Elative case

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In grammar, the elative case (abbreviated ELA; from Latin efferre "to bring or carry out") is a locative grammatical case with the basic[clarification needed] meaning "out of".


Uralic languages[edit]

In Finnish, the elative is typically formed by adding "sta/stä", in Estonian by adding "-st" to the genitive stem and "-õst" in Livonian. In Hungarian, the suffix "-ból/-ből" expresses the elative:

"talosta" - "out of the house, from the house" (Finnish "talo" = "house")
"taloista" - "out of the houses, from the houses" (Finnish "talot" = "houses")
"majast" - "out of the house, from the house" (Estonian "maja" = "house")
"házból" - "out of the house" (Hungarian "ház" = "house")

In some dialects of colloquial Finnish it is common to drop the final vowel of the elative ending, which then becomes identical to the elative morpheme of Estonian; for example: "talost".


In some rare cases the elative still exists in contemporary Russian, though it was used more widely in 17-18th cc. texts: и́з лесу (out of the forest), кровь и́з носу (blood from the nose), из Яросла́влю (from Yaroslavl).

See also[edit]

Other locative cases are:

Further reading[edit]

  • Karlsson, Fred (2018). Finnish - A Comprehensive Grammar. London and New York: Routledge. ISBN 978-1-138-82104-0.
  • Anhava, Jaakko (2015). "Criteria For Case Forms in Finnish and Hungarian Grammars". journal.fi. Helsinki: Finnish Scholarly Journals Online.