Born in Canaan, New York, Root graduated from Williams College and was admitted to the New York bar. After moving briefly to Virginia, Root moved to Waukesha, Wisconsin where he help founded the present Carroll University. Root took Holy Orders in the Episcopal Church and was ordained to the priesthood. He was also on the Board of Regents of the University of Wisconsin. In 1847, Root served on the Wisconsin Constitutional Convention and help write the education article of the present Wisconsin Constitution. From 1849 until 1852, he served as the first Superintendent of Public Instruction of Wisconsin. In 1852, he served a term in the Wisconsin State Assembly. He also served as superintendent of schools in Fond du Lac County, Wisconsin. He then moved to Texas and taught languages in Guadalupe County, Texas, until he returned to Wisconsin, because of the American Civil War. For a time, Root lived in St. Louis, Missouri. Because of his health, Root moved to St. Augustine, Florida, where he served as rector of Trinity Parish from 1874 to 1884. He died in Jacksonville, Florida.
- Biographical Note of Eleazer Root D.D., Wisconsin Historical Society.
- The Twentieth Century Biographical Dictionary of Notable Americans, Rossiter Johnson and John Howard Brown: The Biographical Society: 1904.
- "Wisconsin Folks: Eleazer Root". Oshkosh Daily Northwestern. August 4, 1887. p. 2. Retrieved February 13, 2017 – via Newspapers.com.
- The Rev. Eleazar Root Dead, New York Times, August 5, 1887.
- Eleazer Root, Wisconsin Historical Society.