Elections in Jammu and Kashmir

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to navigation Jump to search
There are six Parliamentary Constituencies (Lok Sabha Constituencies) in Jammu and Kashmir - 1.Baramulla 2. Srinagar 3. Anantnag 4. Ladakh 5. Udhampur 6. Jammu
There are 87 assembly constituencies in Jammu and Kashmir

Elections in Jammu and Kashmir are conducted to elect members of the Jammu and Kashmir Legislative Assembly and the Lok Sabha (House of People). There are 87 assembly constituencies and 6 Lok sabha constituencies (parliamentary constituencies).[1][2][3] Elections in the state also include Panchayat elections which are held for sarpanch and panch constituencies as part of the Panchayati Raj system.[4][5] Municipal elections have been held in the state only four times since 1947, with the October 2018 elections being the fifth time they will be held.[6][7]

Jammu and Kashmir National Conference (JKNC), Jammu & Kashmir People's Democratic Party (PDP) and Indian National Congress (INC) have been the dominant political parties in Jammu and Kashmir, but in recent years the vote share of Bharatiya Janata Party has increased considerably, from 12.45% in 2008 to 23% in 2014.[8]

Comparison between voter turnout trends (in percentages) for the elections to the Lok Sabha (House of People) of India between 1967 and 2014 for Jammu and Kashmir and India. Jammu and Kashmir has had the lowest voter turnout for any state in India in 6 of the 12 Lok Sabha elections it has been a part of.[9][10][11]

Main Political Parties[edit]

This list includes state parties as well as national parties. It also include political parties which no longer exist

Lok Sabha elections[edit]

Jammu and Kashmir has taken part in 12 general elections to the Lok Sabha of India.[14] The first time that Jammu & Kashmir sent elected members to the Lok Sabha was in 1967. Elections were not held in 1990 in Jammu and Kashmir due to insurgency in the region.[citation needed][15]

The table below shows how the Indian National Congress (INC) and Jammu and Kashmir National Conference (JKNC) have won the most Lok Seats in the state since 1967. INC has won 27 seats so far and JKNC has won 24 seats. The only other parties to win seats in general elections to the Lok Sabha from Jammu and Kashmir is Jammu & Kashmir People's Democratic Party, Bharatiya Janata Party, Janata Dal and independent candidates.

Keys:   BJP (10)   JKPDP (4)   JKNC (24)   INC (27)   Independent (6)   JD (1)

Election Year Winners Remarks
Total Baramulla Srinagar Anantnag Ladakh Udhampur Jammu
1967 INC: 5/6[16] INC JKNC INC INC INC INC
1971 INC: 5, Independent: 1 INC IND INC INC INC INC
1977 JKNC: 3, INC: 1, IND: 1 JKNC JKNC INC INC INC IND
1980 JKNC: 3, Congress(I): 1, Congress(U): 1 JKNC JKNC JKNC IND INC(U) INC(I)
1984 JKNC: 3, INC: 3[17] JKNC JKNC JKNC INC INC INC
1989 JKNC: 3, INC: 2, IND: 1[18] JKNC JKNC JKNC IND INC INC
1991 No Elections
1996 INC: 4, BJP: 1, JD: 1[19] INC INC JD INC BJP INC
1998 JKNC: 3, BJP: 2, INC: 1[20] JKNC JKNC INC JKNC BJP BJP
1999 JKNC: 4, BJP: 2[21] JKNC JKNC JKNC JKNC BJP BJP
2004 JKNC: 2, JKPDP: 1, INC: 1, IND: 1[22] JKNC JKNC PDP IND BJP BJP
2009 JKNC: 3, INC: 2, IND: 1[23] JKNC JKNC JKNC IND INC INC
2014 BJP: 3, PDP: 3 PDP PDP PDP BJP BJP BJP

Legislative assembly elections[edit]

After the Constitution of Jammu and Kashmir was amended, the name Prime Minister of Jammu and Kashmir changed into Chief Minister of Jammu and Kashmir.[24][25]

Year Election Chief Minister (Winning Party/Coalition) Seats Won Remarks
1951 Constituent Assembly Sheikh Abdullah (JKNC) 1951-1953 (dismissed)
Bakshi Ghulam Mohammad (JKNC) 1953-1957
Total: 75; JKNC: 75 Praja Parishad boycotted;
all seats unopposed[26]
1957 First Assembly Bakshi Ghulam Mohammad (JKNC) 1957-1962 Total: 75; JKNC: 69
PP: 5, HM: 1
47 seats unopposed[27]
1962 Second Assembly Bakshi Ghulam Mohammad (JKNC) 1962-1963
Khwaja Shamsuddin (JKNC) 1963-1964
Ghulam Mohammed Sadiq (JKNC) 1964-1972
Total: 74; JKNC: 68
PP: 3, independents: 3
33 seats unopposed;
allegations of malpractices[28]
1967 Third Assembly Ghulam Mohammed Sadiq (INC) Total: 75; INC: 60
39 seats unopposed;
118 candidates rejected[29]
1972 Fourth Assembly Syed Mir Qasim (INC) 1972-1975
Sheikh Abdullah 1975-1977
Total: 75; INC: 58
Jamaat: 5; BJS: 3
Plebiscite Front banned;
election malpractices[30]
1977 Fifth Assembly Sheikh Abdullah (JKNC) 1977-1982 (death)
Farooq Abdullah (JKNC) 1982-1983
Total: 76; JKNC: 47
INC: 11, Janata: 13
free and fair elections[31]
1983 Sixth Assembly Farooq Abdullah (JKNC) 1983-1984 (dismissed)
Ghulam Mohammad Shah (ANC) 1984-1986
Farooq Abdullah (JKNC) 1986-1987
Total: 76; JKNC: 46
INC: 26
INC engineered split in JKNC;
suppression of protests[32]
1987 Seventh Assembly Farooq Abdullah (JKNC) 1987-1990 (dismissed)
President's rule 1990-1996
Total: 76; JKNC: 40, INC: 26
MUF:4; BJP: 2
blatant rigging[13][33]
1996 Eighth Assembly Farooq Abdullah (JKNC) Total: 87; JKNC: 57
INC: 7; BJP: 8; JD: 5; BSP: 4
2002 Ninth Assembly Mufti Mohammad Sayeed (PDP) 2002-2005
Ghulam Nabi Azad (INC) 2005-2008
Total: 87; PDP: 16, INC: 20,
JKNC: 28, Panthers: 4
Independents: 13
2008 Tenth Assembly Omar Abdullah (JKNC) Total: 87; JKNC: 28, INC: 17
PDP: 21, BJP: 11
2014 Eleventh Assembly Mufti Mohammad Sayeed (PDP) 2014-2016 (death)
Mehbooba Mufti (PDP) 2016 - June 2018
Total: 87; PDP: 28; BJP: 25
JKNC: 15; INC: 12

Panchayat elections in Jammu and Kashmir[edit]

Jammu and Kashmir Panchayat elections are held in accordance with the provisions of the Jammu and Kashmir Panchayati Raj Act 1989.[34]

Year Dates No. of Panchs Blocks Remarks
2018 17 November 2018 to 11 December 2018 (9 phases) 35096 316 [35][36]
2011 13 April 2011 to 30 June 2011 (16 phases) 29719 143 [37]
2001 December 2000 to March 2001 (3 phases) 10458 [38]

The 2011 the Panchayat elections consisted of 143 blocks, 4130 Sarpanchs and 29719 Panchs. The total electors were 5,068,975 electors out of which over 80%[39] voted in 33,000 polling stations.[37] Before 2011, panchayat elections were held in 2001 after a gap of 23 years.[37]

In the build-up to the 2018 Panchayat elections, National Conference (NC) and People's Democratic Party (PDP) announced they would boycott the local elections.[40][41] Around 12 panchayat houses were set on fire before the elections.[42]

Municipal elections in Jammu and Kashmir[edit]

The 2018 municipal elections will be held in the state of Jammu and Kashmir in four phases on 8, 10, 13 and 16 October in which there are 16,97,291 electors. BJP for the first time in the electoral history of the state, won 60 seats unopposed, winning at least seven municipal committees in Kashmir valley. But out of 624 wards in the valley a total of 215 will go uncontested and 177 will not have any candidates contesting.[43][44][45]

Before 2018, the last Municipal elections in Jammu and Kashmir were held in 2005.[6][7]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Chief Electoral Officer, Jammu and Kashmir". ceojammukashmir.nic.in. Retrieved 2018-07-07.
  2. ^ Chief Electoral Officer, Jammu and Kashmir. "Parliamentary Constituencies". ceojammukashmir.nic.in. Retrieved 2018-07-07.
  3. ^ Jammu and Kashmir Assembly Constituency map, http://ceojammukashmir.nic.in/JKMaps/JK_AC-combined.pdf, Chief Electoral Officer, Jammu and Kashmir.
  4. ^ "Jammu and Kashmir ready to hold panchayat polls, waiting for government nod: CEO". The New Indian Express. Retrieved 2018-07-18.
  5. ^ "Government exploring possibilities of holding panchayat polls in J&K in Sept-Oct". The Economic Times. 2018-07-17. Retrieved 2018-07-18.
  6. ^ a b "Questions in Jammu and Kashmir local polls". The Indian Express. 2018-10-03. Retrieved 2018-10-03.
  7. ^ a b "First municipal elections since 2005; despite boycott by NC, PDP, civic poll dates out". The Indian Express. 2018-09-16. Retrieved 2018-10-03.
  8. ^ Livemint (2014-12-30). "Battleground state | Jammu and Kashmir". Livemint. Retrieved 2018-07-07.
  9. ^ Election Commission of India. "Statistical Reports of General Election to Lok Sabha". eci.nic.in. Retrieved 2018-07-07.
  10. ^ Ministry of Statistics and Programme Implementation, Election Commission of India, Election Data, Open Government Data Platform India, https://data.gov.in/catalog/election-lok-sabha-house-people. Published under Government Open Data License - India National Data Sharing and Accessibility Policy Government of India: https://data.gov.in/government-open-data-license-india
  11. ^ "Government Open Data License - India National Data Sharing and Accessibility Policy Government of India".
  12. ^ Bose 2003, p. 99.
  13. ^ a b Behera 2007, p. 47.
  14. ^ "Election Commission of India". eci.nic.in. Retrieved 2018-04-07.
  15. ^ Vaganan, Mayil (10 April 2002). "A Survey of Elections in Kashmir". Institute of Peace and Conflict Studies, New Delhi.
  16. ^ "Lok Sabha Results 1967". Election Commission of India.
  17. ^ "1984 India General (8th Lok Sabha) Elections Results". www.elections.in. Retrieved 2018-04-07.
  18. ^ "1989 India General (9th Lok Sabha) Elections Results". www.elections.in. Retrieved 2018-04-07.
  19. ^ "1996 India General (11th Lok Sabha) Elections Results". www.elections.in. Retrieved 2018-04-07.
  20. ^ "1998 India General (12th Lok Sabha) Elections Results". www.elections.in. Retrieved 2018-04-07.
  21. ^ "General Elections 1999 - National Summary". eci.nic.in. Retrieved 2018-04-07.
  22. ^ "2004 India General (14th Lok Sabha) Elections Results". www.elections.in. Retrieved 2018-04-07.
  23. ^ "2009 India General (15th Lok Sabha) Elections Results". www.elections.in. Retrieved 2018-04-07.
  24. ^ "From 1965 to 2009, Omar Abdullah is the eighth chief minister". Hindustan Times. 5 January 2009. Archived from the original on 23 December 2013. Retrieved 8 December 2013.
  25. ^ Mayilvaganan (10 April 2002). "A Survey of Elections in Kashmir". IPCS. Retrieved 8 December 2013.
  26. ^ Bose 2003, pp. 55-57.
  27. ^ Bose 2003, p. 75.
  28. ^ Bose 2003, pp. 77-78.
  29. ^ Bose 2003, p. 85.
  30. ^ Bose 2003, pp. 86-89.
  31. ^ Bose 2003, pp. 89-90.
  32. ^ Bose 2003, pp. 91-93.
  33. ^ Bose 2003, pp. 47-50, 94.
  34. ^ "Government of Jammu and Kashmir Panchayati Raj Act, 1989 And Panchayati Raj Rules, 1996 ( Amended up to April, 2011)" (PDF).
  35. ^ "Jammu and Kashmir panchayat elections to be held in nine phases from 17 November to 11 December - Firstpost". www.firstpost.com. Retrieved 2018-09-28.
  36. ^ "Jammu and Kashmir municipal elections to be held from Oct 8-16, results on Oct 20". Hindustan Times. 2018-09-15. Retrieved 2018-09-28.
  37. ^ a b c "J&K Panchayat Elections to Start from April 13". Outlook India. Retrieved 2018-09-28.
  38. ^ "The Hindu : Kashmir's quest for local democracy". www.thehindu.com. Retrieved 2018-09-28.
  39. ^ Sahai, Dhananjay. "The politics of elections in Kashmir | ORF". ORF. Retrieved 2018-09-28.
  40. ^ "Kashmir polls: Chance for BJP to fill vacuum as NC, PDP boycott but terror threats may deter mass participation - Firstpost". www.firstpost.com. Retrieved 2018-09-28.
  41. ^ "NC, PDP call for boycott of local bodies polls over Article 35-A: All you need to know". The Indian Express. 2018-09-13. Retrieved 2018-09-28.
  42. ^ "Jammu and Kashmir local body polls, Part IV: Miscreants set panchayat offices on fire to 'warn' contestants, voters - Firstpost". www.firstpost.com. Retrieved 2018-09-28.
  43. ^ "BJP wins 60 seats unopposed in volatile Kashmir; party likely to control at least 7 ULBs as NC, PDP boytcott elections - Firstpost". www.firstpost.com. Retrieved 2018-10-03.
  44. ^ "Despite boycott, Kashmir all set for municipal polls". The Economic Times. 2018-10-03. Retrieved 2018-10-03.
  45. ^ "Of 624 Wards in Kashmir, 215 go uncontested, 177 find no candidates". Jammu Kashmir Latest News | Tourism | Breaking News J&K. 2018-10-02. Retrieved 2018-10-03.

Bibliography[edit]