Elastic therapeutic tape
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Elastic therapeutic tape is an elastic cotton strip with an acrylic adhesive that is used with the intent of treating pain and disability from athletic injuries and a variety of other physical disorders. Research suggests that elastic taping may help relieve pain, but not more than other treatment approaches, and there is no evidence that it can reduce disability.
The product is a type of thin, elastic cotton tape that can stretch up to 140% of its original length. As a result, if the tape is applied to a patient on a stretch greater than its normal length, it will "recoil" after being applied and therefore create a pulling force on the skin to which it is has been applied. This elastic property allows much greater range of motion compared to traditional white athletic tape and can also be left on for long periods of time before reapplication.
Designed to mimic human skin, with roughly the same thickness and elastic properties, the tape can be stretched 30–40% in the longitudinal direction. It is a latex free material with acrylic adhesive, which is heat activated. The cotton fibers allow for evaporation and quicker drying leading to longer wear time, up to 4 days. How the tape is claimed to affect the body is dependent on its usage throughout the body and how it is applied: the direction of pull, the shape, and the location, all play a role in its hypothetical function.
There are several theoretical benefits claimed for the tape. One of those is correcting the alignment of weak muscles as well as facilitating joint motion as a result of the tape's recoiling qualities. Additionally, the tape is claimed to lift the skin, increasing the space below it, and increasing blood flow and circulation of lymphatic fluids (swelling). This increase in the interstitial space is said to lead to less pressure on the body's nociceptors, which detect pain, and to stimulate mechanoreceptors, to improve overall joint proprioception.
A 2015 meta analysis found that the taping provided significantly more pain relief than no treatment at all, but was not better than other treatment approaches. The same meta analysis did not find any significant changes in disability as a result of taping. A 2012 journal article from the Journal of Hand Therapy suggests that kinesio tape (KT) might have some effect on lymph drainage. Based on a double blind study, KT may be of some assistance to clinicians in improving pain-free active ROM immediately after tape application for patients with shoulder pain. Utilization of KT for decreasing pain intensity or disability for young patients with suspected shoulder tendonitis/impingement is not supported. Based on two different studies, kinesio tape showed quicker drainage than manually and better patient compliance. A 2014 meta analysis looked at methodological quality of studies along with overall population effect and suggested that studies deemed of lower methodological quality are more likely to report beneficial effects of elastic therapeutic taping. It also suggested that applying elastic therapeutic tape, "to facilitate muscular contraction has no or only negligible effects on muscle strength". A 2012 meta analysis found that the efficacy of elastic therapeutic tape in pain relief was trivial given that no studies found clinically important results. The tape "may have a small beneficial role in improving strength, range of motion in certain injured cohorts and force sense error compared with other elastic tapes, but further studies are needed to confirm these findings". The same article concluded: "KT had some substantial effects on muscle activity, but it was unclear whether these changes were beneficial or harmful. In conclusion, there was little quality evidence to support the use of KT over other types of elastic taping in the management or prevention of sports injuries"
The tape is applied with the affected muscle in a stretched position, taping from the origin of the muscle to the insertion point. Once applied, it is rubbed to activate the pressure-sensitive adhesive.
Application is in three general shapes or techniques. An "I" shape is used for small or linear places, for example an I-shaped piece of tape will be applied to the teres minor or rhomboid minor. A "Y" shape is used for larger muscles, like the deltoid. The "X" shape is used for large and long muscles, such as the biceps femoris.
- Lim EC, Tay MG (2015). "Kinesio taping in musculoskeletal pain and disability that lasts for more than 4 weeks: is it time to peel off the tape and throw it out with the sweat? A systematic review with meta-analysis focused on pain and also methods of tape application". British Journal of Sports Medicine. doi:10.1136/bjsports-2014-094151. PMID 25595290.
- [unreliable medical source?] Thelen MD, Dauber JA, Stoneman PD (July 2008). "The clinical efficacy of kinesio tape for shoulder pain: a randomized, double-blinded, clinical trial". J Orthop Sports Phys Ther. 38 (7): 389–95. doi:10.2519/jospt.2008.2791. PMID 18591761.
- Bicici S, Karatas N, Baltaci G (April 2012). "Effect of athletic taping and kinesiotaping on measurements of functional performance in basketball players with chronic inversion ankle sprains". Int J Sports Phys Ther. 7 (2): 154–66. PMC . PMID 22530190.
- [unreliable medical source?] Bassett K, Lingman S, Ellis R (2010). "The use and treatment efficacy of kinaesthetic taping for musculoskeletal conditions: A systematic review". New Zealand Journal of Physiotherapy.
- Williams S, Whatman C, Hume PA, Sheerin K (2012). "Kinesio taping in treatment and prevention of sports injuries: a meta-analysis of the evidence for its effectiveness". Sports Med. 42 (2): 153–64. doi:10.2165/11594960-000000000-00000. PMID 22124445.
- Villeco J P (Apr–Jun 2012). "Edema: A Silent but Important Factor". Journal of Hand Therapy. 25 (2): 153–161. doi:10.1016/j.jht.2011.09.008.
- Csapo R, Alegre L (2014). "Effects of Kinesio taping on skeletal muscle strength-A meta-analysis of current evidence". Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport. 1053: 1–7. doi:10.1016/j.jsams.2014.06.014.[unreliable medical source?]
- "Kinesio taping: experts question benefits". Retrieved September 27, 2012.
- Goo, Jayson. "Kinesio Taping Method and Kinesio Tex Tape". Medicine Net. Medicine Net. Retrieved 2016-06-01.
- [unreliable medical source?] Kahanov, EdD, ATC, Leamor. "Kinesio Taping: An Overview of Use With Athletes, Part II". Alternative & Complementary Concepts. Retrieved 24 October 2012.
- "Olympics-Scientists sceptical as athletes get all taped up". Reuters. 31 July 2012.
- "Taping America's athletes". ABQ Journal. 25 July 2012.
- Cho, Hwi-young, Eun-Hye Kim, Junesun Kim, and Young W. Yoon. "Kinesio Taping Improves Pain, Range of Motion, and Proprioception in Older Patients with Knee Osteoarthritis." American Journal of Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation 94.3 (2015): 192-200. Web. Retrieved from: http://journals.lww.com/ajpmr/Abstract/2015/03000/Kinesio_Taping_Improves_Pain,_Range_of_Motion,_and.3.aspx
- González-Iglesias, Javier, César Fernández-de-las-Peñas, Joshua Cleland, Peter Huijbregts, and Maria D. Gutiérrez-Vega. "Short-Term Effects of Cervical Kinesio Taping on Pain and Cervical Range of Motion in Patients With Acute Whiplash Injury: A Randomized Clinical Trial." J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 39.7 (2009): 515-521. Web. 6/26/2016: <http://www.jospt.org/doi/abs/10.2519/jospt.2009.3072>
- Jaraczewska, Ewa, and Carol Long. "Kinesio®Taping in Stroke: Improving Functional Use of the Upper Extremity in Hemiplegia."Topics in Stroke Rehabilitation 13.3 (2006): 31-42. Web. 24 June 2016. <http://www.tapingbase.com/sites/default/files/kinesio_taping_in_stroke.pdf>.
- Lazarus, Catherine. The Use of Kinesio Tape for the Treatment of Foot Drop in a Patient with Sub-Acute Stroke: A Case Report. Doctoral dissertation. Florida Gulf Coast University, 2013. Web. <https://fgcu.digital.flvc.org/islandora/object/fgcu%3A21415/datastream/OBJ/view/The_Use_of_Kinesio_Tape_for_the_Treatment_of_Foot_Drop_in_a_Patient_with_Sub-Acute_Stroke__A_Case_Report_.pdf>
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