Elections in Malaysia

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Elections in Malaysia exist at two levels: federal level and state level. Federal level elections are those for membership in the Dewan Rakyat, the lower house of Parliament, while state level elections are for membership in the various State Legislative Assemblies. The heads of executive branch at both the federal and state levels, the Prime Minister and Menteri Besar/Chief Ministers respectively, are indirectly elected, usually filled by a member of the majority party/coalition in the respective legislatures.

While any state may dissolve its assembly independently of the Federal Parliament, the traditional practice is for most state assemblies to be dissolved at the same time as Parliament, with the exception of Sabah and Sarawak, although these two states had held elections simultaneously with the rest of the state, as it is the case for Sabah in the 2004, 2008 and 2013 elections, and Sarawak in the 1969 and 1974 elections.

Federal level[edit]

At the federal level, voters elect the 222-member House of Representatives (Malay: Dewan Rakyat, literally "Hall of the People") of the bicameral Parliament. Members are elected from single-member constituencies drawn based on population using the first past the post system. The party that has the majority of the House of Representatives will form the federal government.

The Constitution of Malaysia requires that a general election must be held at least once every five years. However, the Prime Minister can ask the Yang di-Pertuan Agong to dissolve the Parliament at any time before this five-year period has expired. A general election should be held no later than two months in West Malaysia and three months for East Malaysia (Sabah and Sarawak) after the dissolution of the Parliament.

Since independence, the winner of the parliamentary election has always been the Barisan Nasional (National Front, abbreviated BN; once known as the Alliance), a coalition of fourteen parties. The 1969 election saw the first time the Alliance failed to attain a two-thirds majority in Parliament (two-thirds majority being the majority required to pass most constitutional amendments), which happened again in the 2008 and 2013 elections, the latter also saw the BN losing the popular vote while retaining the majority of seats. In the 2018 general elections, the Pakatan Harapan coalition defeated the BN at the federal level for the first time in history.

State level[edit]

At the state level, voters elect representatives to the Dewan Undangan Negeri (State Legislative Assembly). The number of representatives varies between the different states, with as many as 82 electorates in Sarawak and as little as 15 in Perlis. Members are elected from single-member constituencies drawn based on population using the first-past-the-post system. State assembly constituencies are usually smaller (in area and population) than the parliamentary constituencies. The party that forms the majority of the state assembly will form the state government.

Usually, state elections are held simultaneously with the parliamentary election but each state can decide when to hold its election. This is because state assemblies are dissolved by their respective Ruler or governor on the advice of the chief minister of the state. For example, following the 1977 Kelantan Emergency, a snap election was called in Kelantan in March 1978, months ahead of the general election in July 1978. A more recent example is that in the 1999 general election, the state elections of the 11 states on Peninsular Malaysia were held simultaneously with the parliamentary election while the state elections of Sabah and Sarawak were held at different dates. In the 2004 and 2008 general elections, the state election of Sabah were held simultaneously with the parliamentary election as well, but Sarawak held its state election in 2006 and 2011.[1]

Before the 2008 elections, the Barisan Nasional and its predecessor the Alliance controlled most of the state assemblies in every election, while occasionally losing some states, most notably Kelantan which was controlled by the Pan-Malaysian Islamic Party (PAS) from 1959 to 1978 (the last four years as part of BN) and again since 1990. The worst result for the Alliance was in 1969, when it lost its majority in Perak, Selangor and Penang in addition to Kelantan. In the 2008 elections, in addition to Kelantan, BN lost four states (Penang, Kedah, Perak and Selangor) to the loose coalition of opposition parties (later known as the Pakatan Rakyat (People's Pact, abbreviated PR)) composed of PAS, Democratic Action Party (DAP) and People's Justice Party (PKR). Perak was returned to BN control in 2009 following a constitutional crisis. In the 2013 elections, BN recaptured the state of Kedah, leaving Kelantan, Penang and Selangor in PR control.

Following the 2018 elections, the BN only retained control of the states of Perlis, Pahang and Sarawak. PAS retains Kelantan while capturing Terengganu. The Pakatan Harapan coalition retains control of Penang and Selangor as well as capturing the states of Kedah, Perak, Negeri Sembilan, Melaka and Johor. An informal alliance between Parti Warisan Sabah and Pakatan Harapan also took control of the state of Sabah. BN still remained governing the state of Sarawak, which they won in the state elections held in 2016, until the Sarawak BN parties left the coalition in 2018, thus forming Gabungan Parti Sarawak.

Local government elections[edit]

Although there used to be elections for members of local governments such as municipal councils, today, no local government elections are held in Malaysia. Local government elections were suspended after the Indonesia-Malaysia confrontation in 1964. The suspension was never lifted and instead made permanent under the Local Government Act 1976. Under the Act, or the laws of individual states where relevant, local government members are appointed by the state government.[2]

After Minister and People's Progressive Party President M. Kayveas raised concerns about local governments in late 2005, some suggested reviving local government elections. However, in an opinion column, the New Straits Times (owned by the United Malays National Organisation or UMNO, leading party of the Barisan Nasional) quoted a professor from Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia as saying that such elections would not be brought back because "policymakers know from experience worldwide that the Opposition tends to dominate such councils as part of the electorate's desire for checks-and-balances." The professor also stated that due to required constitutional changes, it would be difficult for such amendments to pass muster in Parliament. The column also quoted a government ministry as saying that "holding elections are expensive affairs".[3]

As of 2008, the Pakatan Rakyat states' governments would like to implement the local government election in their states. However, these was not carried out due to the Federal Constitution which prohibits the implementation. It was only after Pakatan Harapan won the Malaysian general election, 2018 that the new government began the process of looking into and reintroducing local elections after 55 years, with a trial run slated for 2019 in select cities.[4]

By-elections[edit]

In addition to general elections, a by-election occurs when a particular seat in the Dewan Rakyat becomes vacant. Such a vacancy can occur when, an MP dies, and an MP is disqualified from being a member of the Dewan Rakyat; •a seat is declared vacant because the MP has been absent from every sitting of the Dewan Rakyat for a period of six month months without leave of the Dewan Rakyat, and the members of the Dewan Rakyat have decided to declare the seat vacant. The exception is if the vacancy occurs when the tenure for the current Parliament or state assembly is less than two years, where the seat is simply left vacant until the next general election.

Electoral district boundaries[edit]

It is the role of the Election Commission to draw, review and re-delineate electoral district boundaries. The last delineation was made on 21 March 2003.[5] As of 2013, there are a total of 222 parliamentary districts and 576 state assembly districts in Malaysia.[5] The EC has been accused of practising gerrymandering during delineation exercises.[6][7]

Under Article 113 of the Constitution of Malaysia, the EC may conduct a review and recommend changes to electoral boundaries at an interval of not less than 8 years from the last review and delineation.[8]

Election process[edit]

Elections are supervised by a seven-member Election Commission. Its members are appointed by the Yang di-Pertuan Agong following the advice of the Prime Minister.

Nomination process[edit]

Nomination centres are set up in various locations by the Election Commission to allow candidates to register themselves. Typically any Malaysian citizen may register as a candidate as long as he is not disqualified from doing so. He or she does so by filing the appropriate forms and placing a monetary deposit. The deposit was RM5000 to contest a parliamentary seat, or RM3000 to contest a state assembly seat. This amount was changed to RM 10,000 and RM 5,000 respectively in 2004. Additionally in 2004 it was required that each candidate provide a RM 5,000 deposit for cleaning up banners and posters after the election. This increase is seen by some as having led to the government winning a record number of seats without contest in 2004 (17 parliamentary seats were won without contest). The deposit is used to pay for infringements of election laws and is returned after polling day unless the candidate loses and fails to garner more than 1/8 of the vote.[9]

As of the 2004 elections, candidates may have a lawyer present at these proceedings. Some candidates have been disqualified from previous elections as they lacked the competence to fill in the forms correctly.

In 2004 candidates were given 1-hour to fill in and return their nomination forms as opposed to 2 hours previously. This led to disqualification of certain candidates who were unaware of the change.

Campaigning[edit]

The campaign period permitted by law runs from the date of nomination day until polling day. Campaigning amongst opposition parties is often hampered by a lack of access to government-controlled media. Prior to the 1999 general election, opposition parties were given a brief period of airtime on the public Radio Television Malaysia (RTM) radio stations to broadcast their manifestoes. However, the government announced a change of policy in 1999, insisting that as RTM was government-owned, preference would be given to government parties.[10]

Election day[edit]

On election day, registered voters may cast their ballot for their chosen candidate in a designated voting centre. These voting centres are typically schools or community centres which have been procured for that day. All activities in the school are suspended for that day. Holidays are also declared in states where election day does not fall on a weekend to allow maximum turnout.

Certain political parties will provide transport for voters to and from the voting centre. While campaigning is not allowed on election day, transportation is seen as something of a social service, especially since many people did not have a personal means of conveyance until the last decade or two, as of 2004.

No campaigning or advocacy for candidates is allowed within a voting centre. However, just outside the gate of most voting centres, there will be people plugging the various candidates.

Agents[edit]

Each candidate is allowed one agent per voting centre. Their job starts early and begins by inspecting that the metal ballot boxes have not been tampered. They also ensure that the boxes are securely locked before voting begins. After locking, the boxes are sealed by the election commission and each agent may place their own seal on the box.

The agents also ensure that the ballot papers given out to voters do not contain markings. In the past certain parties have marked the ballot papers for their own candidates. This will result in a spoilt vote which is discarded during counting. Some ballot papers have been coated with waxy surfaces to prevent voting for certain candidates. The agents ensure that these events do not occur.

The last task of the agent is to ensure that, on the close of voting, the ballot boxes are still secure and the seals are intact. This may be done at a designated counting centre instead of the voting centre. The boxes are opened once the agents are certain that there is no tampering.

Voting process[edit]

Only registered voters may vote in elections. Any Malaysian citizens above 21 years old must register in the voters' registry with the Election Commission via any offices affiliated with the Election Commission, post offices with computerised facilities or specified counters, before he or she could vote in elections.

After identity verification at a voting centre, each voter receives two paper ballots, one for the parliamentary seat of the constituency and another for the state assembly seat. In federal territories, where there is no state assembly, and states whose state election is held on a different date, each voter receives only one ballot for the parliamentary seat.

Each voter walks into individual booth to mark ballots while maintaining confidentiality. The voter marks on each ballot the candidate of his or her choice with a cross beside the candidate's name and party symbol. After completing, the voter folds the ballots and drops them into separate ballot boxes for parliamentary and state assembly seats.

Counting and announcement of election results[edit]

After the close of voting the election agents check the ballot boxes prior to opening and counting. They also monitor the counting to ensure that the total ballots are the same as the number of votes cast. This extends to checking the number of "double votes". Every ballot paper has a serial number on it and they are given out sequentially. Agents may check that the serial numbers match up. The counting of the ballots is done by hand.

After a count at the voting centre the boxes are transported to the counting centre for a second count. If all candidates agree to the count then it stands or else an immediate re-count is done at the counting centre.

Election results are announced through live broadcasts by radio and television stations. Some newspapers print special editions to cover the election results. In most constituencies, the results will be out on the night of the election day. In some rural constituencies and constituencies that need recounts, the results may not be announced until the next day.

Election offences[edit]

There are a few offences under election law. Most of these pertain to acts which induce a voter to cast his ballot for a candidate. It is also an offence to use these actions to induce voters not to cast ballots at all. These offences extend to using third parties as agents to commit them.

  • It is an offence to provide food, drinks or refreshments with a view to induce voters to either vote for a particular candidate or not vote at all.
  • It is illegal to provide monetary rewards for voting for a certain candidate.
  • It is an offence to threaten a person to vote for a candidate or not to vote. In 2004 this was extended to include "spiritual threats". This was due to the Islamic Party of Malaysia (PAS) told citizens in less developed parts of the country not voting for the PAS is forbidden and that a vote for them would be rewarded by God.
  • It is an offence to obstruct passage to and from a voting centre. Setting up a location for any candidate within 50 yards (50 m) of the voting centre is an offence. Similarly, loitering in this zone is also an offence. Only voters are allowed in this zone on voting day.
  • It is technically an offence to provide transportation to a voting centre. However, this is not normally enforced as all parties do this to some degree. It is a further offence to use a vehicle that is normally rented out (such as a taxi or hired bus) to provide such transportation. The only exception to this is that it is allowed to provide for the crossing of rivers. No passengers of any vehicle can be forced to alight within 50 yards (46 m) of a candidate's booth on voting day.
  • Each candidate is not allowed to spend more than RM 200,000 (parliamentary) or RM 100,000 (state) for campaigning under Section 19 of the Elections Offences Act, 1954.

List of General Elections in Malaya and Malaysia[edit]

Number Year Government* Opposition Total seats
Seats % seats % vote Seats % seats % vote
--   1955** 51 98.1 79.6 1 1.9 20.4 52
1   1959** 74 71.15 51.7 30 28.85 48.3 104
2   1964** 89 85.58 58.5 15 14.42 41.5 104
3 1969 95 65.97 49.3 49 34.03 50.7 144
4 1974 135 87.66 60.7 19 12.34 39.3 154
5 1978 130 84.42 57.2 24 15.58 42.8 154
6 1982 132 85.71 60.5 22 14.29 39.5 154
7 1986 148 83.62 55.8 29 16.38 41.5 177
8 1990 127 70.55 53.4 53 29.45 46.6 180
9 1995 162 84.38 65.2 30 15.62 34.8 192
10 1999 148 76.68 56.5 45 23.32 43.5 193
11 2004 198 90.41 63.9 21 9.59 36.1 219
12 2008 140 63.06 50.27 82 36.94 46.75 222
13 2013 133 59.91 46.53 89 40.09 53.47 222
14 2018 125 56.31 49.86 97 43.69 50.14 222
* "Government" means Alliance Party in 1964; Alliance and Sarawak United People's Party for 1969; Barisan Nasional 1974 to 2013; and Pakatan Harapan since 2018
** Sabah and Sarawak did not participate in respective elections.
Source: Arah Aliran Malaysia: Penilaian Pilihan Raya (PDF)

Latest election[edit]

Federal Parliament[edit]

e • d Summary of the 9 May 2018 Malaysian Dewan Rakyat election results
Party Vote Seats
Votes % Won % +/–
Pakatan Harapan[a] PH 5,615,822[11] 113 52.25 Increase 45
People's Justice Party PKR 2,096,776 47 22.52 Increase 17
Democratic Action Party (excluding East Malaysia) DAP 2,098,068 42 18.92 Increase 4
Malaysian United Indigenous Party PPBM 696,087 13 5.86 Increase 13
National Trust Party (excluding Batu Sapi) AMANAH 648,274 11 4.95 Increase 11
Barisan Nasional[b] BN 4,080,797 79 35.59 Decrease 54
United Malays National Organisation UMNO 2,548,251 54 24.32 Decrease 34
United Traditional Bumiputera Party PBB 220,479 13 5.86 Decrease 1
Sarawak People's Party PRS 59,218 3 1.35 Decrease 3
Malaysian Indian Congress MIC 167,061 2 1.35 Decrease 2
Progressive Democratic Party PDP 59,853 2 0.90 Decrease 2
Malaysian Chinese Association MCA 639,165 1 0.45 Decrease 6
Sarawak United People's Party SUPP 122,540 1 0.45 Steady
United Pasokmomogun Kadazandusun Murut Organisation UPKO 57,062 1 0.45 Decrease 2
United Sabah People's Party PBRS 57,062 1 0.45 Steady
United Sabah Party PBS 49,994 1 0.45 Decrease 3
Malaysian People's Movement Party Gerakan 128,973 0 0.00 Decrease 1
Liberal Democratic Party LDP 8,996 0 0.00 Steady
People's Progressive Party myPPP 7,422 0 0.00 Steady
Gagasan Sejahtera[c] GS 2,050,686 18 8.11 Decrease 3
Malaysian Islamic Party PAS 2,009,142 18 8.11 Decrease 3
Malaysian National Alliance Party IKATAN 9,025 0 0.00 Steady
Pan-Malaysian Islamic Front (excluding Cameron Highlands) Berjasa 32,438 0 0.00 Steady
Democratic Action Party[d] DAP 268,028 9 4.05 Decrease 29
Sabah Heritage Party WARISAN 280,520 8 3.61 Increase 8
United Sabah Alliance USA 66,902 1 0.45 Increase 1
Homeland Solidarity Party[e] STAR 21,361 1 0.45 Increase 1
Sabah People's Hope Party[e] PHRS 37,708 0 0.00 Steady
Love Sabah Party PCS 8,603 0 0.00 Steady
Sabah Progressive Party[e] SAPP 6,090 0 0.00 Steady
Socialist Party of Malaysia PSM 3,782 0 0.00 Decrease 1
Malaysian People's Party PRM 2,372 0 0.00 Steady
Malaysian United Party MUP 2,102 0 0.00 Steady
Sabah People's Unity Party[e] PPRS 1,743 0 0.00 Steady
State Reform Party STAR 1,299 0 0.00 Steady
Sabah Native Co-operation Party Anak Negeri 1,173 0 0.00 Steady
People’s Alliance For Justice of Peace PEACE 1,005 0 0.00 Steady
National Trust Party[f] AMANAH 980 0 0.00 Steady
Penang Front Party PFP 892 0 0.00 Steady
New Sarawak Native People's Party PBDSB 538 0 0.00 Steady
Love Malaysia Party PCM 502 0 0.00 Steady
Land of the Hornbill Party PBK 392 0 0.00 Steady
People's Alternative Party PAP 302 0 0.00 Steady
Pan-Malaysian Islamic Front[g] Berjasa 81 0 0.00 Steady
Independents IND 70,770 3 1.35 Increase 3
Valid votes 12,082,431[11]
Invalid/blank votes 217,083[11]
Total votes (voter turnout: 82.32%) 12,299,514 100.00 222 100.00 TBA
Did not vote 2,641,110
Registered voters[h] 14,940,624
Ordinary voters[h] 14,636,716
Early voters[h] 300,255
Postal voters[h] 3,653
Voting age population[i] (aged 21 years and above) 18,359,670
Malaysian population[j] 32,258,900

Source: Election Commission of Malaysia (SPR)[12]

  1. ^ Contested using People's Justice Party election symbol on the ballot papers.
  2. ^ Contested using dacing election symbol on the ballot papers.
  3. ^ Contested using green moon election symbol on the ballot papers.
  4. ^ Contested using rocket election symbol on the ballot papers in East Malaysia.
  5. ^ a b c d Parties in the informal coalition, United Sabah Alliance. Contested using different election symbol on the ballot papers.
  6. ^ Contested using white mountain election symbol on the ballot papers in Batu Sapi.
  7. ^ Contested using green star election symbol on the ballot papers in Cameron Highlands.
  8. ^ a b c d Abdullah, Mohd. Hashim (10 April 2018). Urusan Pilihan Raya Umum ke-14 (in Malay). SPR Media Statement. Retrieved on 8 May 2018.
  9. ^ The estimates are correct as at February 2018. See Zulkipli, Nur Lela (12 February 2018). 3.6 juta orang muda belum daftar pengundi (in Malay). Berita Harian. Retrieved on 9 May 2018.
  10. ^ Malaysia (6 February 2018). Perangkaan Demografi Suku Tahun Keempat (ST4) 2017, Malaysia (in Malay). Department of Statistics Malaysia Media Statement. Retrieved on 9 May 2018.


State legislative assemblies[edit]

Future elections[edit]

Dissolution of parliament[edit]

The 15th Malaysian general election (GE15) will elect members of the 15th Parliament of Malaysia on or before 16 September 2023. The 14th Parliament of Malaysia will automatically dissolve on 16 July 2023. The first meeting of the first session of the 14th Parliament of Malaysia was held on 16 July 2018.[13]

The Constitution of Malaysia requires that a general election to be held in the fifth calendar year unless it is dissolved earlier by the Yang di-Pertuan Agong due to a motion of no-confidence or at the request of the Prime Minister.

The 222 members of the Dewan Rakyat are elected from single-member constituencies using the first-past-the-post voting system. Malaysia does not practice compulsory voting and automatic voter registration. The voting age is 21 although the age of majority in the country is 18. The redelineation of electoral boundaries for the entire country are expected to be completed before the next general election. Elections are conducted by the Election Commission, which is under the jurisdiction of the Prime Minister's Department.

Dissolution of state legislative assemblies[edit]

While any state may dissolve its assembly independently of the Federal Parliament, the traditional practice is for most state assemblies to be dissolved at the same time as Parliament. In accordance with Malaysian law, the parliament as well as the legislative assemblies of each state (Dewan Undangan Negeri) would automatically dissolve on the fifth anniversary of the first sitting, and elections must be held within sixty days of the dissolution, unless dissolved prior to that date by their respective Heads of State on the advice of their Heads of Government.

Below are the dates of which the legislative assembly of each state would automatically dissolve:

State (and Assembly) Term start Refs Term end
(on or before)
Next election day
(on or before)
Sarawak Sarawak (18th) 7 June 2016 [14] 7 June 2021 7 September 2021
Selangor Selangor (14th) 26 June 2018 [15] 26 June 2023 26 August 2023
Johor Johor (14th) 28 June 2018 [16] 28 June 2023 28 August 2023
Kelantan Kelantan (14th) 28 June 2018 [17] 28 June 2023 28 August 2023
Terengganu Terengganu (14th) 1 July 2018 [18] 1 July 2023 1 September 2023
Negeri Sembilan Negeri Sembilan (14th) 2 July 2018 [19] 2 July 2023 2 September 2023
Pahang Pahang (14th) 2 July 2018 [20] 2 July 2023 2 September 2023
Perak Perak (14th) 3 July 2018 [21] 3 July 2023 3 September 2023
Kedah Kedah (14th) 4 July 2018 [22] 4 July 2023 4 September 2023
Sabah Sabah (15th) 11 June 2018 [23] 11 June 2023 11 September 2023
Malacca Malacca (14th) 19 July 2018 [24] 19 July 2023 19 September 2023
Perlis Perlis (14th) 20 July 2018 [25] 20 July 2023 20 September 2023
Penang Penang (14th) 2 August 2018 [26] 2 August 2023 2 October 2023

General, State and By-elections[edit]

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Polling In Sarawak State Election Completed. (20 May 2006). BERNAMA.
  2. ^ Rahman, Rashid A. (1994). The Conduct of Elections in Malaysia, p. 10. Kuala Lumpur: Berita Publishing. ISBN 967-969-331-7.
  3. ^ Chow, Kum Hor (10 August 2005). "'Third government' is ratepayers' bugbear". New Straits Times. 
  4. ^ https://www.nst.com.my/news/nation/2018/06/379342/local-elections-penang-pj-kl-should-be-held-2019
  5. ^ a b "The role of the Election Commission". The Star. 8 March 2013. Retrieved 22 May 2013. 
  6. ^ "Pakatan in position to prevent gerrymandering in delineation exercise". The Star. 15 May 2013. Retrieved 22 May 2013. [permanent dead link]
  7. ^ Junaidi Awang Besar; Mohd Fuad Mat Jali; Rosmadi Fauzi; Amer Saifude Ghazali (18 October 2012). "Influence of gerrymandering on voting patterns in the Constituency Legislative Assembly Area of Kajang and Bangi, Malaysia" (PDF). Geografia: International Journal of Development, Society and Environment. Retrieved 22 May 2013. 
  8. ^ "EC may have problems re-delineating new seats in PR states". The Sun. 13 May 2013. Retrieved 22 May 2013. 
  9. ^ Rahman, p. 133.
  10. ^ Ingram, Simon (16 November 1999). Malaysia's much-maligned media. BBC News.
  11. ^ a b c Koh Aun Qi (15 May 2018). "Discrepancies in media reports of GE14 popular vote". Malaysiakini. Retrieved 15 May 2018. 
  12. ^ "Dashboard PRU 14". Pilihan Raya Umum Malaysia 14 (in Malay). Election Commission of Malaysia. Retrieved 11 May 2018. 
  13. ^ "Proclamation - Summon the Parliament [P.U. (A) 139/2018]" (PDF). Attorney General's Chamber of Malaysia. 13 June 2018. 
  14. ^ "All 82 assemblypersons sworn in". BorneoPost Online. 8 June 2016. Retrieved 2018-08-09. 
  15. ^ "All but one of 56 Selangor assemblymen sworn in". theSundaily. 26 June 2018. Retrieved 2018-08-09. 
  16. ^ "56 Johor assemblyman sworn in today". theSundaily. 29 June 2018. Retrieved 2018-08-09. 
  17. ^ "Abdullah appointed as Kelantan State Assembly Speaker". theSundaily. 28 June 2018. Retrieved 2018-08-09. 
  18. ^ "32 Terengganu assemblymen sworn in". Malay Mail. 1 July 2018. Retrieved 2018-08-09. 
  19. ^ "Pengerusi Amanah negeri angkat sumpah Speaker DUN". Utusan Online. 2 July 2018. Retrieved 2018-08-09. 
  20. ^ "Forty Pahang reps sworn in". Malaysiakini. 2 July 2018. Retrieved 2018-08-09. 
  21. ^ "Ngeh appointed Perak state assembly speaker". Malaysiakini. 3 July 2018. Retrieved 2018-08-09. 
  22. ^ "Kedah gets a Speaker at last". The Star Online. 5 July 2017. Retrieved 2018-08-09. 
  23. ^ "Shafie wins vote of confidence in Sabah assembly". The Star Online. 11 June 2018. Retrieved 2018-08-09. 
  24. ^ "Omar Jaafar elected speaker of Malacca state assembly". thesundaily. 19 July 2018. Retrieved 2018-08-09. 
  25. ^ "Hamdan re-elected as Speaker of Perlis Legislative Assembly". The Star Online. 21 July 2018. Retrieved 2018-08-09. 
  26. ^ "Law Choo Kiang elected Penang speaker for second term". The Malaysian Times. 2 August 2018. Retrieved 2018-08-09. 

References[edit]

  • Chin, James. 2002. "Malaysia: The Barisan National Supremacy." In David Newman & John Fuh-sheng Hsieh (eds), How Asia Votes, pp. 210–233. New York: Chatham House, Seven Bridges Press. ISBN 1-889119-41-5.
  • Chow, Kum Hor (8 October 2005). "'Third government' is ratepayers' bugbear". New Straits Times, p. 18.
  • Crouch, Harold. 1996. Government and Society in Malaysia. Ithaca, NY; London: Cornell University Press. ISBN 0-8014-8310-7.

External links[edit]