From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to navigation Jump to search
Designed byMCST
Common manufacturer(s)
Max. CPU clock rate300 MHz to 800 MHz
Instruction setElbrus 2000, x86

Elbrus-2S+ (Russian: Эльбрус-2С+) is a multi-core microprocessor based on the Elbrus 2000 architecture developed by Moscow Center of SPARC Technologies (MCST)[2][3][4] There are multiple reports regarding the evolution of this technology for the purpose of import substitution in Russia, which was raised by several ministries on July 2014, due to economic sanctions in response to 2014 pro-Russian unrest in Ukraine.[5][6][7][8] In December 2014, it was announced that Mikron start pilot production of a dual-core variant of this microprocessor called Elbrus-2SM (Russian: Эльбрус-2СМ) using a 90 nanometer CMOS manufacturing process in Zelenograd, Russia.[1][9][10][11][12]


The Elbrus-4S CPU is reported to have built in support for Intel x86 emulation as well as a native VLIW mode where it can perform up to 23 instructions per clock cycle.[13][14][15] When programs are built for Elbrus 2000 native mode, the compiler determines how the different operations shall be distributed over the 23 computing units before saving the final program. This means that no dynamic scheduling is needed during runtime, thus reducing the amount of work the CPU has to perform every time program is executed. Because static scheduling only needs to be performed one time when the program is built, more advanced algorithms for finding the optimal distribution of work can be employed.[16][17]


Elbrus-2S+[18] Elbrus-2SМ[19] Elbrus-4S[20]
Russian designation 1891ВМ7Я 1891ВМ9Я 1891ВМ8Я
Produced 2011 2014 2014
Process CMOS 90 nm CMOS 90 nm CMOS 65 nm
Clock rate 500 MHz 300 MHz 800 MHz
Elbrus 2000 CPU cores

Elcore-09 DSP cores







Peak performance (CPU + DSP)
  • 64-bit
  • 64-bit
  • 32-bit
  • 32-bit
  • 16-bit

20 + 2 GIPS
8 + 0 GFlops
33 + 16 GIPS
16 + 12 GFlops
43 + 48 GIPS

4.8 GFlops
19.8 GIPS
9.6 GFlops

25 GFlops
107 GIPS
50 GFlops

L1 instruction cache (per core) 64 KB 64 KB 128 KB
L1 data cache (per core) 64 KB 64 KB 64 KB
L2 cache (per core) 1 MB 1 MB 8 MB
DSP cache (per DSP core) 128 KB
Data transfer rate to cache 16 GByte/s
Data transfer rate to main memory 12.8 GByte/s 38.4 GByte/s
  • number of channels for interprocessor communications
  • channel bandwidth for interprocessor communications
  • number of input-output channels
  • channel bandwidth for input-output

4 GByte/s
2 GByte/s

12 GByte/s
4 GByte/s

Crystal area 289 sq. mm 380 sq. mm
Transistors 368 million >300 million[1] 986 million
Connection layers 9 9
Packing/pins HFCBGA/1296 HFCBGA/1600
Package size 37.5×37.5×2.5 mm 42.5×42.5×3.2 mm
Voltage 1.0/1.8/2.5 V 1.2/1.8/ 2.5 V 1.1/1.5/2.5/3.3 V
Power consumption ~25 W ~45 W
Producer TSMC Taiwan Mikron Russia[1] TSMC Taiwan

South Bridge[edit]

The south bridge for the Elbrus 2000 chipset, which connects peripherals and bus to the CPU is developed by MCST. It is also compatible with the MCST-R1000.[21][22]

KPI 1991VG1YA 1026A010
Produced 2010
Process CMOS 0.13 µm
Clock rate 250 MHz
serial bus for communication with the microprocessor 1 GByte/s – receiving, 1 GByte/s – transmission
PCI Express controller, revision 1.0a 8 lines
PCI controller, version 2.3 32/64-bit at clock frequencies of 33/66 MHz
Ethernet controller, 1 GByte/s 1 port
SATA 2.0 controller 4 ports
IDE controller, PATA-100 2 ports for 2 devices
USB 2.0 controller 2 ports
audio interface controller, AC-97 2-channel stereo
Serial controller, RS-232 and RS-485 2 ports
Parallel interface controller, IEEE-1284 with DMA support 1 port
Programmable universal input-output (GPIO) controller 16 signals
I²C interface Channel 4
SPI Interface Supports for 4 devices
Interrupt control subsystems 2 PIC + 1 IOAPIC
Timers System timer and watchdog timer.
Crystal area 112 sq. mm
Transistors 30 million
Packing/pins HFCBGA/1156
Package size 35×35×3.2 mm
Voltage 1.2/3.3 V
Power consumption ~6 W


In December 2012, Kraftway announced that it will deliver an Elbrus based PC together with its partner MCST.[23][24][25]

In August 2013, Kuyan, Gusev, Kozlov, Kaimuldenov and Kravtsunov from MCST has published an article based on their experience with building and deployment of Debian Linux for the Elbrus computer architecture. It was done using a hybrid compiler toolchain (cross and native), for Elbrus-2S+ and Intel Core 2 Duo.[26]

In December 2014, an implementation of the OpenGL 3.3 standard was demonstrated by running the game Doom 3 BFG Edition on an Elbrus-4S, clocked at 720 MHz, using a Radeon graphics card with 2 gigabytes of video memory.[27]

In April 2015, MCST announced two new products based on the Elbrus-4S CPU: One 19-inch rack server with four CPUs (16 cores) and one personal computer.[28]

In December 2015, the first shipment of PCs based on VLIW CPU Elbrus-4s was made in Russia.[29]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ a b c d "ЗАО "МЦСТ" готовит выпуск материнских плат на базе процессора "ЭЛЬБРУС-2СМ", произведенного на "Микроне"". mikron.sitronics.ru. Archived from the original on 2015-01-02. Retrieved 2015-01-03.
  2. ^ "Apple's iMac may be facing a new big competitor from Russia". slashdot.org. Retrieved 2015-01-03.
  3. ^ "Elbrus 2c". elbrus2k.wikidot.com. Retrieved 2015-01-03.
  4. ^ "US is no longer CPU empire". itresident.com. Retrieved 2015-01-03.
  5. ^ "Russian microprocessor firms to challenge Intel and AMD on domestic market". rbth.co.uk. Retrieved 2015-01-03.
  6. ^ "Russia's microelectronics industry gains steam". thinkrussia.com. Retrieved 2015-01-03.
  7. ^ "New Elbrus-8C processor could usher in a new level of computing speed". pocket-lint.com. Retrieved 2015-01-03.
  8. ^ "MCST starts production of Elbrus-8C microproccesor". referoutpost.com. Archived from the original on 2014-12-30. Retrieved 2015-01-03.
  9. ^ "МЦСТ готовит выпуск материнских плат на базе процессора Эльбрус-2СМ, произведенного на Микроне". mcst.ru. Retrieved 2015-01-03.
  10. ^ "JSC Sitronics announces the opening of production line with 90nm technology at JSC Mikron, Head Company of its business division Sitronics Microelectronics". mikron.sitronics.com. Archived from the original on 2014-12-30. Retrieved 2015-01-03.
  11. ^ "Semiconductor Market Update Russia Nov 2012" (PDF). Semi. Retrieved 2015-01-03.
  12. ^ "IBM provides Russia with 90-nm process". eetimes.com. Retrieved 2015-01-03.
  13. ^ "Shadows of Itanium: Russian firm debuts VLIW Elbrus 4 CPU with onboard x86 emulation". ExtremeTech. Retrieved 2015-05-13.
  14. ^ "Russia now selling home-grown CPUs with Transmeta-like x86 emulation". Sebastian Anthony. Retrieved 2015-05-13.
  15. ^ "Russischer Elbrus-Prozessor nur auf Anfrage erhältlich". golem.de. Retrieved 2015-05-13.
  16. ^ "E2K Technology and Implementation". Euro-Par 2000 Parallel Processing: 6th International Euro-Par Conference, Munich, Germany, August 29-September 1, 2000 : Proceedings, Issue 1900. Retrieved 2015-05-13.
  17. ^ "Main principles of E2K architecture" (PDF). Elbrus international. Retrieved 2015-05-13.
  18. ^ Specifications Elbrus-2C+
  19. ^ Specifications Elbrus-2SM
  20. ^ Specifications Elbrus-4C
  21. ^ "Kpi 1991vg1ya 1026a010". elbrus2k.wikidot.com. Retrieved 2015-01-05.
  22. ^ "Controller chip peripheral interfaces". mcst.ru. Retrieved 2015-01-05.
  23. ^ "Milestones". kraftway.ru. Retrieved 2015-01-03.
  24. ^ "Domestic company Kraftway launches computers for domestic processors". survincity.com. Retrieved 2015-01-03.
  25. ^ "Kraftway выпустил пилотную партию моноблочных ПК на базе микропроцессора "Эльбрус-2С+"". kraftway.ru. Retrieved 2015-01-03.
  26. ^ Experience of Building and Deployment Debian on Elbrus Architecture, Date obtained from creation date of pdf file
  27. ^ "Новогодний ролик 2015: тестирование RBDoom3-BFG на процессоре Эльбрус-4С". mcst.ru. Retrieved 2015-01-03.
  28. ^ "Новые продукты на базе микропроцессора Эльбрус-4С доступны для заказа". mcst.ru. Retrieved 2015-04-27.
  29. ^ http://tass.ru/ekonomika/2498729

External links[edit]