Elections in Bangladesh

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Elections in Bangladesh gives information on election and election results in Bangladesh.

Bangladesh elects on national level a legislature with one house or chamber. The unicameral Jatiyo Sangshad, meaning national parliament, has 350 members of which 300 members are directly elected through a national election for a five-year term in single-seat constituencies while 50 memberships are reserved for the women who are selected by the ruling party or coalition. The Prime Minister is the head of the government. The president who is the head of the state is elected by the National Parliament. The president of Bangladesh is a ceremonial post and he/she does not exercise any control over the running of the state.

Bangladesh has an unofficial two-party system which has evolved over time since the election of 1991. It means that there are two dominant political parties or coalitions, one headed by Bangladesh Awami League and the other by Bangladesh Nationalist Party, with extreme difficulty for anybody to achieve electoral success under the banner of any other party in terms of achieving a majority.

Historical Overview[edit]

The constitution was adopted in 1972 and declared Bangladesh as a parliamentary republic. However, in 1975 executive powers were transferred to the Presidency, reducing the Jatiyo Sangshad and the Prime Minister to legislative powers only. This system was maintained until 1991 when the Twelfth Amendment was passed, returning the state to a parliamentary system. Since 1971, 11 parliamentary elections have been held and three Presidential elections have been held by popular vote.

Parliamentary elections[edit]

Electoral System[edit]

The Parliament of Bangladesh (Jatiya Sangsad) consists of 350 members elected to five-year terms. Of that number, 300 are elected in single-member territorial constituencies according to the First-Past-the-Post electoral system. The remaining 50 seats are reserved for women, and are filled on the basis of proportional representation by a vote of the 300 members. The number of reserved seats has been revised over the years, increasing from 30 to 45 under the 8th parliament and 45 to 50 under the 9th parliament.[1]

General Elections[edit]

Since independence in 1971, 11 general elections have been held in Bangladesh to elect members of the Jatiya Sangsad:

Presidential elections[edit]

From independence until constitutional reform in 1991, the President was elected by popular vote, although this only happened on three occasions - 1978, 1981 and 1986.

Following constitutional reform and a return to a parliamentary democracy in 1991, the office of the President has been largely a ceremonial one. The President is elected by a vote in the Jatiya Sangsad. A Presidential term is for five-years, although they remain in office until their successor is elected. Elections under this system have taken place in 1991, 1996, 2001, 2002, 2009, 2013 and 2018.

See also[edit]


  1. ^ Reserved parliamentary seats for women gets 25-year extension|Dhaka Tribune|8 July 2018
  2. ^ Bangladesher Nirbachan 1970-2001 by A S M Samsul Arefin, Bangladesh Research and Publications, Dhaka, Bangladesh, 2003, page-23
  3. ^ Bangladesher Nirbachan 1970-2001 by A S M Samsul Arefin, Bangladesh Research and Publications, Dhaka, Bangladesh, 2003, page-25
  4. ^ Bangladesher Nirbachan 1970-2001 by A S M Samsul Arefin, Bangladesh Research and Publications, Dhaka, Bangladesh, 2003, page-27
  5. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2008-05-26. Retrieved 2017-03-11.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  6. ^ Bangladesher Nirbachan 1970-2001 by A S M Samsul Arefin, Bangladesh Research and Publications, Dhaka, Bangladesh, 2003, page-30
  7. ^ Liton, Shakhawat (August 28, 2010). "Ershad's desperate bids go in vain". The Daily Star.
  8. ^ Ruling Party Is Declared the Winner in Bangladesh The New York Times, 6 March 1988
  9. ^ "BANGLADESH: parliamentary elections Jatiya Sangsad, 1991". archive.ipu.org. Inter-Parliamentary Union. Retrieved January 2, 2019.
  10. ^ "BANGLADESH: parliamentary elections Jatiya Sangsad, 1996". archive.ipu.org. Inter-Parliamentary Union. Retrieved 2018-12-27.
  11. ^ "After steering Awami League to power, Sheikh Hasina now faces political, economic challenges". India Today. 15 July 1996.
  12. ^ "www.ecs.gov.bd" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2013-07-29. Retrieved 2017-03-11.
  13. ^ "Clashes and boycott mar Bangladesh election". BBC News. 12 December 2013. Retrieved 6 January 2014.
  14. ^ a b c "Repolls ordered in 8 constituencies". bdnews24.com. 14 September 2013. Retrieved 6 January 2014.
  15. ^ "Newly elected Bangladesh MPs sworn in". Al Jazeera English.
  16. ^ Barry, Ellen (5 January 2014). "Low Turnout in Bangladesh Elections Amid Boycott and Violence". The New York Times. Retrieved 27 May 2014.
  17. ^ Barry, Ellen (6 January 2014). "Bangladesh ruling party wins after boycotted vote". The New York Times. Retrieved 5 January 2014.
  18. ^ Bangladesh election: Opposition demands new vote BBC News, 30 December 2018
  19. ^ Safi, Michael; Ahmed, Redwan (31 December 2018). "Bangladesh PM Hasina wins thumping victory in elections opposition reject as 'farcical'" – via www.theguardian.com.

External links[edit]