Election of Uthman
This section contains too many or overly lengthy quotations for an encyclopedic entry. (March 2008)
The Generous – (Al Ghani)
Uthman ibn Affan, the third caliph, was chosen by a council meeting in Medina, in northwestern Arabia, in AH 23 (643/644). The second caliph, Umar ibn al-Khattab, was stabbed by Piruz Nahavandi, a Persian slave. Mindful of the tumults that had occurred after the death of Muhammad (see Succession to Muhammad), on his deathbed Umar appointed a committee of six men, to choose a new leader.
He wished this consultation, or shura, to survive the strictest criticism. The six men were:
- Ali ibn Abi Talib
- Abd al-Rahman ibn Awf
- Sad ibn Abi Waqqas
- Uthman ibn Affan
- Zubayr ibn al-Awwam
Umar's expectation seems to have been that the group should choose one among themselves who would be acceptable to all.
Talha was absent and did not reach Medina until after the decision had been made. The choice of a new ruler for the new Islamic empire fell to five men.
At his death bed, Umar ibn al-Khattab (d. 644) nominated a board of six members who were required to elect one of themselves as the next caliph. The group consisted of Sa`d ibn Abi Waqqas, Abdur Rahman bin Awf, Zubayr ibn al-Awwam, Talha ibn Ubayd Allah, Ali ibn Abi Talib and Uthman ibn Affan. To regulate the group and ensure that no single person would stop the process, Umar said that they should all agree unanimously on the next caliph
Out of the six members, Zubair withdrew his candidature in favor of Ali. Sa'd ibn Abi Waqas withdrew in favor of Uthman. Out of the three remaining candidates Abdur Rahman decided to withdraw, leaving Uthman and Ali. Abdur Rahman was appointed as the arbitrator to choose between the remaining two candidates. Contacting the two candidates separately, he put to them the question whether they would follow in the footsteps of the previous caliphs. Ali said that he would follow the Quran and the Sunnah of Muhammed. Uthman replied to the question in the affirmative without any reservation. Thereupon, Abdur Rahman gave his verdict in favor of the election to Uthman.
An accepted sunni version of this account shows a tie in votes between all three Uthman, Abdur Rahman and Ali where Uthman and Ali voted in favor of their respective partner in the elections. Then Abdur Rahman suggested to allow him to withdraw his candidature at the cost of the choice for leadership between the two remaining candidates. He was allowed to do so and he chose Uthman as the new caliph.
According to the Institute of Ismaili Studies in London, researcher Wilferd Madelung, only Uthman and Ali were willing to take the burden of the caliphate. Each of them said that he was willing to swear allegiance to the other if not chosen. It was up to the three remaining members to make the choice. Sa'd is said to have slightly favored Ali. Al-Zubayr supported Uthman. 'Abd al-Rahman thus had the deciding vote. According to Madelung's account of the shura, 'Abd al-Rahman delayed announcing his choice until he faced a public meeting at the mosque, where he announced his choice of Uthman. Ali, who was present, was thus under pressure to immediately give his allegiance, his bay'ah, to Uthman, which he did accordingly.
Shia Muslims argue that the election should not have happened at all. They say that Muhammad had announced Ali as his successor, most notably at the event of Ghadir Khumm, and that every successive choice of a different caliph was defiance of Muhammad's announcement. Ali did not desire power; he wanted to carry out the duties he had been given by his cousin Muhammad. Shia also deny that Ali gave his allegiance to Uthman. Ali is quoted saying:
- But good Heavens! what had I to do with this "consultation"? Where was any doubt about me with regard to the first of them (caliphs) that I was now considered akin to these ones (in this consultation)? Sermon of ash-Shiqshiqiyyah
- "You (Uthman) know very well that I deserve the caliphate more than anyone else" (Nahj al Balagha sermon 77)
On the third day, 'Abdu 'r-Rahman ibn 'Awf withdrew his name and told 'Ali that he would make him caliph if; Ali pledged to follow the Book of Allah, the traditions of the Holy Prophet and the system of Abu Bakr and 'Umar. 'Abdu 'r-Rahman knew very well what his reply would be. 'Ali (as) said, "I follow the Book of Allah, the traditions of the Holy Prophet and my own beliefs."
Then 'Abdu'r-Rahman put the same conditions to 'Uthman, who readily accepted. Thus, 'Abdu 'r-Rahman declared 'Uthman to be the caliph.
- Medlung, Wilferd (1997). The succession to Muhammad. Cambridge University Press. p. 71. ISBN 0521561817. Retrieved June 30, 2014.
- Muhammad ibn Jarir al-Tabari (1994). "The Account of the Electoral Council". History of the Prophets and Kings. XIV. Translated by Smith, G. Rex. SUNY. pp. 146–147.
- Masudul Hasan, Hadrat Ali, Islamic Publications Ltd. Lahore
- Senior Research Fellow at the Institute of Ismaili Studies in London
- History of the Caliphs by Suyuti 
- Aslan, Reza – No god but God, Random House, 2005.
- Glubb, Sir John Bagot – The Great Arab Conquests, 1967.
- Madelung, W. – The Succession to Muhammad, Cambridge University Press, 1997.