson on 1859-10-24. The following month, the Jefferson Territorial Legislature organized 12 counties for the new territory including El Paso County. El Paso County was named for the Spanish language name for Ute Pass north of Pikes Peak. Colorado City served as the county seat of El Paso County.

The Jefferson Territory never received federal sanction, but on 1861-02-28, U.S. President James Buchanan signed an act organizing the Territory of Colorado.[4] El Paso County was one of the original 17 counties created by the Colorado legislature on November 1, 1861. Part of its western territory was broken off to create Teller County in 1899. Originally based in Old Colorado City (now part of Colorado Springs, not today's Colorado City between Pueblo and Walsenburg), El Paso County's county seat was moved to Colorado Springs in 1873.

Geography[edit]

El Paso County Fairgrounds in Calhan, Colorado.

According to the U.S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 2,130 square miles (5,500 km2), of which 2,127 square miles (5,510 km2) is land and 2.7 square miles (7.0 km2) (0.1%) is water.[5]

Adjacent counties[edit]

Major highways[edit]

National protected area[edit]

Pikes Peak dominates the county's skyline.

State protected area[edit]

Historic sites[edit]

Trails[edit]

Demographics[edit]

Historical population
Census Pop.
1870 987
1880 7,949 705.4%
1890 21,239 167.2%
1900 31,602 48.8%
1910 43,321 37.1%
1920 44,027 1.6%
1930 49,570 12.6%
1940 54,025 9.0%
1950 74,523 37.9%
1960 143,742 92.9%
1970 235,972 64.2%
1980 309,424 31.1%
1990 397,014 28.3%
2000 516,929 30.2%
2010 622,263 20.4%
Est. 2015 674,471 [6] 8.4%
U.S. Decennial Census[7]
1790-1960[8] 1900-1990[9]
1990-2000[10] 2010-2015[1]

As of the census[11] of 2000, there were 516,929 people, 192,409 households, and 133,916 families residing in the county. The population density was 243 people per square mile (94/km²). There were 202,428 housing units at an average density of 95 per square mile (37/km²). The racial makeup of the county was 81.19% White, 6.51% Black or African American, 0.91% Native American, 2.53% Asian, 0.24% Pacific Islander, 4.70% from other races, and 3.91% from two or more races. 11.30% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race.

There were 192,409 households out of which 36.70% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 55.60% were married couples living together, 10.20% had a female householder with no husband present, and 30.40% were non-families. 23.90% of all households were made up of individuals and 6.10% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.61 and the average family size was 3.11.

In the county the population was spread out with 27.60% under the age of 18, 10.50% from 18 to 24, 32.50% from 25 to 44, 20.70% from 45 to 64, and 8.70% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 33 years. For every 100 females there were 100.90 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 98.80 males.

Government[edit]

El Paso County Justice Center in Colorado Springs.

El Paso County is governed by a Board of County Commissioners. Its current members are Amy Lathen, Sallie Clark, Dennis Hisey, Darryl Glenn, and Peggy Littleton.

The Colorado Department of Corrections has its headquarters in an unincorporated area in the county.[12][13]

Top employers[edit]

According to the City's 2014 Comprehensive Annual Financial Report,[14] the top employers in the city are:

# Employer  % of County Employment (increase/decrease/flat)
1 Fort Carson 10.38% (+)
2 Peterson Air Force Base 3.89% (−)
3 Schriever Air Force Base 2.50% (−)
4 United States Air Force Academy 2.48% (−)
5 Colorado Springs School District 11 1.30% (−)
6 Academy School District 20 1.05% (+)
7 Memorial Health Services 1.03% (−)
8 Penrose-St. Francis Health Services 0.93% (=)
9 City of Colorado Springs 0.75% (−)
10 El Paso County 0.69% (−)

Communities[edit]

Cities[edit]

Towns[edit]

Census-designated places[edit]

Unincorporated communities[edit]

Military installations[edit]

Colorado Springs is home to both Army and Air Force bases. These military installations border the city, to the north, south and east, aside from Schriever Air Force Base, which is located farther east of the city, still in El Paso County.[citation needed]

Fort Carson[edit]

Main article: Fort Carson

Fort Carson, “The Mountain Post”, is located just south of Colorado Springs at the base of the Rocky Mountains. It was established in 1942, following Japan’s attack on Pearl Harbor. The city of Colorado Springs purchased land south of the city and donated it to the War Department. Construction began immediately and the first building, the camp headquarters, was completed Jan. 31, 1942. Camp Carson was named in honor of the legendary Army scout, Gen. Christopher “Kit” Carson, who explored much of the West in the 1800s. Camp Carson became Fort Carson in 1954. An additional training area was purchased in September 1983 and is called Piñon Canyon Maneuver Site (PCMS).

Currently, Fort Carson is the home of 4th Infantry Division and several other units, including 10th Special Forces Group (Airborne), the Colorado National Guard Regional Training Institute and PCMS, which is a maneuver training site for Fort Carson located near Trinidad, Colorado. The installation totals approximately 137,000 acres and PCMS is approximately 236,000 acres. Fort Carson has approximately 3,000 family housing units and 66 Soldier barracks with 8,132 rooms. Services on the installation include four elementary schools, one middle school, commissary, an Exchange, and Evans Army Community Hospital as well as Army Community Service facilities to include child development centers and youth centers and Family Morale, Welfare and Recreation facilities to include a bowling alley, golf course and numerous parks.

Fort Carson’s economic impact on Colorado Springs and the surrounding communities was approximately $2.3 billion during fiscal year 2014. Fort Carson has approximately 24,300 Soldiers on the installation to include 44,700 family members. The installation also has approximately 8,000 veterans and 3,300 civilians.[15]

AFSPC Headquarters, Peterson AFB, Colorado Springs.

Peterson Air Force Base[edit]

The Air Force has critical aspects of their service based at Colorado Springs which carry on missile defense operations and development. The Air Force bases a large section of its national missile defense operations here, with Peterson Air Force Base set to operate large sections of the program. Peterson AFB is currently the headquarters of the majority of Air Force Space Command and the operations half of Army Space and Missile Defense Command/Army Strategic Command (SMDC/ARSTRAT).[citation needed]

Peterson is also headquarters for the United States Northern Command (USNORTHCOM), one of the Unified Combatant Commands. USNORTHCOM directs all branches of the U.S. military operations in their area of responsibility which includes the continental United States, Alaska, Canada, and Mexico. In the event of national emergencies the President or Secretary of Defense can call upon USNORTHCOM for any required military assistance. Service members from every branch of the US Military are stationed at the command.[citation needed]

Schriever Air Force Base (formerly Falcon AFB)[edit]

Schriever Air Force Base is home to the 50th Space Wing, responsible for the operation and support of 175 Department of Defense satellites and installation support to 16 major tenant units with a workforce of more than 7,700 personnel.[16] It is the location of the Global Positioning System (GPS) master control station and GPS Operations Center[17] and the US Naval Observatory Alternate Master Clock,[18] used to synchronize GPS satellite time. Schriever is also developing parts of national missile defense and runs parts of the annual wargames used by the nation's military.[citation needed] The base indirectly contributes an estimated $1 billion to the local Colorado Springs, CO area annually.[19]

Cadets in front of the Academy Chapel

United States Air Force Academy[edit]

Bordering the north-western side of the city are the vast grounds of the United States Air Force Academy, where cadets train to become officers in the Air Force. The campus is famous for its unique chapel and draws visitors year round. Most of the Air Force Academy's sports programs participate in the Mountain West Conference.[20]

NORAD and Cheyenne Mountain Air Station[edit]

The North American Aerospace Defense Command (NORAD), a component of America's missile defense system, is located in Cheyenne Mountain Air Station. When it was built at the height of the Cold War, NORAD caused some anxiety for the residents in and around Colorado Springs, who believed the installation would be a primary target during a nuclear attack. Although NORAD still operates today, it is primarily tasked with the tracking of ICBMs, and the military has recently decided to place Cheyenne Mountain's NORAD/NORTHCOM operations on warm standby and move operations to nearby Peterson Air Force Base.[21]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b "State & County QuickFacts". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved October 22, 2015. 
  2. ^ "Find a County". National Association of Counties. Retrieved June 7, 2011. 
  3. ^ http://www.westword.com/news/marijuana-amendment-64-passes-in-el-paso-county-by-fewer-than-a-dozen-votes-5837995
  4. ^ "An Act to provide a temporary Government for the Territory of Colorado" (PDF). Thirty-sixth United States Congress. February 28, 1861. Retrieved November 26, 2007. 
  5. ^ "US Gazetteer files: 2010, 2000, and 1990". United States Census Bureau. February 12, 2011. Retrieved April 23, 2011. 
  6. ^ "County Totals Dataset: Population, Population Change and Estimated Components of Population Change: April 1, 2010 to July 1, 2015". Retrieved July 2, 2016. 
  7. ^ "U.S. Decennial Census". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved June 7, 2014. 
  8. ^ "Historical Census Browser". University of Virginia Library. Retrieved June 7, 2014. 
  9. ^ "Population of Counties by Decennial Census: 1900 to 1990". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved June 7, 2014. 
  10. ^ "Census 2000 PHC-T-4. Ranking Tables for Counties: 1990 and 2000" (PDF). United States Census Bureau. Retrieved June 7, 2014. 
  11. ^ "American FactFinder". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved May 14, 2011. 
  12. ^ "Contacts." Colorado Department of Corrections. Retrieved on December 7, 2009.
  13. ^ "Council District Map." City of Colorado Springs. Retrieved on December 7, 2009.
  14. ^ "City of Colorado Springs CAFR" (PDF). Retrieved March 28, 2016. 
  15. ^ "Fort Carson". Fort Carson. Retrieved Feb 23, 2016. 
  16. ^ "Schriever Air Force Base 50th Space Wing". Schriever Air Force Base. Schriever Air Force Base. Retrieved February 16, 2016.  Check date values in: |date= (help)
  17. ^ "GPS Operations Center". Air Force Space Command. Retrieved September 15, 2010. 
  18. ^ Staff Sgt. Don Branum (June 15, 2006). "23:59:60...Atomic clock takes quantum leap". Air Force Space Command. Retrieved September 15, 2010. 
  19. ^ "Schriever Air Force Base". Schriever Air Force Base. Retrieved February 16, 2016. 
  20. ^ themwc.com
  21. ^ Finley, Bruce (July 27, 2006). "Military to put Cheyenne Mountain on standby – The Denver Post". The Denver Post. Retrieved October 5, 2009. 

External links[edit]

Coordinates: 38°50′N 104°31′W / 38.84°N 104.52°W / 38.84; -104.52