A manifesto is a published declaration of the intentions, motives, or views of the issuer, be it an individual, group, political party or government. A manifesto usually accepts a previously published opinion or public consensus or promotes a new idea with prescriptive notions for carrying out changes the author believes should be made. It often is political or artistic in nature, but may present an individual's life stance. Manifestos relating to religious belief are generally referred to as creeds.
It is derived from the Italian word manifesto, itself derived from the Latin manifestum, meaning clear or conspicuous. Its first recorded use in English is from 1620, in Nathaniel Brent's translation of Paolo Sarpi's History of the Council of Trent: "To this citation he made answer by a Manifesto" (p. 102). Similarly, "They were so farre surprised with his Manifesto, that they would never suffer it to be published" (p. 103).
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Educational manifestos are documents proposing a change or changes to a current education system.[unreliable source?] They can be written by governing bodies, organizations, or individuals involved in education as parents, student, administrators, or other stakeholders.[specify] The writer or writers are positioned as a minority group, with manifestos aimed at a majority group. Educational manifestos include personal or group beliefs about what is important or right in education, make statements about the current state of education, differentiate common terms in education, and make suggestions for changing current education systems.[self-published source]
They can often include observations about society and whether or not students are prepared to participate fully in it when they are finished with mandatory schooling.[self-published source] These observations can include a perceived misalignment between mandatory school and society, an unjust, unfair, or right aspect of education, or perceived lack of personalization in learning. Other topics that are frequently addressed in educational manifestos include curriculum, funding, personalization, class size, teacher burnout, and standardized testing, among others.[self-published source]
These manifestos may offer a reflection or rethinking of some aspect of education or teaching and learning.[self-published source] These may include personal stories, quotes, anecdotes, or experiences in the classroom or administration. The reflection or rethinking serves to illustrate how or why an aspect of an educational system requires change. These reflections often remind readers of the importance of positive, consistent teacher-student relationships in a good education system.[self-published source]
Educational manifestos call for reflection or ‘rethinking' on the part of the majority in education, offer a reason to hope for change, and make recommendations to put change into action.[self-published source] Reasons for hope can include anecdotes from students, teachers, or parents, or a callback to what motivates teachers and students to teach and learn together. Manifestos written by individuals frequently conclude by sharing techniques, tactics, or philosophies that the writer has found helpful in their own teaching or administrative practice.[unreliable source?] Those written by groups or organizations include recommendations for initiating or continuing change in appropriate areas.
Examples of notable manifestos:
- The Baghdad Manifesto (1011)
- The Act of Abjuration (1581)
- The United States Declaration of Independence (1776)
- The Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen (1789) during the French Revolution
- The Haitian Declaration of Independence (1804) after the Haitian Revolution
- The Cartagena Manifesto (1812), by Simón Bolívar
- The Tamworth Manifesto issued in 1834 by Sir Robert Peel
- The Declaration of Sentiments (1848)
- The Communist Manifesto (1848), by Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels
- The Anarchist Manifesto (1850), by Anselme Bellegarrigue
- The 1890 Manifesto dealing with plural marriage, issued by Wilford Woodruff as president of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints
- The Second Manifesto (1904) dealing with plural marriage, issued by Joseph F. Smith as president of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints
- The October Manifesto (1905) issued by Nicholas II, in an effort to cease the 1905 Russian Revolution
- The Manifesto of the Sixteen (1916)
- The Urmia Manifesto of the United Free Assyria, (1917) by Dr. Freydun Atturaya
- The Liminar Manifesto in the Argentine University Revolution (1918)
- The Amasya Circular (1919)
- The Fascist Manifesto (1919), by Fasci di Combattimento
- The Manifesto of the Anti-Fascist Intellectuals (1925), by Benedetto Croce
- Mein Kampf (My Struggle) (1925), by Adolf Hitler
- The Cannibal Manifesto (1928), by Oswald de Andrade
- The Regina Manifesto (1933), by the Co-operative Commonwealth Federation
- The Humanist Manifesto I, II and III (1933, 1973, 2003)
- The Ventotene Manifesto (1941), by Altiero Spinelli and Ernesto Rossi encouraged a federation of European states, which was meant to keep the countries of Europe close, thus preventing war, it is widely seen as the birth of European federalism.
- The PKWN manifesto (1944), by Polish Committee of National Liberation
- The Oxford Manifesto (1947) describing the basic principles of Liberal International
- The Objectives Resolution of Pakistan (1949), by Liaquat Ali Khan
- "The Christian Manifesto" (1950), condemning Protestant missions in China and pledging allegiance to the People's Republic
- The Russell-Einstein Manifesto (1955), against nuclear weapons and war
- The Southern Manifesto (1956), opposing the Supreme Court's decision in Brown v. Board of Education
- Report on the Construction of Situations (1957), by Guy Debord
- The Manifesto of the 121 against the Algerian War (1960)
- The Sharon Statement (1960), by M. Stanton Evans et al. (Young Americans for Freedom)
- The Port Huron Statement (1962), by Tom Hayden et al.
- The SCUM Manifesto (1968), by Valerie Solanas
- The Black Manifesto (1969), by the Black Economic Development Council, including James Forman
- The Manifesto of the 343 (1971), by Simone de Beauvoir in which 343 French women admitted to having a (then illegal) abortion
- The Green Book (1975), by Muammar Gaddafi
- For a New Liberty: The Libertarian Manifesto (1973), by Murray Rothbard
- New Libertarian Manifesto (1980), by Samuel Edward Konkin III
- Guy Verhofstadt's Burgermanifests: I (1981); II (1991); III (1994); IV (2006)
- The New Hope for Britain (1983), better known as "The longest suicide note in history", by the UK Labour Party
- A Cyborg Manifesto (1985), by Donna Haraway
- The Contract with America (1994), by the Republican candidates for the House of Representatives
- Industrial Society and Its Future (1995), by Ted Kaczynski, also known as the Unabomber
- My Awakening: A Path to Racial Understanding (1998) by David Duke
- De puinhopen van acht jaar Paars (2002), by Pim Fortuyn
- The Companion Species Manifesto (2003), by Donna Haraway
- Manifesto on Freedom and Democracy for Vietnam (2006) by Bloc 8406
- The Euston Manifesto (2006) by Euston Manifesto Group
- Liberty and Tyranny: A Conservative Manifesto (2009) by Mark Levin
- The Revolution: A Manifesto (2009) by Ron Paul
- Mount Vernon Statement, (2010)
- 2083: European Declaration of Independence (2011) by Anders Behring Breivik
- My Sick Twisted World: The Story of Elliot Rodger (2014) by Elliot Rodger
- The Rich and the Rest of Us: A Poverty Manifesto (2012) by Tavis Smiley and Cornel West
- The Leap Manifesto (2015) by a "broad coalition of Canadian authors, artists, national leaders and activists"
- The Last Rhodesian (2015) by Dylann Roof
- The Great Replacement (2018) by Brenton Harrison Tarrant
- The Symbolist Manifesto (1886), by Jean Moreas
- The Futurist Manifesto (1909), by Filippo Tommaso Marinetti
- Du "Cubisme" (1912), by Albert Gleizes and Jean Metzinger
- The Art of Noises (1913), by Luigi Russolo
- The Futurist Architecture Manifesto (1914), by Antonio Sant'Elia (the Manifesto of Futurism)
- BLAST the Vorticist manifesto (1914), by Wyndham Lewis
- Feminist Manifesto (1914), by Mina Loy
- The Dada Manifesto (1918), by Tristan Tzara
- The Dada Manifesto (1918), by Hugo Ball
- The Surrealist Manifesto (1924), by André Breton
- The Suprematist Manifesto (1924), by Kazimir Malevich
- The Free Cinema Manifesto (1956) by Lindsay Anderson Karel Reisz Tony Richardson Lorenza Mazzetti
- The Abomunist Manifesto (1959) by Bob Kaufman
- The Oulipo Manifesto (1960), by François Le Lionnais
- Fluxus manifesto (1961) by George Maciunas
- "The Revolutionary Theatre" (1965) by Amiri Baraka
- The Romantic Manifesto (1969) by Ayn Rand
- On the Art of the Cinema (1973) by Kim Jong-il
- Manifesto of Poetic Eggs, in "Empire of Dreams," (1998 in Spanish, 1994 in English) by Giannina Braschi
- Dogma 95 (1995) by Lars von Trier, Thomas Vinterberg, Kristian Levring and Søren Kragh-Jacobsen
- Manifesto of Transdisciplinarity (1996) by Basarab Nicolescu
- Minnesota declaration: truth and fact in documentary cinema (1999), by Werner Herzog
- First Things First 2000 manifesto: Ethics and social responsibility in graphic design (1999), by Kalle Lasn & Chris Dixon with Ken Garland. Edited by Rick Poynor
- The Neofuturistic City Manifesto (2007), by Vito Di Bari
- The Versatilist manifesto (2007), by Denis Mandarino
- "Political Erotical Mystical Manifesto" (2011), by Kendell Geers
Scientific and educational
- The Manifesto for Teaching Online (2016) Centre for Research in Digital Education, University of Edinburgh
- The Behaviorist Manifesto (1913) issued by John B. Watson in opposition to the introspection method in psychology
- Custer Died For Your Sins: An Indian Manifesto (1969) written by Vine Deloria, Jr.
- The UNESCO Public Library Manifesto (2001)
- The ESOL Manifesto: a statement of our beliefs and values (2012) written by Action for ESOL in opposition to cuts in funding for English language education for migrants to the UK.
- The History Manifesto (2014) written by Jo Guldi and David Armitage, published by Cambridge University Press
- First Things First 1964 Manifesto Visual Communication and Design First Things First 1964 Manifesto By Ken Garland
- First Things First 2000 Manifesto Visual Communication and Design (Revisited) First Things First 2000 Manifesto
- The GNU Manifesto (1985), by Richard Stallman, an explanation and definition of the goals of the GNU Project
- The Hacker's Manifesto (1986), by The Mentor aka Loyd Blankenship
- The Debian Manifesto (1993), by Ian Murdock
- A Cypherpunk's Manifesto (1993) by Eric Hughes
- Industrial Society and Its Future, otherwise known as the Unabomber Manifesto (1995), by Ted Kaczynski
- The Third Manifesto (1995), by Christopher J. Date and Hugh Darwen, a proposal for relational database management system
- The Cluetrain Manifesto (1999) by Rick Levine, Christopher Locke, Doc Searls and David Weinberger
- The Agile Manifesto (2001)
- Pluginmanifesto (2001) by Ana Kronschnabl, a Web film statement
- The Hacktivismo Declaration (2001) by Oxblood Ruffin (Hacktivismo)
- The dotCommunist Manifesto (2003), by Eben Moglen
- The Mozilla Manifesto (2007), by Mozilla community
- The Guerilla Open Access Manifesto (2008) by Aaron Swartz
- Principles of Programming Languages (2007), by Robert Harper
- You Are Not A Gadget: A Manifesto (2010), by Jaron Lanier
- The Hardware Hacker Manifesto (2010), by Cody Brocious
- The BINC Manifesto (2015), by Lene Andersen and Steen Rasmussen
- The Reactive Manifesto (2014), by Jonas Bonér, Dave Farley, Roland Kuhn, and Martin Thompson
- The Racket Manifesto (2015), by Matthias Felleisen, Robert Bruce Findler, Matthew Flatt, Shriram Krishnamurthi, Eli Barzilay, Jay McCarthy, Sam Tobin-Hochstadt
- Merriam-Webster online dictionary definition of Manifesto Archived August 8, 2012, at the Wayback Machine.
- "Archived copy" (in German). Archived from the original on September 12, 2013. Retrieved September 14, 2013.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link), article on "Wahlprogramm", literally "election programme".
- Dictionary.com definition of Manifesto Archived August 6, 2012, at the Wayback Machine.
- David Robertson, The Routledge Dictionary of Politics, Edition 3, Psychology Press, 1890 p. 295 Archived April 25, 2016, at the Wayback Machine, ISBN 0415323770, 9780415323772
- Oxford English Dictionary
- Edwards, Mark (May 20, 2017). "Manifesto summaries: what do they say about education? | The Key". The Key. Archived from the original on April 16, 2018. Retrieved April 15, 2018.
- "Better Education for better Democracies". Education. Archived from the original on April 15, 2018. Retrieved April 15, 2018.
- "A Teaching Manifesto - DAVIN EBANKS". DAVIN EBANKS. Archived from the original on April 16, 2018. Retrieved April 15, 2018.
- "Radical Hope: A Teaching Manifesto". The Tattooed Professor. July 6, 2016. Archived from the original on April 16, 2018. Retrieved April 15, 2018.
- "manifesto for education | A movement from status to value". Claire Boonstra. November 5, 2012. Archived from the original on April 26, 2018. Retrieved April 15, 2018.
- RSA. "Education Manifestos 2017 – Testing, Testing, 123…". Royal Society for the encouragement of Arts, Manufactures and Commerce. Archived from the original on April 16, 2018. Retrieved April 15, 2018.
- "A Teaching Manifesto | Tomorrow's Professor Postings". tomprof.stanford.edu. Archived from the original on September 19, 2015. Retrieved April 15, 2018.
- Oi Ki Ling (1999). The Changing Role of the British Protestant Missionaries in China, 1945-1952. Madison: Fairleigh Dickinson University Press. p. 149. ISBN 978-0-8386-3776-0.
- Malevich, Kazimir. "Suprematist Manifesto Unovis". Scrib.com. Archived from the original on October 19, 2017. Retrieved May 12, 2017.
- MacKenzie, Scott (2014). Film Manifestos and Global Cinema Cultures: A Critical Anthology. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press. p. 506. ISBN 9780520957411 – via ProQuest ebrary.
- "La Transdisciplinarité - Manifeste". Nicol.club.fr. Archived from the original on February 19, 2009. Retrieved June 24, 2012.
- "Werner Herzog Film: Home". Wernerherzog.com. Archived from the original on June 23, 2012. Retrieved June 24, 2012.
- "Manifesto of Neo-Futuristic City". Neofuturistic.com. Retrieved August 18, 2014.
- "The Neofuturistic City Manifesto released online". Architecturelab.net. July 13, 2014. Archived from the original on September 14, 2014. Retrieved August 18, 2014.
- Luko, C. S. (2011). "Reflections on the versatilist manifesto" (in Portuguese). USP. Archived from the original on May 14, 2013. Retrieved September 13, 2014.
- Critical Arts: A Journal of South-North Cultural and Media Studies 27(6), An Van Dienderen & Kris Rutten, 2013, p. 655-660.
- "Psychology as the Behaviorist Views it". Archived from the original on January 11, 2013. Retrieved March 30, 2013.
- "UNESCO Public Library Manifesto". Unesco.org. Unesco. Archived from the original on May 6, 2017. Retrieved May 10, 2017.
- "A Brief History of Debian - The Debian Manifesto". Debian.org. December 31, 2011. Archived from the original on April 30, 2012. Retrieved June 24, 2012.
- "A Cypherpunk's Manifesto". Archived from the original on February 20, 2014. Retrieved March 5, 2014.
- "The dotCommunist Manifesto". Archived from the original on December 2, 2017. Retrieved December 5, 2017.
- "The Mozilla Manifesto". Mozilla.org. Retrieved June 24, 2012.
- Guerilla Open Access Manifesto. https://archive.org/. Archived from the original on March 28, 2017. Retrieved May 10, 2017. External link in
- "15-312 Principles of Programming Languages". Cs.cmu.edu. Archived from the original on October 21, 2012. Retrieved June 24, 2012.
- "The Hardware Hacker Manifesto - I, Hacker". Daeken.com. Archived from the original on July 13, 2012. Retrieved June 24, 2012.
- "The BINC Manifesto". Archived from the original on December 20, 2016. Retrieved January 27, 2016.
- "The Reactive Manifesto". Archived from the original on September 20, 2014. Retrieved September 16, 2014.
- "The Racket Manifesto". Archived from the original on April 29, 2018. Retrieved April 14, 2019.