Elections in Brazil

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This article is part of a series on the
politics and government of
Brazil
Foreign relations

Brazil elects on the national level a head of state – the president – and a legislature. The president is elected to a four-year term by absolute majority vote through a two-round system. The National Congress (Congresso Nacional) has two chambers. The Chamber of Deputies (Câmara dos Deputados) has 513 members, elected to a four-year term by proportional representation. The Federal Senate (Senado Federal) has 81 members, elected to an eight-year term, with elections every four years for alternatively one-third and two-third of the seats.

Brazil has a multi-party system, with such numerous parties that often no one party has a chance of gaining power alone, and so they must work with each other to form coalition governments.

Schedule[edit]

Election[edit]

Position 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020 2021
Type Presidential (October)
National Congress (October)
Gubernatorial (October)
States and Federal District Parliaments (October)
None Mayors (October)
City Councils (October)
None Presidential (October)
National Congress (October)
Gubernatorial (October)
States and Federal District Parliaments (October)
None Mayors (October)
City Councils (October)
None
President and
vice president
President and vice president None President and vice president None
National Congress All seats (Chamber of Deputies)
One third (Federal Senate)
None All seats (Chamber of Deputies)
Two thirds (Federal Senate)
None
States, cities and municipalities All positions (States and Federal District) None All positions (Municipalities) None All positions (States and Federal District) None All positions (Municipalities) None

Inauguration[edit]

Position 2011 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020 2021 2022
Type Presidential (January)
National Congress (January)
Gubernatorial (January)
States and Federal District Parliaments (January)
None Mayors (January)
City Councils (January)
None Presidential (January)
National Congress (January)
Gubernatorial (January)
States and Federal District Parliaments (January)
None Mayors (January)
City Councils (January)
None
President and
vice president
1 January None 1 January None
National Congress 1 February None 1 February None
States, cities and municipalities 1 January None 1 January None 1 January None 1 January None

Electoral systems[edit]

Deputies are elected to the Chamber of Deputies using a form of party-list proportional representation known as the "open list."[1]

Senators are elected to the Federal Senate with a plurality of the vote in a first-past-the-post system, which is not proportional.[2] Three senators are elected for each state and for the Federal District.[3]

Brazilian voting machines[edit]

2010 general election[edit]

Presidential election[edit]

Presidential candidate Running mate 1st Round
October 3
2nd Round
October 31
Popular vote
Absolute Percentage Absolute Percentage
Dilma Rousseff (PT) Michel Temer (PMDB) 47,651,434 46.91% 55,752,529 56.05%
José Serra (PSDB) Indio da Costa (DEM) 33,132,283 32.61% 43,711,388 43.95%
Marina Silva (PV) Guilherme Leal (PV) 19,636,359 19.33%
Plínio de Arruda Sampaio (PSOL) Hamilton Assis (PSOL) 886,816 0.87%
José Maria Eymael (PSDC) José Paulo da Silva Neto (PSDC) 89,350 0.09%
José Maria de Almeida (PSTU) Cláudia Durans (PSTU) 84,609 0.08%
Levy Fidélix (PRTB) Luiz Eduardo Ayres Duarte (PRTB) 57,960 0.06%
Ivan Pinheiro (PCB) Edmilson Costa (PCB) 39,136 0.04%
Rui Costa Pimenta (PCO) Edson Dorta Silva (PCO) 12,206 0.01%
Valid votes 101,590,153 91.36% 99,463,917 93.30%
→ Blank votes 3,479,340 3.13% 2,452,597 2.30%
→ Null votes 6,124,254 5.51% 4,689,428 4.40%
Total votes 111,193,747 81.88% 106,606,214 78.50%
→ Abstention 24,610,296 18.12% 29,197,152 21.50%
Electorate 135,804,433 100.00% 135,804,433 100.00%

Parliamentary election[edit]

e • d Summary of the 3 October 2010 National Congress election results
Coalition Parties Chamber Senate
Seats % of seats +/– Elected seats Total seats % of seats +/–
Lulista   PT 88 17.1 +5 12 15 18.5 +7
  PMDB 79 15.3 −10 16 20 24.6 +3
  PR 41 7.9 +16 3 4 4.9
  PSB 34 6.6 +7 3 3 3.7
  PDT 28 5.4 +4 2 4 4.9 −2
  PSC 17 3.3 +8 1 1 1.2
  PCdoB 15 2.9 +2 1 2 2.4 +1
  PRB 8 1.5 +7 1 1 1.2 −1
  PTC 1 0.1 −2 0 0 0.0
  PTN 0 0.0 0 0 0.0
Total 311 60.6 +37 39 50 61.7 +8
Opposition
Centre-right
  PSDB 53 10.3 −13 5 11 13.5 −5
  DEM 43 8.3 −22 2 6 7.4 −7
  PTB 21 4.0 −2 1 6 7.4 −1
  PPS 12 2.3 −10 1 1 1.2 +1
  PMN 4 0.7 +1 1 1 1.2 +1
  PTdoB 3 0.5 +2 0 0 0.0
Total 136 26.5 –44 10 25 30.8 –11
Lulista
Out of coalition
  PP 41 7.9 3 4 4.9 +3
Opposition
Out of coalition
  PV 15 2.9 +2 0 0 0.0 −1
Opposition
Out of coalition
  PSOL 3 0.5 2 2 2.4 +1
Lulista
Out of coalition
  PHS 2 0.3 0 0 0.0
Lulista
Out of coalition
  PRP 2 0.3 +2 0 0 0.0
Lulista
Out of coalition
  PRTB 2 0.3 +2 0 0 0.0
Lulista
Out of coalition
  PSL 1 0.1 +1 0 0 0.0

Past elections and referendums[edit]

Election results 1982–2014[edit]

Brazilian legislative elections (Chamber of Deputies), 1982–2014

Parties 1982 1986 1990 1994 1998 2002 2006 2010 2014
Workers' Party 03.5 06.9 10.2 12.8 13.2 18.4 15.0 16.9 14.0
Brazilian Democratic Movement Party 43.0 48,1 19.3 20.3 15.2 13.4 14.6 13.0 11.1
Brazilian Social Democracy Party - - 08.7 13.9 17.5 14.3 13.6 11.9 11.4
Liberal Front Party/Democrats - 17.7 12.4 12.9 17.3 13.4 10.9 07.6 04.2
Liberal Party / Republic Party - 02.8 04.3 03.5 02.5 04.3 04.4 07.6 05.8
Brazilian Socialist Party - 00.9 01.9 02.2 03.4 05.3 06.2 07.1 06.5
Progressive Party - - - 06.9 11.3 07.8 07.1 06.6 06.4
Democratic Labour Party 05.8 06.5 10.0 07.2 05.7 05.1 05.2 05.0 03.6
Brazilian Labour Party 04.5 04.5 05.6 05.2 05.7 04.6 04.7 04.2 04.0
Green Party - - - 00.1 00.4 01.3 03.6 03.8 02.1
Social Christian Party - - 00.8 00.5 00.7 00.6 01.9 03.2 02.5
Communist Party of Brazil - 00.8 00.9 01.2 01.3 02.2 02.1 02.8 02.0
Popular Socialist Party - 00.9 01.0 00.6 01.3 03.1 03.9 02.6 02.0
Brazilian Republican Party - - - - - - 00.3 01.7 04.5
Socialism and Liberty Party - - - - - - 01.2 01.2 01.8
Party of National Mobilization - - 00.6 00.6 00.5 00.3 00.9 01.1 00.5
Democratic Social / Reform Progressive Party 43.2 07.8 08.9 09.4 - - - - -
National Reconstruction Party / Christian Labour Party - - 08.3 00.4 00.1 00.1 00.9 00.6 00.7
Christian Democratic Party / Christian Social Democratic Party - 01.2 03.0 - 00.1 00.2 00.4 00.2 00.5
Party of the Reconstruction of the National Order - - - 00.7 00.9 02.1 01.0 - -
Social Democratic Party - - - - - - - - 06.2
Republican Party of the Social Order - - - - - - - - 02.0
Solidarity - - - - - - - - 02.7
National Labour Party - - - - 00.1 00.1 00.2 00.2 00.4
National Ecologic Party - - - - - - - - 00.7
Labour Party of Brazil - - 00.2 - 00.3 00.2 00.3 00.7 00.8
Humanist Party of Solidarity - - - - - 00.3 00.5 00.8 00.9
Progressive Republican Party - - 00.2 00.5 00.4 00.3 00.3 00.3 00.7
Social Liberal Party - - - - 00.3 00.5 00.2 00.5 00.8
Brazilian Labour Renewal Party - - - 00.1 00.1 00.3 00.2 00.3 00.5
Others 00.0 02.8 03.7 00.7 01.7 01.5 00.4 00.0 00.7

Source: [1] Source: [2]

Referendums[edit]

Brazil has held three national referendums in its history. In the first, held on January 6, 1963, the people voted for the re-establishment of the presidential system of government (82% of valid ballots), which had been modified by a constitutional amendment in 1961. A second referendum, as ordered by the Federal Constitution of 1988, was held on April 21, 1993, when the voters voted for a republican form of government and reaffirmed the presidential system.

A third national referendum, on the prohibition of the commerce of personal firearms and ammunition, was held on October 23, 2005. The ban proposal was rejected by 64% of the voterate.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Grumpy about voting reform". The Economist. 2011-02-22. Retrieved 2011-05-04. 
  2. ^ "The Federal Senate". Portal da Câmara dos Deputados. Retrieved 2011-05-04. 
  3. ^ Andrianantoandro, Andy (2010-10-14). "Brazil's Presidential Hopefuls Face Runoff, National Congress Needs Reform". FairVote.org. Retrieved 2011-05-04. 

External links[edit]