|African oil palm|
|African oil palm (Elaeis guineensis)|
Elaeis guineensis is a species of palm commonly just called oil palm but also sometimes African oil palm or macaw-fat. It is the principal source of palm oil. It is native to west and southwest Africa, specifically the area between Angola and the Gambia; the species name, guineensis, refers to the name for the area, Guinea, and not the modern country now bearing that name. The species is also now naturalised in Madagascar, Sri Lanka, Malaysia, Indonesia, Central America, Cambodia, the West Indies, and several islands in the Indian and Pacific Oceans. The closely related American oil palm Elaeis oleifera and a more distantly related palm, Attalea maripa, are also used to produce palm oil.
Human use of oil palms may date as far back as 5,000 years in West Africa; in the late 1800s, archaeologists discovered palm oil in a tomb at Abydos dating back to 3000 BCE. It is thought that Arab traders brought the oil palm to Egypt.
Mature palms are single-stemmed and grow to 20 meters (66 ft) tall. The leaves are pinnate and reach 3–5 meters (9.8–16.4 ft) long. A young palm produces about 30 leaves a year. Established palms over 10 years produce about 20 leaves a year. The flowers are produced in dense clusters; each individual flower is small, with three sepals and three petals.
The palm fruit takes 5–6 months to develop from pollination to maturity. It is reddish, about the size of a large plum, and grows in large bunches. Each fruit is made up of an oily, fleshy outer layer (the pericarp), with a single seed (the palm kernel), also rich in oil. When ripe, each bunch of fruit weighs between 5 and 30 kg (11 and 66 lb) depending on the age of the palm tree.
For each hectare of oil palm, which is harvested year-round, the annual production averages 20 tonnes of fruit yielding 4,000 kg of palm oil and 750 kg of seed kernels yielding 500 kg of high-quality palm kernel oil, as well as 600 kg of kernel meal. Kernel meal is processed for use as livestock feed.
All modern, commercial planting material consists of tenera palms or DxP hybrids, which are obtained by crossing thickshelled dura with shell-less pisifera. Although common commercial germinated seed is as thick-shelled as the dura mother palm, the resulting palm will produce thin-shelled tenera fruit. An alternative to germinated seed, once constraints to mass production are overcome, are tissue-cultured or "clonal" palms, which provide "true copies" of high-yielding DxP palms.
This section needs expansion with: Cross-breeding E. guineensis with E. oleifera should be included. You can help by adding to it. (September 2012)
- E. guineensis fo. dura
- E. guineensis var. pisifera
- E, guineensis fo. tenera
Before the Second World War, selection work had started in the Deli dura population in Malaya. Pollen was imported from Africa, and DxT and DxP crosses were made. Segregation of fruit forms in crosses made in the 1950s was often incorrect. In the absence of a good marker gene, there was no way of knowing whether control of pollination was adequate.
After the work of Beirnaert and Vanderweyen (1941), it became feasible to monitor the efficacy of controlled pollination. From 1963 until the introduction of the palm-pollinating weevil Elaeidobius kamerunicus in 1982, contamination in Malaysia's commercial plantings was generally low. Thrips, the main pollinating agent at that time, apparently rarely gained access to bagged female inflorescences. However, E. kamerunicus is much more persistent, and after it was introduced, Deli dura contamination[clarification needed] became a significant problem. This problem apparently persisted for much of the 1980s, but in a 1991 comparison of seed sources, contamination had been reduced to below 2%, indicating control had been restored.
A 1992 study at a trial plot in Banting, Selangor, revealed the "yield of Deli dura oil palms after four generations of selection was 60% greater than that of the unselected base population. Crossing the dura and pisifera to give the thin-shelled tenera fruit type improved partitioning of dry matter within the fruit, giving a 30% increase in oil yield at the expense of shell, without changing total dry matter production."
In 2013, the gene responsible for controlling shell thickness was discovered, making it possible to verify tenera (DxP) status while palms are still in the nursery.
Basal stem rot (BSR), caused by the fungus Ganoderma orbiforme, is the most serious disease of oil palm in Malaysia and Indonesia. Previously, research on basal stem rot was hampered by the failure to artificially infect oil palms with the fungus. Although Ganoderma had been associated with BSR, proof of its pathogenicity to satisfy Koch's postulate was only achieved in the early 1990s by inoculating oil palm seedling roots or by using rubber wood blocks. A reliable and quick technique was developed for testing the pathogenicity of the fungus by inoculating oil palm germinated seeds.
This fatal disease can lead to losses as much as 80% after repeated planting cycles. Ganoderma produces enzymes that degrade the infected xylem, thus causing serious problems to the distribution of water and other nutrients to the top of the palm. Ganoderma infection is well defined by its lesion in the stem. The cross-section of infected palm stem shows that the lesion appears as a light brown area of rotting tissue with a distinctive, irregularly shaped, darker band at the borders of this area. The infected tissue become as an ashen-grey powdery and if the palm remains standing, the infected trunk rapidly become hollow.
In a 2007 study in Portugal, scientists suggested control of the fungus on oil palms would benefit from further consideration of the process as one of white rot. Ganoderma is an extraordinary organism capable exclusively of degrading lignin to carbon dioxide and water; celluloses are then available as nutrients for the fungus. It is necessary to consider this mode of attack as a white rot involving lignin biodegradation, for integrated control. The existing literature does not report this area and appears to be concerned particularly with the mode of spread and molecular biology of Ganoderma. The white rot perception opens up new fields in breeding/selecting for resistant cultivars of oil palms with high lignin content, ensuring the conditions for lignin decomposition are reduced, and simply sealing damaged oil palms to stop decay. The spread likely is by spores rather than roots. The knowledge gained can be employed in the rapid degradation of oil palm waste on the plantation floor by inoculating suitable fungi, and/or treating the waste more appropriately (e.g. chipping and spreading over the floor rather than windrowing).
Endophytic bacteria are organisms inhabiting plant organs that at some time in their life cycles can colonize the internal plant tissues without causing apparent harm to the host. Introducing endophytic bacteria to the roots to control plant disease is to manipulate the indigenous bacterial communities of the roots in a manner, which leads to enhanced suppression of soil-borne pathogens. The use of endophytic bacteria should thus be preferred to other biological control agents, as they are internal colonizers, with better ability to compete within the vascular systems, limiting Ganoderma for both nutrients and space during its proliferation. Two bacterial isolates, Burkholderia cepacia(B3) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa(P3) were selected for evaluation in the glasshouse for their efficacy in enhancing growth and subsequent suppression of the spread of BSR in oil palm seedlings.
Little leaf syndrome has not been fully explained, but has often been confused with boron deficiency. The growing point is damaged, sometimes by Oryctes beetles. Small, distorted leaves resembling those due to a boron deficiency emerge. This is often followed by secondary pathogenic infections in the spear that can lead to spear rot and palm death.
Phytophthora palmivora has caused a loss of 5,000 hectares (12,355 acres) of E. guineensis near San Lorenzo in Ecuador. The protozoa cause bud rot (spanish: pudrición del cogollo). In reaction, growers there replanted using a hybrid of E. guineensis and E. oleifera, the South American palm.
Insects as vectors
Metisa plana is a Lepidopteran moth and a major pest of oil palms in Malaysia. M. plana outbreaks in Malaysia are highly correlated with relative humidity. Relative humidity estimates based on satellite remote sensing data were fed into both regression models and neural networks. The predictions of both were found to be closely correlated with actual M. plana appearance on plantations, with the NN producing the best results.
Other arthropods include: Bagworm moths (the Psychidae family), the Asiatic rhinoceros beetle (Oryctes rhinoceros), Rhynchophorus palmarum (the South American palm weevil), Tirathaba mundella (the oil palm bunch moth), and Tirathaba rufivena (the coconut spike moth).
Bursaphelenchus cocophilus is a nematode pest which also infects coconut palms. It causes "red ring disease", so named because it produces a red colored layer within the trunk of the tree, which looks like a red ring in a cross section cut.
Oil palms were introduced to Java by the Dutch in 1848, and to Malaysia (then the British colony of Malaya) in 1910 by Scotsman William Sime and English banker Henry Darby. The species of palm tree Elaeis guineensis was taken to Malaysia from Eastern Nigeria in 1961. As noted it originally grew in West Africa. The southern coast of Nigeria was originally called the Palm oil coast by the first Europeans who arrived there and traded in the commodity. This area was later renamed the Bight of Biafra.
In traditional African medicine different parts of the plant are used as laxative and diuretic, as a poison antidote, as a cure for gonorrhea, menorrhagia, and bronchitis, to treat headaches and rheumatism, to promote healing of fresh wounds and treat skin infections.
In Malaysia, the first plantations were mostly established and operated by British plantation owners, such as Sime Darby and Boustead, and remained listed in London until the Malaysian government engineered their "Malaysianisation" throughout the 1960s and 1970s.
Federal Land Development Authority (Felda) is the world's biggest oil palm planter, with planted area close to 900,000 hectares in Malaysia and Indonesia. Felda was formed on July 1, 1956 when the Land Development Act came into force with the main aim of eradicating poverty. Settlers were each allocated 10 acres of land (about 4 hectares) planted either with oil palm or rubber, and given 20 years to pay off the debt for the land.
After Malaysia achieved independence in 1957, the government focused on value-added of rubber planting, boosting exports, and alleviating poverty through land schemes. In the 1960s and 1970s, the government encouraged planting of other crops, to cushion the economy when world prices of tin and rubber plunged. Rubber estates gave way to oil palm plantations. In 1961, Felda's first oil palm settlement opened, with 3.75 km² of land. As of 2000, 6855.2 km² (approximately 76%) of the land under Felda's programmes were devoted to oil palms. By 2008, Felda's resettlement broadened to 112,635 families, who work on 8533.13 km² of agriculture land throughout Malaysia. Oil palm planting took up 84% of Felda's plantation landbank.
FELDA's success led to the establishment of other development schemes to support the establishment of small-farmer oil palm cultivation. The Federal Land Consolidation and Rehabilitation Authority (FELCRA) was established in 1966 and the Sarawak Land Consolidation and Rehabilitation Authority (SALCRA) was formed in 1976. The primary objective of these organizations is to assist in the development of rural communities and reduce poverty through the cultivation of high yielding crops such as palm oil.
As of November 2011[update], SALCRA had developed 18 estates totalling approximately 51,000 hectares. That year the organization shared dividends with 16,374 landowners participating in the program.
Palm oil production
Oil is extracted from both the pulp of the fruit (palm oil, an edible oil) and the kernel (palm kernel oil, used in foods and for soap manufacture). For every 100 kg of fruit bunches, typically 22 kg of palm oil and 1.6 kg of palm kernel oil can be extracted.
The high oil yield of oil palms (as high as 7,250 liters per hectare per year) has made it a common cooking ingredient in Southeast Asia and the tropical belt of Africa. Its increasing use in the commercial food industry in other parts of the world is buoyed by its cheaper pricing, the high oxidative stability of the refined product, and high levels of natural antioxidants.
The oil palm originated in West Africa, but has since been planted successfully in tropical regions within 20 degrees of the equator. In the Republic of the Congo, or Congo Brazzaville, precisely in the Northern part, not far from Ouesso, local people produce this oil by hand. They harvest the fruit, boil it to let the water evaporate, then press what is left to collect the reddish-orange-colored oil.
In 1995, Malaysia was the world's largest producer, with a 51% of world share, but since 2007, Indonesia has been the world's largest producer, supplying approximately 50% of world palm oil volume.
Worldwide palm oil production for season 2011/2012 was 50.3 million metric tons (55.4 million short tons), increasing to 52.3 million metric tons (57.7 million short tons) for 2012/13. In 2010/2011, total production of palm kernels was 12.6 million metric tons (13.9 million short tons). In 2019 total production was 75.7 million metric tons (83.4 million short tons) 
Oil palm research
Key scientific journals publishing on oil palms and related topics include:
- Journal of Oil Palm Research (JOPR)
- Journal of Applied Polymer Science
- Conservation Letters
- Bioresource Technology
- Trends in Ecology and Evolution
Social and environmental impacts
The social and environmental impacts of oil palm cultivation is a highly controversial topic. Oil palm is a valuable economic crop and provides a major source of employment. It allows many small landholders to participate in the cash economy and often results in the upgrade of the infrastructure (schools, roads, telecommunications) within that area. However, there are cases where native customary lands have been appropriated by oil palm plantations without any form of consultation or compensation, leading to social conflict between the plantations and local residents. In some cases, oil palm plantations are dependent on imported labour or illegal immigrants, with some concerns about the employment conditions and social impacts of these practices.
Biodiversity loss (including the potential extinction of charismatic species) is one of the most serious negative effects of oil palm cultivation. Large areas of already threatened tropical rainforest are often cleared to make way for palm oil plantations, especially in Southeast Asia, where enforcement of forest protection laws is lacking. In some states where oil palm is established, lax enforcement of environmental legislation leads to encroachment of plantations into protected areas, encroachment into riparian strips, open burning of plantation wastes, and release of palm mill pollutants such as palm oil mill effluent (POME) in the environment. Some of these states have recognised the need for increased environmental protection, resulting in more environment-friendly practices. Among those approaches is anaerobic treatment of POME, which can be a good source for biogas (methane) production and electricity generation. Anaerobic treatment of POME has been practiced in Malaysia and Indonesia. Like most wastewater sludge, anaerobic treatment of POME results in dominance of Methanosaeta concilii. It plays an important role in methane production from acetate, and the optimum condition for its growth should be considered to harvest biogas as renewable fuel.
Demand for palm oil has increased in recent years due to its use as a biofuel, but recognition that this increases the environmental impact of cultivation, as well as causing a food vs fuel issue, has forced some developed nations to reconsider their policies on biofuel to improve standards and ensure sustainability. However, critics point out that even companies signed up to the Roundtable on Sustainable Palm Oil continue to engage in environmentally damaging practices and that using palm oil as biofuel is perverse because it encourages the conversion of natural habitats such as forests and peatlands, releasing large quantities of greenhouse gases.
Oil palm production has been documented as a cause of substantial and often irreversible damage to the natural environment. Its impacts include deforestation, habitat loss of critically endangered species, and a significant increase in greenhouse gas emissions.
The pollution is exacerbated because many rainforests in Indonesia and Malaysia lie atop peat bogs that store great quantities of carbon, which are released when the forests are cut down and the bogs are drained to make way for the plantations.
Environmental groups, such as Greenpeace, claim the deforestation caused by making way for oil palm plantations is far more damaging for the climate than the benefits gained by switching to biofuel. Fresh land clearances, especially in Borneo, are contentious for their environmental impact. Despite thousands of square kilometres of land standing unplanted in Indonesia, tropical hardwood forests are being cleared for palm oil plantations. Furthermore, as the remaining unprotected lowland forest dwindles, developers are looking to plant peat swamp land, using drainage that begins an oxidation process of the peat which can release 5,000 to 10,000 years worth of stored carbon. Drained peat is also at very high risk of forest fire. There is a clear record of fire being used to clear vegetation for oil palm development in Indonesia, where in recent years drought and man-made clearances have led to massive uncontrolled forest fires, covering parts of Southeast Asia in haze and leading to an international crisis with Malaysia. These fires have been blamed on a government with little ability to enforce its own laws, while impoverished small farmers and large plantation owners illegally burn and clear forests and peat lands to develop the land rather than reap the environmental benefits it could offer.
Many of the major companies in the vegetable oil economy participate in the Roundtable on Sustainable Palm Oil, which is trying to address this problem. For example, in 2008, Unilever, a member of the group, committed to use only oil palm oil which is certified as sustainable, by ensuring the large companies and smallholders that supply it convert to sustainable production by 2015.
Meanwhile, much of the recent investment in new palm plantations for biofuel has been funded through carbon credit projects through the Clean Development Mechanism; however, the reputational risk associated with the unsustainable palm plantations in Indonesia has now made many funds wary of such investment.
Palm biomass as fuel
Some scientists and companies are going beyond using just the oil, and are proposing to convert fronds, empty fruit bunches and palm kernel shells harvested from oil palm plantations into renewable electricity, cellulosic ethanol, biogas, biohydrogen and bioplastic. Thus, by using both the biomass from the plantation as well as the processing residues from palm oil production (fibers, kernel shells, palm oil mill effluent), bioenergy from palm plantations can have an effect on reducing greenhouse gas emissions. Examples of these production techniques have been registered as projects under the Kyoto Protocol's Clean Development Mechanism.
By using palm biomass to generate renewable energy, fuels and biodegradable products, both the energy balance and the greenhouse gas emissions balance for palm biodiesel is improved. For every tonne of palm oil produced from fresh fruit bunches, a farmer harvests around 6 tonnes of waste palm fronds, 1 tonne of palm trunks, 5 tonnes of empty fruit bunches, 1 tonne of press fiber (from the mesocarp of the fruit), half a tonne of palm kernel endocarp, 250 kg of palm kernel press cake, and 100 tonnes of palm oil mill effluent. Some oil palm plantations incinerate biomass to generate power for palm oil mills. Some other oil palm plantations yield large amount of biomass that can be recycled into medium density fibreboards and light furniture. In efforts to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, scientists treat palm oil mill effluent to extract biogas. After purification, biogas can substitute for natural gas for use at factories. Anaerobic treatment of palm oil mill effluent, practiced in Malaysia and Indonesia, results in domination of Methanosaeta concilii. It plays an important role in methane production from acetate and the optimum condition for its growth should be considered to harvest biogas as renewable fuel.
Unfortunately, the production of palm oil has detrimental effects on the environment and is not considered to be a sustainable biofuel. The deforestation occurring throughout Malaysia and Indonesia as a result of the growing demand for this plant has made scarce natural habitats for orangutans and other rainforest dwellers. More carbon is released during the life cycle of a palm oil plant to its use as a biofuel than is emitted by the same volume of fossil fuels.
- Energy and the environment
- Journal of Oil Palm Research
- Journal of Plantation Crops
- Malaysian Palm Oil Board
- List of Arecaceae genera
- Social and environmental impact of palm oil
- "The Plant List: A Working List of All Plant Species".
- "Elaeis guineensis". Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Agricultural Research Service (ARS), United States Department of Agriculture (USDA). Retrieved 12 December 2017.
- Kiple, Kenneth F.; Conee Ornelas, Kriemhild, eds. (2000). The Cambridge World History of Food. Cambridge University Press. p. II.E.3. ISBN 978-0521402163. Archived from the original on 20 October 2012. Retrieved 30 August 2012.
- Obahiagbon, F.I. (2012). "A Review: Aspects of the African Oil Palm (Elaeis guineesis Jacq.)" (PDF). American Journal of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology: 1–14. Retrieved 30 August 2012.
- Jean-Marie Pelt, « Michel Adanson, le baobab et les coquillages », dans La Cannelle et le panda : les grands naturalistes explorateurs autour du Monde, Fayard, 1999 ISBN 978-2213-60466-4.
- Michael Le Page (May 5, 2018). "The real palm oil problem: it's not just in your food". New Scientist. See especially this graph.
- "About the Malaysian Palm Oil Industry". Malaysian Palm Oil Board.
- Corley, R. H. V.; Lee, C. H. (April 1992). "The physiological basis for genetic improvement of oil palm in Malaysia". Euphytica. 60 (3): 179–84. doi:10.1007/BF00039396 (inactive 31 May 2021).CS1 maint: DOI inactive as of May 2021 (link)
- Singh, R.; Sambanthamurthi, R.; Martienssen, R.; et al. (August 2013). "The oil palm SHELL gene controls oil yield and encodes a homologue of SEEDSTICK". Nature. 500 (7462): 340–344. Bibcode:2013Natur.500..340S. doi:10.1038/nature12356. PMC 4209285. PMID 23883930.
- Mercière, Maxime; Laybats, Anthony; Carasco-Lacombe, Catherine; Tan, Joon Sheong; Klopp, Christophe; Durand-Gasselin, Tristan; Alwee, Sharifah Shahrul Rabiah Syed; Camus-Kulandaivelu, Létizia; Breton, Fréderic (2015). "Identification and development of new polymorphic microsatellite markers using genome assembly for Ganoderma boninense, causal agent of oil palm basal stem rot disease". Mycological Progress. 14 (11): 103. doi:10.1007/s11557-015-1123-2.
- Idris, A S; Kushairi, D; Ariffin, D; Basri, M W (June 2006). "Technique for inoculation of oil palm germinated seeds with ganoderma" (PDF). Malaysian Palm Oil Board Information Series (314). ISSN 1511-7871.
- Idris, AS; Ariffin, D; Swinburne, TR; Watt, TA (August 2000). "The identity of ganoderma species responsible for basal stem rot disease of oil palm in Malaysia-pathogenicity test" (PDF). Malaysian Palm Oil Board Information Series (77b).[dead link]
- Turner PD. Palm oil Diseases and Disorders. Oxford University Press, 1981.[page needed]
- Wardlaw, C. W. (1946). "A Wilt Disease of the Oil Palm". Nature. 158 (4002): 56. Bibcode:1946Natur.158...56W. doi:10.1038/158056a0. S2CID 4093433.
- Paterson, R.R.M. (2007). "Ganoderma disease of oil palm—A white rot perspective necessary for integrated control". Crop Protection. 26 (9): 1369–1376. doi:10.1016/j.cropro.2006.11.009. hdl:1822/7349.
- Azevedo, João Lúcio; Maccheroni, Walter; Pereira, José Odair; De Araújo, Welington Luiz (2000). "Endophytic microorganisms: a review on insect control and recent advances on tropical plants". Electronic Journal of Biotechnology. 3 (1): 15–6. doi:10.2225/vol3-issue1-fulltext-4.
- Sapak, Zaiton; Meon, Sariah; Mior, Ahmad; Zainal, Abidin (2008). "Effect of Endophytic bacteria on growth and suppression of ganoderma infection in oil palm". International Journal of Agriculture & Biology. 10 (2): 127–32.
- von Uexküll, H.R.; Fairhurst, T.H. (May 1999). "Some Nutritional Disorders in Oil Palms". Better Crops International. 13 (1).
- "coconut cadang-cadang viroid (CCCVd) (Cocadviroid CCCVd )". Invasive.Org. 2008-12-10. Retrieved 2020-11-23.
- Torres, G. A.; Sarria, G. A.; Martinez, G.; Varon, F.; Drenth, A.; Guest, D. I. (2016). "Bud Rot Caused by Phytophthora palmivora: A Destructive Emerging Disease of Oil Palm". Phytopathology. American Phytopathological Society. 106 (4): 320–329. doi:10.1094/phyto-09-15-0243-rvw. ISSN 0031-949X. PMID 26714102. S2CID 1049270. AGRIS id US201600293676.
- Potter, L.M. (2018). "Alternative pathways for smallholder oil palm in Indonesia". The Oil Palm Complex: Smallholders, Agribusiness and the State in Indonesia and Malaysia: 173. JSTOR j.ctv1xz0km.
- Salim, Hasber; Rawi, Che Salmah; Ahmad, Abu Hassan; Al-Shami, Salman Abdo (2015). "Efficacy of Insecticide and Bioinsecticide Ground Sprays to Control Metisa plana Walker (Lepidoptera: Psychidae) in Oil Palm Plantations, Malaysia". Tropical Life Sciences Research. 26 (2): 73–83. PMC 4729409. PMID 26868711.
- Ruslan, Siti Aisyah; Muharam, Farrah Melissa; Zulkafli, Zed; Omar, Dzolkhifli; Zambri, Muhammad Pilus (2019). "Using satellite-measured relative humidity for prediction of Metisa plana's population in oil palm plantations: A comparative assessment of regression and artificial neural network models". PLOS ONE. PLoS. 14 (10): e0223968. Bibcode:2019PLoSO..1423968R. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0223968. ISSN 1932-6203. PMC 6799924. PMID 31626637.
- Bedford, G O (1980). "Biology, Ecology, and Control of Palm Rhinoceros Beetles". Annual Review of Entomology. Annual Reviews. 25 (1): 309–339. doi:10.1146/annurev.en.25.010180.001521. ISSN 0066-4170. S2CID 85977665.
- "Bursaphelenchus cocophilus Cobb". University of Florida Entomology Department. 2002-01-02. Retrieved 2020-11-23.
- Lötschert, Wilhelm; Beese, Gerhard (1983). Collins Guide to Tropical Plants. London: Collins. ISBN 978-0-00-219112-8. OCLC 11153110.[page needed]
- Wang, L; Waltenberger, B; Pferschy-Wenzig, EM; Blunder, M; Liu, X (July 2014). "Natural product agonists of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ): a review". Biochem Pharmacol. 92 (1): 73–89. doi:10.1016/j.bcp.2014.07.018. PMC 4212005. PMID 25083916.
- Pauline Dy Phon (2000). Plants Utilised In Cambodia/Plants utilisées au Cambodge. Phnom Penh: Imprimerie Olympic. p. 268.
- Stevenson, Tom (22 December 2006). "Malaysia targets alternative fuels market". The Daily Telegraph. London. Retrieved 22 September 2009.
- "Penubuhan Felda". Archived from the original on 2006-01-29. Retrieved 2012-09-16.
- Simeh, Arif & Tengku Ahmad, Tengku Mohd. Ariff (2001). "The Case Study on the Malaysian Palm Oil" Archived 2005-12-18 at the Wayback Machine
- "Oil palm - the backbone of economic growth". Global Oils and Fats. 6 (2): 6. April–June 2009.
- Burger, Kees; Smit, Hidde P. (1997). The Natural Rubber Market: Review, Analysis, Policies and Outlook. Woodhead Publishing. pp. 244–245. ISBN 978-1855733213. Retrieved 30 August 2012.
- The Report: Malaysia 2011. Oxford Business Group. 2011. p. 295. ISBN 978-1907065460. Retrieved 30 August 2012.
- Wong, Jack (5 November 2011). "Salcra: Windfall of RM100.9mil will be shared by more than 16,000 landowners". thestar.com.my. The Star Online. Archived from the original on 21 February 2013. Retrieved 6 September 2012.
- "Palm Oil Continues to Dominate Global Consumption in 2006/07" (PDF) (Press release). United States Department of Agriculture. June 2006. Archived from the original (PDF) on 26 April 2009. Retrieved 22 September 2009.
- Che Man, YB; Liu, J.L.; Jamilah, B.; Rahman, R. Abdul (1999). "Quality changes of RBD palm olein, soybean oil and their blends during deep-fat frying". Journal of Food Lipids. 6 (3): 181–193. doi:10.1111/j.1745-4522.1999.tb00142.x.
- Matthäus, Bertrand (2007). "Use of palm oil for frying in comparison with other high-stability oils". European Journal of Lipid Science and Technology. 109 (4): 400–409. doi:10.1002/ejlt.200600294.
- Sundram, K; Sambanthamurthi, R; Tan, YA (2003). "Palm fruit chemistry and nutrition" (PDF). Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 12 (3): 355–62. PMID 14506001. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2012-03-22.
- "Table 11: Palm Oil: World Supply and Distribution". fas.usda.gov. United States Department of Agriculture. August 10, 2012. Retrieved 30 August 2012.
- "Food Outlook" (PDF). fao.org. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. May 2012. Retrieved 30 August 2012.
- "Global production volume palm oil, 2012-2020".
- Google Scholar. Accessed: June 27, 2013.
- "Palm oil - rainforest in your shopping". Friends of the Earth. Retrieved 2007-11-29.
- Fitzherbert, E; Struebig, M; Morel, A; Danielsen, F; Bruhl, C; Donald, P; Phalan, B (2008). "How will oil palm expansion affect biodiversity?". Trends in Ecology & Evolution. 23 (10): 538–545. doi:10.1016/j.tree.2008.06.012. PMID 18775582.
- "Oro Landowners' Declaration on Large-Scale Commercial Extraction of Natural Resources and the Expansion of Oil Palm Nucleus Estates". Forest Peoples Programme. Archived from the original on 2011-02-02. Retrieved 2007-11-29.
- "Palm oil cultivation for biofuel blocks return of displaced people in Colombia" (PDF). iDMC. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2007-11-27. Retrieved 2007-11-29.
- "Ghosts on our Own Land: Indonesian Oil Palm Smallholders and the Roundtable on Sustainable Palm". Forest Peoples Programme. Archived from the original on 2011-07-22. Retrieved 2009-03-30.
- "The Last Stand of the Orangutan". UNEP. Archived from the original on 2008-07-09. Retrieved 2007-12-01.
- "Cut Down Oil Palm on River Banks, Plantations Warned". New Straits Times. 2007-07-16. Retrieved 2007-12-01.
- "Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) Guidelines for Oil Palm Plantation Development" (PDF). Retrieved 2007-11-29.
- "Promoting the Growth and Use of Sustainable Palm Oil". RSPO. Archived from the original on 2007-07-06. Retrieved 2007-12-01.
- Ali, Ghulam Muhammad; Rashid, Umer; Ali, Shaukat; Ayub, Najma; Masood, M. Shahid (2009). "Establishment of an efficient callus induction and plant regeneration system in Pakistani wheat (Triticum aestivum) cultivars". Electronic Journal of Biotechnology. 12 (3). doi:10.2225/vol12-issue3-fulltext-1.
- "Eco-conscious palm oil". The Star Malaysia. Archived from the original on 2008-05-17. Retrieved 2008-01-14.
- "EU rethinks biofuels guidelines". BBC. 2008-01-14. Retrieved 2008-01-14.
- "Biofuels and palm oil - why palm oil cannot fuel the biofuels industry" (PDF).[permanent dead link]
- Danielsen, Finn; Beukema, H; Burgess, N; Parish, F; Brühl, C; Donald, P; Murdiyarso, D; Phalan, B; Reijnders, L; Struebig, M; Fitzherbert, E (2009). "Biofuel Plantations on Forested Lands: Double Jeopardy for Biodiversity and Climate" (PDF). Iop Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science. 6 (24): 348–58. Bibcode:2009E&ES....6x2014D. doi:10.1088/1755-1307/6/24/242014. PMID 19040648.
- Clay, Jason (2004). World Agriculture and the Environment. p. 219.
- "Palm oil threatening endangered species" (PDF). Center for Science in the Public Interest. May 2005.
- Cooking the Climate Archived 2010-04-10 at the Wayback Machine Greenpeace UK Report, November 15, 2007
- Once a Dream, Palm Oil May Be an Eco-Nightmare The New York Times, January 31, 2007
- Fourth Assessment Report, Working Group I "The Physical Science Basis" , Section 184.108.40.206.5 (p. 527), IPCC, Retrieved 4 May 2008
- Fargione, J.; Hill, J.; Tilman, D.; Polasky, S.; Hawthorne, P. (2008). "Land Clearing and the Biofuel Carbon Debt". Science. 319 (5867): 1235–8. Bibcode:2008Sci...319.1235F. doi:10.1126/science.1152747. PMID 18258862. S2CID 206510225.
- Palm oil warning for Indonesia BBC 8 November 2007
- BBC Losing land to palm oil in Kalimantan BBC News, 3 August 2007
- No Easy Solution To Indonesian Haze Problem AFP 20 April 2007
- Forest Fires Sweep Indonesian Borneo and Sumatra[permanent dead link] VOA news
- Carbon market takes sides in palm oil battle Archived 2012-02-18 at the Wayback Machine Carbon Finance, 20 November 2007
- [permanent dead link] Malaysian National News Agency, 6 February 2007
- Celluosic ethanol from processing and plantation waste Archived 2012-03-06 at the Wayback Machine Budi Oil Holdings Sdn. Bhd company promotional literature
- Biogas Clean Development Mechanism: recovery and electricity generation from Palm Oil Mill Effluent ponds, UNFCCC CDM register
- Vijayaraghavan, K; Ahmad, D (2006). "Biohydrogen generation from palm oil mill effluent using anaerobic contact filter" (PDF). International Journal of Hydrogen Energy. 31 (10): 1284–1291. doi:10.1016/j.ijhydene.2005.12.002.
- Biodegradable Plastics Production from Palm Oil Mill Effluent (POME) Delft University of Technology
- Biomass Utilization in Malaysia Archived 2006-12-03 at the Wayback Machine National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST, Japan)
- Reijnders, L. (2006). "Conditions for the sustainability of biomass based fuel use". Energy Policy. 34 (7): 863–876. doi:10.1016/j.enpol.2004.09.001.
- Corley, R. H. V.; Tinker, P. B. (2015-10-03). The Oil Palm. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. doi:10.1002/9781118953297. ISBN 978-1-118-95329-7. S2CID 132543108. S2CID 82631705
- "14.10 Insect Vectors of Diseases". The Oil Palm. 2015. p. 458. doi:10.1002/9781118953297.ch14. ISBN 9781118953297.
As well as causing direct damage, some insects play an important role as vectors of disease (Gitau et al., 2009).
- "14.11.1 Pests attacking pollinating weevils". The Oil Palm. 2015. p. 458. doi:10.1002/9781118953297.ch14. ISBN 9781118953297.
The main predators on the weevil in the Far East are undoubtedly rats. These consume large numbers of larvae, destroying the old male inflorescences in the process, and Liau (1985) showed that rats grew more rapidly on a diet supplemented with weevil larvae. Basri Wahid and Halim Hassan (1985) considered that rat populations, and the amount of damage done, had increased since the introduction of the weevil. Chiu et al. (1985) estimated that up to 80% of weevil larvae might be eaten by rats, but noted that the weevil population remained high enough to ensure good fruit set.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Elaeis guineensis.|