Elections in Brazil

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Brazil elects on the national level a head of state—the president—and a legislature. The president is elected to a four-year term by absolute majority vote through a two-round system. The National Congress (Congresso Nacional) has two chambers. The Chamber of Deputies (Câmara dos Deputados) has 513 members, elected to a four-year term by proportional representation. The Federal Senate (Senado Federal) has 81 members, elected to an eight-year term, with elections every four years for alternatively one-third and two-thirds of the seats. Brazil has a multi-party system, with such numerous parties that often no one party has a chance of gaining power alone, and so they must work with each other to form coalition governments.

Schedule[edit]

Election[edit]

Position 2018 2019 2020 2021 2022 2023 2024 2025 2026
Type Presidential (October)
National Congress (October)
Gubernatorial (October)
States and Federal District Parliaments (October)
None Mayors (October)
City Councils (October)
None Presidential (October)
National Congress (October)
Gubernatorial (October)
States and Federal District Parliaments (October)
None Mayors (October)
City Councils (October)
None Presidential (October)
National Congress (October)
Gubernatorial (October)
States and Federal District Parliaments (October)
President and
vice president
President and vice president None President and vice president None President and vice president
National Congress All seats (Chamber of Deputies)
Two thirds (Federal Senate)
None All seats (Chamber of Deputies)
One third (Federal Senate)
None All seats (Chamber of Deputies)
Two thirds (Federal Senate)
States, cities and municipalities All positions (States and Federal District) None All positions (Municipalities) None All positions (States and Federal District) None All positions (Municipalities) None All positions (States and Federal District)


Inauguration[edit]

Position 2019 2020 2021 2022 2023 2024 2025 2026 2027
Type Presidential (January)
National Congress (February)
Gubernatorial (January)
States and Federal District Parliaments (January)
None Mayors (January)
City Councils (January)
None Presidential (January)
National Congress (February)
Gubernatorial (January)
States and Federal District Parliaments (January)
None Mayors (January)
City Councils (January)
None Presidential (January)
National Congress (February)
Gubernatorial (January)
States and Federal District Parliaments (January)
President and
vice president
1 January None 1 January None 5 January
National Congress 1 February None 1 February None 1 February
States, cities and municipalities 1 January None 1 January None 1 January None 1 January None 1 January

Electoral systems[edit]

A presidential candidate in Brazil needs to gain fifty per cent plus one of votes to be named as winner. A second-round runoff is mandated if no candidate receives fifty per cent plus one of votes.[1]

Deputies are elected to the Chamber of Deputies using a form of party-list proportional representation known as the open list. Seats are distributed in 27 multi-member constituencies based on the Federation Units (26 States and the Federal District), ranging from 8 to 70 seats. Seats are allocated through the D'Hondt method. [2]

Senators are elected to the Federal Senate with a plurality of the vote in a first-past-the-post system, which is not proportional.[3] Three senators are elected for each state and for the Federal District.[4]

In lower levels of government, the state legislative assemblies and city councils are elected using an open list proportional representation system. Seats are allocated using a version of the D'Hondt method where only parties who receive at least V/n votes (where V is the total number of votes cast and n is the total number of seats to be filled) may win seats in the legislature.[5][6]

Voting in Brazil is compulsory for all literate citizens over 18 and under 70, and optional for citizens who are aged 16 and 17, older than 70 or illiterate. Brazil introduced compulsory voting into its Electoral Code in 1932 and lowered the voting age from 18 to 16 in the 1988 constitution.[7] The 1988 constitution also granted voluntary suffrage to the illiterate citizens of Brazil.[8]

Brazilian voting machines[edit]

Electronic voting was first introduced to Brazil in 1996; with the first tests carried out in the state of Santa Catarina. The primary design goal of the Brazilian voting machine is extreme simplicity, the model being a public phone booth.

The Brazilian voting machine accomplishes three steps (voter identification, secure voting and tallying) in a single process, eliminating fraud based on forged or falsified public documents. Political parties have access to the voting machine's programs before the election for auditing.

Presidential elections by party[edit]

Current parties
Party Acronym Election Presidential candidate Vice presidential candidate Colligation Results
Act AGIR 2022 Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva (PT) Geraldo Alckmin (PSB) Brazil of Hope Federation (PT, PCdoB, PV), PSB, AGIR, AVANTE, PSOL-REDE Federation (PSOL, REDE), SOLIDARIEDADE
2018 Álvaro Dias (PODE) Paulo Rabelo de Castro (PSC) PODE, PSC, AGIR, PRP Lost Red XN
2014 Aécio Neves (PSDB) Aloysio Nunes (PSDB) PSDB, AGIR, AVANTE, DEM, PATRIOTA, PMN, PODE, PTB, SOLIDARIEDADE Lost Red XN
2010 Dilma Rousseff (PT) Michel Temer (MDB) PT, MDB, AGIR, PCdoB, PDT, PL, PODE, PSB, PSC, REPUBLICANOS Elected Green tickY
2002 Anthony Garotinho (PSB) José Antônio Figueiredo (PSB) PSB, AGIR, PGT Lost Red XN
1994 Carlos Antônio Gomes (AGIR) Dilton Carlos Salomoni (AGIR) - Lost Red XN
1989 Fernando Collor de Mello (AGIR) Itamar Franco (AGIR) AGIR, PSC, PST, PTR Elected Green tickY
Brazilian Communist Party PCB 2022 Sofia Manzano (PCB) Antonio Alves da Silva (PCB) -
2018 Guilherme Boulos (PSOL) Sônia Guajajara (PSOL) PSOL, PCB Lost Red XN
2014 Mauro Iasi (PCB) Sofia Manzano (PCB) - Lost Red XN
2010 Ivan Pinheiro (PCB) Edmilson Costa (PCB) - Lost Red XN
2006 Heloísa Helena (PSOL) César Benjamin (PSOL) PSOL, PCB, PSTU Lost Red XN
2002 Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva (PT) José Alencar (PL) PT, PL, PCB, PCdoB, PMN Elected Green tickY
1998 Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva (PT) Leonel Brizola (PDT) PT, PDT, PCB, PCdoB, PSB Lost Red XN
1994 Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva (PT) Aloízio Mercadante (PT) PT, CIDADANIA, PCB, PCdoB, PSB, PSTU, PV Lost Red XN
1989 Roberto Freire (PCB) Sérgio Arouca (PCB) - Lost Red XN
1985 - - - -
1978 - - - -
1974 - - - -
1969 - - - -
1966 - - - -
1964 - - - -
1960 - - - -
1955 - - - -
1950 - - - -
1945 Iedo Fiúza (PCB) - - Lost Red XN
1934 - - - -
1930 Minervino de Oliveira (PCB) - - Lost Red XN
- Gastão Valentim (PCB) - Lost Red XN
1926 - - - -
1922 - - - -
Brazilian Democratic Movement MDB 2022 Simone Tebet (MDB) Mara Gabrilli (PSDB) MDB, PSDB CIDADANIA Federation (CIDADANIA, PSDB), PODE
2018 Henrique Meirelles (MDB) Germano Rigotto (MDB) MDB, PHS Lost Red XN
2014 Dilma Rousseff (PT) Michel Temer (MDB) PT, MDB, PCdoB, PDT, PL, PP, PROS, PSD, REPUBLICANOS Elected Green tickY
2010 Dilma Rousseff (PT) Michel Temer (MDB) PT, MDB, AGIR, PCdoB, PDT, PL, PODE, PSB, PSC, REPUBLICANOS Elected Green tickY
2006 - - - -
2002 José Serra (PSDB) Rita Camata (MDB) PSDB, MDB Lost Red XN
1998 - - - -
1994 Orestes Quércia (MDB) Iris de Araújo (MDB) MDB, PSD, PRP Lost Red XN
1989 Ulysses Guimarães (MDB) Waldir Pires (MDB) - Lost Red XN
1985 Tancredo Neves (MDB) José Sarney (MDB) - Elected Green tickY
1978 Euler Bentes Monteiro (MDB) Paulo Brossard (MDB) - Lost Red XN
1974 Ulysses Guimarães (MDB) Barbosa Lima Sobrinho (MDB) Lost Red XN
1969 - - - -
1966 - - - -
Brazilian Labour Party PTB 2022 Kelmon Souza (PTB) Luiz Cláudio Gamonal (PTB) -
2018 Geraldo Alckmin (PSDB) Ana Amélia Lemos (PP) PSDB, PP, CIDADANIA, DEM, PL, PSD, PTB, REPUBLICANOS, SOLIDARIEDADE Lost Red XN
2014 Aécio Neves (PSDB) Aloysio Nunes (PSDB) PSDB, AGIR, AVANTE, DEM, PATRIOTA, PMN, PODE, PTB, SOLIDARIEDADE Lost Red XN
2010 José Serra (PSDB) Indio da Costa (DEM) PSDB, DEM, AVANTE, CIDADANIA, PMN, PTB Lost Red XN
2006 - - - -
2002 Ciro Gomes (CIDADANIA) Paulinho da Força (PTB) CIDADANIA, PTB, PDT Lost Red XN
1998 Fernando Henrique Cardoso (PSDB) Marco Maciel (DEM) PSDB, DEM, PP, PSD, PTB Elected Green tickY
1994 Fernando Henrique Cardoso (PSDB) Marco Maciel (DEM) PSDB, DEM, PTB Elected Green tickY
1989 Affonso Camargo Neto (PTB) Paiva Muniz (PTB) - Lost Red XN
Brazilian Labour Renewal Party PRTB 2022 - - - -
2018 Jair Bolsonaro (PSL) Hamilton Mourão (PRTB) PSL, PRTB Elected Green tickY
2014 Levy Fidelix (PRTB) José Alves de Oliveira (PRTB) - Lost Red XN
2010 Levy Fidelix (PRTB) Luiz Eduardo Ayres Duarte (PRTB) - Lost Red XN
2006 - - - -
2002 - - - -
1998 - - - -
Brazilian Social Democracy Party PSDB 2022 Simone Tebet (MDB) Mara Gabrilli (PSDB) MDB, PSDB CIDADANIA Federation (CIDADANIA, PSDB), PODE
2018 Geraldo Alckmin (PSDB) Ana Amélia Lemos (PP) PSDB, PP, CIDADANIA, DEM, PL, PSD, PTB, REPUBLICANOS, SOLIDARIEDADE Lost Red XN
2014 Aécio Neves (PSDB) Aloysio Nunes (PSDB) PSDB, AGIR, AVANTE, DEM, PATRIOTA, PMN, PODE, PTB, SOLIDARIEDADE Lost Red XN
2010 José Serra (PSDB) Indio da Costa (DEM) PSDB, DEM, AVANTE, CIDADANIA, PMN, PTB Lost Red XN
2006 Geraldo Alckmin (PSDB) José Jorge (DEM) PSDB, DEM Lost Red XN
2002 José Serra (PSDB) Rita Camata (MDB) PSDB, MDB Lost Red XN
1998 Fernando Henrique Cardoso (PSDB) Marco Maciel (DEM) PSDB, DEM, PP, PSD, PTB Elected Green tickY
1994 Fernando Henrique Cardoso (PSDB) Marco Maciel (DEM) PSDB, DEM, PTB Elected Green tickY
1989 Mário Covas (PSDB) Almir Gabriel (PSDB) - Lost Red XN
Brazilian Socialist Party PSB 2022 Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva (PT) Geraldo Alckmin (PSB) Brazil of Hope Federation (PT, PCdoB, PV), PSB, AGIR, AVANTE, PSOL-REDE Federation (PSOL, REDE), SOLIDARIEDADE
2018 - - - -
2014 Marina Silva (PSB) Beto Albuquerque (PSB) PSB, CIDADANIA, PHS, PPL, PRP, PSL Lost Red XN
2010 Dilma Rousseff (PT) Michel Temer (MDB) PT, MDB, AGIR, PCdoB, PDT, PL, PODE, PSB, PSC, REPUBLICANOS Elected Green tickY
2006 - - - -
2002 Anthony Garotinho (PSB) José Antônio Figueiredo (PSB) PSB, AGIR, PGT Lost Red XN
1998 Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva (PT) Leonel Brizola (PDT) PT, PDT, PCB, PCdoB, PSB Lost Red XN
1994 Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva (PT) Aloízio Mercadante (PT) PT, CIDADANIA, PCB, PCdoB, PSB, PSTU, PV Lost Red XN
1989 Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva (PT) José Paulo Bisol (PSB) PT, PSB, PCdoB Lost Red XN
1985 - - - -
1978 - - - -
1974 - - - -
1969 - - - -
1966 - - - -
1964 - - - -
1960 Henrique Teixeira Lott (PSD) - PSD, PTB, PRT, PSB, PST Lost Red XN
- João Goulart (PTB) Elected Green tickY
1955 Juarez Távora (UDN) UDN, PDC, PL, PSB Lost Red XN
Milton Campos (UDN) Lost Red XN
1950 João Mangabeira (PSB) - - Lost Red XN
- Alípio Correia Neto (PSB) Lost Red XN
Brazilian Woman's Party PMB 2022 - - - -
2018 - - - -
Brazil Union UNIÃO 2022 Soraya Thronicke (UNIÃO) Marcos Cintra (UNIÃO) -
Christian Democracy DC 2022 José Maria Eymael (DC) João Barbosa Bravo (DC) -
2018 José Maria Eymael (DC) Hélvio Costa (DC) - Lost Red XN
2014 José Maria Eymael (DC) Roberto Lopes (DC) - Lost Red XN
2010 José Maria Eymael (DC) José Paulo da Silva Neto (DC) - Lost Red XN
2006 José Maria Eymael (DC) José Paulo da Silva Neto (DC) - Lost Red XN
2002 - - - -
1998 José Maria Eymael (DC) Josmar Oliveira Alderete (DC) - Lost Red XN
Citizenship CIDADANIA 2022 Simone Tebet (MDB) Mara Gabrilli (PSDB) MDB, PSDB CIDADANIA Federation (CIDADANIA, PSDB), PODE
2018 Geraldo Alckmin (PSDB) Ana Amélia Lemos (PP) PSDB, PP, CIDADANIA, DEM, PL, PSD, PTB, REPUBLICANOS, SOLIDARIEDADE Lost Red XN
2014 Marina Silva (PSB) Beto Albuquerque (PSB) PSB, CIDADANIA, PHS, PPL, PRP, PSL Lost Red XN
2010 José Serra (PSDB) Indio da Costa (DEM) PSDB, DEM, AVANTE, CIDADANIA, PMN, PTB Lost Red XN
2006 - - - -
2002 Ciro Gomes (CIDADANIA) Paulinho da Força (PTB) CIDADANIA, PTB, PDT Lost Red XN
1998 Ciro Gomes (CIDADANIA) Roberto Freire (CIDADANIA) CIDADANIA, PAN, PL Lost Red XN
1994 Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva (PT) Aloízio Mercadante (PT) PT, CIDADANIA, PCB, PCdoB, PSB, PSTU, PV Lost Red XN
Communist Party of Brazil PCdoB 2022 Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva (PT) Geraldo Alckmin (PSB) Brazil of Hope Federation (PT, PCdoB, PV), PSB, AGIR, AVANTE, PSOL-REDE Federation (PSOL, REDE), SOLIDARIEDADE
2018 Fernando Haddad (PT) Manuela D'Ávila (PCdoB) PT, PCdoB, PROS Lost Red XN
2014 Dilma Rousseff (PT) Michel Temer (MDB) PT, MDB, PCdoB, PDT, PL, PP, PROS, PSD, REPUBLICANOS Elected Green tickY
2010 Dilma Rousseff (PT) Michel Temer (MDB) PT, MDB, AGIR, PCdoB, PDT, PL, PODE, PSB, PSC, REPUBLICANOS Elected Green tickY
2006 Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva (PT) José Alencar (REPUBLICANOS) PT, REPUBLICANOS, PCdoB Elected Green tickY
2002 Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva (PT) José Alencar (PL) PT, PL, PCB, PCdoB, PMN Elected Green tickY
1998 Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva (PT) Leonel Brizola (PDT) PT, PDT, PCB, PCdoB, PSB Lost Red XN
1994 Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva (PT) Aloízio Mercadante (PT) PT, CIDADANIA, PCB, PCdoB, PSB, PSTU, PV Lost Red XN
1989 Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva (PT) José Paulo Bisol (PSB) PT, PSB, PCdoB Lost Red XN
Democratic Labour Party PDT 2022 Ciro Gomes (PDT) Ana Paula Matos (PDT) PDT
2018 Ciro Gomes (PDT) Kátia Abreu (PDT) PDT, AVANTE Lost Red XN
2014 Dilma Rousseff (PT) Michel Temer (MDB) PT, MDB, PCdoB, PDT, PL, PP, PROS, PSD, REPUBLICANOS Elected Green tickY
2010 Dilma Rousseff (PT) Michel Temer (MDB) PT, MDB, AGIR, PCdoB, PDT, PL, PODE, PSB, PSC, REPUBLICANOS Elected Green tickY
2006 Cristovam Buarque (PDT) Jefferson Péres (PDT) - Lost Red XN
2002 Ciro Gomes (CIDADANIA) Paulinho da Força (PTB) CIDADANIA, PTB, PDT Lost Red XN
1998 Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva (PT) Leonel Brizola (PDT) PT, PDT, PCB, PCdoB, PSB Lost Red XN
1994 Leonel Brizola (PDT) Darcy Ribeiro (PDT) PDT, PMN Lost Red XN
1989 Leonel Brizola (PDT) Fernando Lyra (PDT) - Lost Red XN
Forward AVANTE 2022 Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva (PT) Geraldo Alckmin (PSB) Brazil of Hope Federation (PT, PCdoB, PV), PSB, AGIR, AVANTE, PSOL-REDE Federation (PSOL, REDE), SOLIDARIEDADE
2018 Ciro Gomes (PDT) Kátia Abreu (PDT) PDT, AVANTE Lost Red XN
2014 Aécio Neves (PSDB) Aloysio Nunes (PSDB) PSDB, AGIR, AVANTE, DEM, PATRIOTA, PMN, PODE, PTB, SOLIDARIEDADE Lost Red XN
2010 José Serra (PSDB) Indio da Costa (DEM) PSDB, DEM, AVANTE, CIDADANIA, PMN, PTB Lost Red XN
2006 - - - -
2002 - - - -
1998 João de Deus (AVANTE) Nanci Pilar (AVANTE) - Lost Red XN
Green Party PV 2022 Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva (PT) Geraldo Alckmin (PSB) Brazil of Hope Federation (PT, PCdoB, PV), PSB, AGIR, AVANTE, PSOL-REDE Federation (PSOL, REDE), SOLIDARIEDADE
2018 Marina Silva (REDE) Eduardo Jorge (PV) REDE, PV Lost Red XN
2014 Eduardo Jorge (PV) Célia Sacramento (PV) - Lost Red XN
2010 Marina Silva (PV) Guilherme Leal (PV) - Lost Red XN
2006 - - - -
2002 - - - -
1998 Alfredo Sirkis (PV) Carla Piranda Rabello (PV) - Lost Red XN
1994 Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva (PT) Aloízio Mercadante (PT) PT, CIDADANIA, PCB, PCdoB, PSB, PSTU, PV Lost Red XN
1989 Fernando Gabeira (PV) Mauricio Lobo de Abreu (PV) - Lost Red XN
Liberal Party PL 2022 Jair Bolsonaro (PL) Walter Braga Netto (PL) PL, REPUBLICANOS, PP
2018 Geraldo Alckmin (PSDB) Ana Amélia Lemos (PP) PSDB, PP, CIDADANIA, DEM, PL, PSD, PTB, REPUBLICANOS, SOLIDARIEDADE Lost Red XN
2014 Dilma Rousseff (PT) Michel Temer (MDB) PT, MDB, PCdoB, PDT, PL, PP, PROS, PSD, REPUBLICANOS Elected Green tickY
2010 Dilma Rousseff (PT) Michel Temer (MDB) PT, MDB, AGIR, PCdoB, PDT, PL, PODE, PSB, PSC, REPUBLICANOS Elected Green tickY
National Mobilization Party PMN 2022 - - - -
2018 - - - -
2014 Aécio Neves (PSDB) Aloysio Nunes (PSDB) PSDB, AGIR, AVANTE, DEM, PATRIOTA, PMN, PODE, PTB, SOLIDARIEDADE Lost Red XN
2010 José Serra (PSDB) Indio da Costa (DEM) PSDB, DEM, AVANTE, CIDADANIA, PMN, PTB Lost Red XN
2006 - - - -
2002 Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva (PT) José Alencar (PL) PT, PL, PCB, PCdoB, PMN Elected Green tickY
1998 Ivan Frota (PMN) João Ferreira da Silva (PMN) - Lost Red XN
1994 Leonel Brizola (PDT) Darcy Ribeiro (PDT) PDT, PMN Lost Red XN
1989 Celso Brant (PMN) José Natan Emídio Neto (PMN) - Lost Red XN
New Party NOVO 2022 Luiz Felipe d'Avila (NOVO) Tiago Mitraud (NOVO) -
2018 João Amoêdo (NOVO) Christian Lohbauer (NOVO) - Lost Red XN
Patriot PATRIOTA 2022 - - - -
2018 Cabo Daciolo (PATRIOTA) Suelene Balduino Nascimento (PATRIOTA) - Lost Red XN
2014 Aécio Neves (PSDB) Aloysio Nunes (PSDB) PSDB, AGIR, AVANTE, DEM, PATRIOTA, PMN, PODE, PTB, SOLIDARIEDADE Lost Red XN
Popular Unity UP 2022 Leonardo Péricles (UP) Samara Martins (UP) UP
Progressives PP 2022 Jair Bolsonaro (PL) Walter Braga Netto (PL) PL, REPUBLICANOS, PP
2018 Geraldo Alckmin (PSDB) Ana Amélia Lemos (PP) PSDB, PP, CIDADANIA, DEM, PL, PSD, PTB, REPUBLICANOS, SOLIDARIEDADE Lost Red XN
2014 Dilma Rousseff (PT) Michel Temer (MDB) PT, MDB, PCdoB, PDT, PL, PP, PROS, PSD, REPUBLICANOS Elected Green tickY
2010 - - - -
2006 - - - -
2002 - - - -
1998 Fernando Henrique Cardoso (PSDB) Marco Maciel (DEM) PSDB, DEM, PP, PSD, PTB Elected Green tickY
Republican Party of the Social Order PROS 2022 Pablo Marçal (PROS) Fátima Pérola Neggra (PROS) -
2018 Fernando Haddad (PT) Manuela D'Ávila (PCdoB) PT, PCdoB, PROS Lost Red XN
2014 Dilma Rousseff (PT) Michel Temer (MDB) PT, MDB, PCdoB, PDT, PL, PP, PROS, PSD, REPUBLICANOS Elected Green tickY
2010 - - - -
Republicans REPUBLICANOS 2022 Jair Bolsonaro (PL) Walter Braga Netto (PL) PL, REPUBLICANOS, PP
2018 Geraldo Alckmin (PSDB) Ana Amélia Lemos (PP) PSDB, PP, CIDADANIA, DEM, PL, PSD, PTB, REPUBLICANOS, SOLIDARIEDADE Lost Red XN
2014 Dilma Rousseff (PT) Michel Temer (MDB) PT, MDB, PCdoB, PDT, PL, PP, PROS, PSD, REPUBLICANOS Elected Green tickY
2010 Dilma Rousseff (PT) Michel Temer (MDB) PT, MDB, AGIR, PCdoB, PDT, PL, PODE, PSB, PSC, REPUBLICANOS Elected Green tickY
2006 Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva (PT) José Alencar (REPUBLICANOS) PT, REPUBLICANOS, PCdoB Elected Green tickY
Social Christian Party PSC 2022 - - - -
2018 Álvaro Dias (PODE) Paulo Rabelo de Castro (PSC) PODE, PSC, AGIR, PRP Lost Red XN
2014 Everaldo Pereira (PSC) Leonardo Gadelha (PSC) - Lost Red XN
2010 Dilma Rousseff (PT) Michel Temer (MDB) PT, MDB, AGIR, PCdoB, PDT, PL, PODE, PSB, PSC, REPUBLICANOS Elected Green tickY
2006 - - - -
2002 - - - -
1998 Sérgio Bueno (PSC) Ronald Abrahão Azaro (PSC) - Lost Red XN
1994 Hernani Fortuna (PSC) Vítor Nósseis (PSC) - Lost Red XN
1989 Fernando Collor de Mello (AGIR) Itamar Franco (AGIR) AGIR, PSC, PST, PTR Elected Green tickY
Social Democratic Party PSD 2022 - - - -
2018 Geraldo Alckmin (PSDB) Ana Amélia Lemos (PP) PSDB, PP, CIDADANIA, DEM, PL, PSD, PTB, REPUBLICANOS, SOLIDARIEDADE Lost Red XN
2014 Dilma Rousseff (PT) Michel Temer (MDB) PT, MDB, PCdoB, PDT, PL, PP, PROS, PSD, REPUBLICANOS Elected Green tickY
Socialism and Liberty Party PSOL 2022 Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva (PT) Geraldo Alckmin (PSB) Brazil of Hope Federation (PT, PCdoB, PV), PSB, AGIR, AVANTE, PSOL-REDE Federation (PSOL, REDE), SOLIDARIEDADE
2018 Guilherme Boulos (PSOL) Sônia Guajajara (PSOL) PSOL, PCB Lost Red XN
2014 Luciana Genro (PSOL) Jorge Paz (PSOL) - Lost Red XN
2010 Plínio de Arruda Sampaio (PSOL) Hamilton Assis (PSOL) - Lost Red XN
2006 Heloísa Helena (PSOL) César Benjamin (PSOL) PSOL, PCB, PSTU Lost Red XN
Solidarity SOLIDARIEDADE 2022 Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva (PT) Geraldo Alckmin (PSB) Brazil of Hope Federation (PT, PCdoB, PV), PSB, AGIR, AVANTE, PSOL-REDE Federation (PSOL, REDE), SOLIDARIEDADE
2018 Geraldo Alckmin (PSDB) Ana Amélia Lemos (PP) PSDB, PP, CIDADANIA, DEM, PL, PSD, PTB, REPUBLICANOS, SOLIDARIEDADE Lost Red XN
2014 Aécio Neves (PSDB) Aloysio Nunes (PSDB) PSDB, AGIR, AVANTE, DEM, PATRIOTA, PMN, PODE, PTB, SOLIDARIEDADE Lost Red XN
Sustainability Network REDE 2022 Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva (PT) Geraldo Alckmin (PSB) Brazil of Hope Federation (PT, PCdoB, PV), PSB, AGIR, AVANTE, PSOL-REDE Federation (PSOL, REDE), SOLIDARIEDADE
2018 Marina Silva (REDE) Eduardo Jorge (PV) REDE, PV Lost Red XN
United Socialist Workers' Party PSTU 2022 Vera Lúcia Salgado (PSTU) Kunã Yporã Tremembé (PSTU) -
2018 Vera Lúcia Salgado (PSTU) Hertz Dias (PSTU) - Lost Red XN
2014 José Maria de Almeida (PSTU) Cláudia Durans (PSTU) - Lost Red XN
2010 José Maria de Almeida (PSTU) Cláudia Durans (PSTU) - Lost Red XN
2006 Heloísa Helena (PSOL) César Benjamin (PSOL) PSOL, PCB, PSTU Lost Red XN
2002 José Maria de Almeida (PSTU) Dayse Oliveira (PSTU) - Lost Red XN
1998 José Maria de Almeida (PSTU) José Galvão de Lima (PSTU) - Lost Red XN
1994 Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva (PT) Aloízio Mercadante (PT) PT, CIDADANIA, PCB, PCdoB, PSB, PSTU, PV Lost Red XN
We Can PODE 2022 Simone Tebet (MDB) Mara Gabrilli (PSDB) MDB, PSDB CIDADANIA Federation (CIDADANIA, PSDB), PODE
2018 Álvaro Dias (PODE) Paulo Rabelo de Castro (PSC) PODE, PSC, AGIR, PRP Lost Red XN
2014 Aécio Neves (PSDB) Aloysio Nunes (PSDB) PSDB, AGIR, AVANTE, DEM, PATRIOTA, PMN, PODE, PTB, SOLIDARIEDADE Lost Red XN
2010 Dilma Rousseff (PT) Michel Temer (MDB) PT, MDB, AGIR, PCdoB, PDT, PL, PODE, PSB, PSC, REPUBLICANOS Elected Green tickY
2006 - - - -
2002 - - - -
1998 Thereza Ruiz (PODE) Eduardo Gomes (PODE) - Lost Red XN
Workers' Cause Party PCO 2022 - - - -
2018 - - - -
2014 Rui Costa Pimenta (PCO) Ricardo Machado (PCO) - Lost Red XN
2010 Rui Costa Pimenta (PCO) Edson Dorta Silva (PCO) - Lost Red XN
2006 - - - -
2002 Rui Costa Pimenta (PCO) Pedro Paulo de Abreu (PCO) - Lost Red XN
1998 - - - -
Workers' Party PT 2022 Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva (PT) Geraldo Alckmin (PSB) Brazil of Hope Federation (PT, PCdoB, PV), PSB, AGIR, AVANTE, PSOL-REDE Federation (PSOL, REDE), SOLIDARIEDADE
2018 Fernando Haddad (PT) Manuela D'Ávila (PCdoB) PT, PCdoB, PROS Lost Red XN
2014 Dilma Rousseff (PT) Michel Temer (MDB) PT, MDB, PCdoB, PDT, PL, PP, PROS, PSD, REPUBLICANOS Elected Green tickY
2010 Dilma Rousseff (PT) Michel Temer (MDB) PT, MDB, AGIR, PCdoB, PDT, PL, PODE, PSB, PSC, REPUBLICANOS Elected Green tickY
2006 Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva (PT) José Alencar (REPUBLICANOS) PT, REPUBLICANOS, PCdoB Elected Green tickY
2002 Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva (PT) José Alencar (PL) PT, PL, PCB, PCdoB, PMN Elected Green tickY
1998 Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva (PT) Leonel Brizola (PDT) PT, PDT, PCB, PCdoB, PSB Lost Red XN
1994 Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva (PT) Aloízio Mercadante (PT) PT, CIDADANIA, PCB, PCdoB, PSB, PSTU, PV Lost Red XN
1989 Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva (PT) José Paulo Bisol (PSB) PT, PSB, PCdoB Lost Red XN

2018 general election[edit]

Presidential election[edit]

Candidate Running mate Coalition First round Second round
Valid Votes % Valid Votes %
Jair Bolsonaro (PSL) Hamilton Mourão (PRTB) Brazil Above Everything, God Above Everyone 49,276,990 46.03 57,797,847 55.13
Fernando Haddad (PT) Manuela d'Ávila (PCdoB) The People Happy Again 31,342,005 29.28 47,040,906 44.87
Ciro Gomes (PDT) Kátia Abreu (PDT) Sovereign Brazil 13,344,366 12.47
Geraldo Alckmin (PSDB) Ana Amélia (PP) To Unite Brazil 5,096,349 4.76
João Amoêdo (NOVO) Christian Lohbauer (NOVO) 2,679,744 2.50
Cabo Daciolo (PATRI) Suelene Balduíno (PATRI) 1,348,323 1.26
Henrique Meirelles (MDB) Germano Rigotto (MDB) This is the Solution 1,288,948 1.20
Marina Silva (REDE) Eduardo Jorge (PV) United to Transform Brazil 1,069,577 1.00
Alvaro Dias (PODE) Paulo Rabello de Castro (PSC) Real Change 859,601 0.80
Guilherme Boulos (PSOL) Sônia Guajajara (PSOL) Let's Go Without Fear of Changing Brazil 617,122 0.58
Vera Lúcia (PSTU) Hertz Dias (PSTU) 55,762 0.05
José Maria Eymael (DC) Hélvio Costa (DC) 41,170 0.04
João Vicente Goulart (PPL) Léo Dias (PPL) 30,176 0.03
Valid votes 107,050,133 91.21 104,838,753 90.43
Null votes 7,206,205 6.14 8,608,105 7.43
Blank votes 3.106.936 2.65 2,486,593 2.14
Total votes 117,363,274 100.00 115,933,451 100.00
Registered voters/turnout 117,363,274 79.67 115,933,451 78.70
Source: Tribunal Superior Eleitoral.

Parliamentary election[edit]

Party Chamber of Deputies Senate
Votes % Seats +/– Votes % Elected Total +/–
Social Liberal Party 11,457,878 11.7 52 +44 19,413,869 11.3 4 4 +4
Workers' Party 10,126,611 10.3 56 –13 24,785,670 14.5 4 6 –6
Brazilian Social Democracy Party 5,905,541 6.0 29 –25 20,310,558 11.9 4 8 –2
Social Democratic Party 5,749,008 5.8 34 –2 8,202,342 4.8 4 7 +4
Progressistas 5,480,067 5.6 37 –1 7,529,901 4.4 5 6 +1
Brazilian Democratic Movement 5,439,167 5.5 34 –32 12,800,290 7.5 7 12 –6
Brazilian Socialist Party 5,386,400 5.5 32 –2 8,234,195 4.8 2 2 –5
Republic Party 5,224,591 5.3 33 –1 3,130,082 1.8 1 2 –2
Brazilian Republican Party 4,992,016 5.1 30 +9 1,505,607 0.9 1 1
Democrats 4,581,162 4.7 29 +8 9,218,658 5.4 4 6 +2
Democratic Labour Party 4,545,846 4.6 28 +9 7,737,982 4.5 2 5 –3
Socialism and Liberty Party 2,783,669 2.8 10 +5 5,273,853 3.1 0 0 –1
New Party 2,748,079 2.8 8 New 3,467,746 2.0 0 0
Podemos 2,243,320 2.3 11 +7 5,494,125 3.2 1 5 +5
Republican Party of the Social Order 2,042,610 2.1 8 –3 1,370,513 0.8 1 1
Brazilian Labour Party 2,022,719 2.1 10 –15 1,899,838 1.1 2 3
Solidariedade 1,953,067 2.0 13 –2 4,001,903 2.3 1 1
Avante 1,844,048 1.9 7 +5 713,379 0.4 0 0
Social Christian Party 1,765,226 1.8 8 –5 4,126,068 2.4 1 1 +1
Green Party 1,592,173 1.6 4 –4 1,226,392 0.7 0 0 –1
Popular Socialist Party 1,590,084 1.6 8 –2 2,954,800 1.7 2 2 +2
Patriota 1,432,304 1.5 5 +3 60,589 0.0 0 0
Humanist Party of Solidarity 1,426,444 1.5 6 +1 4,228,973 2.5 2 2 +2
Communist Party of Brazil 1,329,575 1.4 9 –1 1,673,190 1.0 0 0 –1
Progressive Republican Party 851,368 0.9 4 +1 1,974,061 1.2 1 1 +1
Sustainability Network 816,784 0.8 1 New 7,166,003 4.2 5 5 New
Brazilian Labour Renewal Party 684,976 0.7 0 –1 886,267 0.5 0 0
Party of National Mobilization 634,129 0.6 3 329,973 0.2 0 0
Christian Labour Party 601,814 0.6 2 222,931 0.1 0 1 +1
Free Homeland Party 385,197 0.4 1 +1 504,209 0.3 0 0
Christian Democracy 369,386 0.4 1 –1 154,068 0.1 0 0
Party of Brazilian Women 228,302 0.2 0 51,027 0.0 0 0
Brazilian Communist Party 61,343 0.1 0 256,655 0.1 0 0
United Socialist Workers Party 41,304 0.0 0 413,914 0.2 0 0
Workers Cause Party 2,785 0.0 0 38,691 0.0 0 0
Invalid/blank votes 18,771,737 61,995,824
Total 117,111,476 100.0 513 0 117,111,478 100.0 54 81 0
Registered voters/turnout 146,750,529 79.8 146,750,529 79.8
Source: Election Resources

Election results 1982–2018[edit]

Brazilian legislative elections (Chamber of Deputies), 1982–2018

Parties 1982 1986 1990 1994 1998 2002 2006 2010 2014 2018
Workers' Party 3.5 6.9 10.2 12.8 13.2 18.4 15.0 16.9 14.0 10.3
Brazilian Democratic Movement 43.0 48,1 19.3 20.3 15.2 13.4 14.6 13.0 11.1 5.5
Brazilian Social Democracy Party - - 8.7 13.9 17.5 14.3 13.6 11.9 11.4 6.0
Liberal Front Party/Democrats - 17.7 12.4 12.9 17.3 13.4 10.9 7.6 4.2 4.7
Liberal Party / Party of the Republic - 2.8 4.3 3.5 2.5 4.3 4.4 7.6 5.8 5.3
Brazilian Socialist Party - 0.9 1.9 2.2 3.4 5.3 6.2 7.1 6.5 5.5
Progressistas - - - 6.9 11.3 7.8 7.1 6.6 6.4 5.6
Democratic Labour Party 5.8 6.5 10.0 7.2 5.7 5.1 5.2 5.0 3.6 4.6
Brazilian Labour Party 4.5 4.5 5.6 5.2 5.7 4.6 4.7 4.2 4.0 2.1
Green Party - - - 0.1 0.4 1.3 3.6 3.8 2.1 1.6
Social Christian Party - - 0.8 0.5 0.7 0.6 1.9 3.2 2.5 1.8
Communist Party of Brazil - 0.8 0.9 1.2 1.3 2.2 2.1 2.8 2.0 1.4
Popular Socialist Party - 0.9 1.0 0.6 1.3 3.1 3.9 2.6 2.0 1.6
Brazilian Republican Party - - - - - - 0.3 1.7 4.5 5.1
Socialism and Liberty Party - - - - - - 1.2 1.2 1.8 2.8
Party of National Mobilization - - 0.6 0.6 0.5 0.3 0.9 1.1 0.5 0.6
Democratic Social / Reform Progressive Party 43.2 7.8 8.9 9.4 - - - - - -
National Reconstruction Party / Christian Labour Party - - 8.3 0.4 0.1 0.1 0.9 0.6 0.7 0.6
Christian Democratic Party / Christian Social Democratic Party / Christian Democracy - 1.2 3.0 - 0.1 0.2 0.4 0.2 0.5 0.4
Party of the Reconstruction of the National Order - - - 0.7 0.9 2.1 1.0 - - -
Social Democratic Party - - - - - - - - 6.2 5.8
Republican Party of the Social Order - - - - - - - - 2.0 2.1
Solidariedade - - - - - - - - 2.7 2.0
National Labor Party / Podemos - - - - 0.1 0.1 0.2 0.2 0.4 2.3
National Ecologic Party / Patriota - - - - - - - - 0.7 1.5
Labour Party of Brazil / Avante - - 0.2 - 0.3 0.2 0.3 0.7 0.8 1.9
Humanist Party of Solidarity - - - - - 0.3 0.5 0.8 0.9 1.5
Progressive Republican Party - - 0.2 0.5 0.4 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.7 0.9
Social Liberal Party - - - - 0.3 0.5 0.2 0.5 0.8 11.7
Brazilian Labour Renewal Party - - - 0.1 0.1 0.3 0.2 0.3 0.5 0.7
New Party - - - - - - - - - 2.8
Sustainability Network - - - - - - - - - 0.8
Others 0.0 2.8 3.7 0.7 1.7 1.5 0.4 0.0 0.7 0.7

Source: [1] Source: [2]

Referendums[edit]

Brazil has held three national referendums in its history. In the first, held on January 6, 1963, the people voted for the re-establishment of the presidential system of government (82% of valid ballots), which had been modified by a constitutional amendment in 1961. A second referendum, as ordered by the Federal Constitution of 1988, was held on April 21, 1993, when the voters voted for a republican form of government and reaffirmed the presidential system.

A third national referendum, on the prohibition of the commerce of personal firearms and ammunition, was held on October 23, 2005. The ban proposal was rejected by 64% of the electorate.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Brazil: Lula renounces candidacy ahead of presidential poll
  2. ^ "Grumpy about voting reform". The Economist. 2011-02-22. Retrieved 2011-05-04.
  3. ^ "The Federal Senate". Portal da Câmara dos Deputados. Retrieved 2011-05-04.
  4. ^ Andrianantoandro, Andy (2010-10-14). "Brazil's Presidential Hopefuls Face Runoff, National Congress Needs Reform". FairVote.org. Retrieved 2011-05-04.
  5. ^ "Como funciona o sistema proporcional?". Tribunal Superior Eleitoral (Superior Electoral Court). Retrieved 2017-09-01.
  6. ^ Romao, Mauricio (2010-05-05). "Parlamentares "Eleitos Por Média"". Retrieved 2017-09-01.
  7. ^ ""Voting is compulsory for Brazilians aged 18 to 70"". Tribunal Superior Eleitoral (Superior Electoral Court). Retrieved 2019-04-08.
  8. ^ Power, Timothy J. (2009). "Compulsory for Whom? Mandatory Voting and Electoral Participation in Brazil, 1986-2006". Journal of Politics in Latin America. 1 (1): 97–122. doi:10.1177/1866802x0900100105.

External links[edit]