Elections in South Korea
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politics and government of
Elections in South Korea are held on national level to select the President and the National Assembly. Local elections are held every four years to elect governors, metropolitan mayors, municipal mayors, and provincial and municipal legislatures.
The president is directly elected for a single five-year term by plurality vote. The National Assembly has 300 members elected for a four-year term, 253 in single-seat constituencies and 47 members by proportional representation. Each individual party willing to represent its policies in the National Assembly is qualified on the legislative (general) election if: i) the national party-vote reaches over 3.00% on proportional contest or ii) more than 5 members of the party are elected from each of their first-past-the-post election constituencies.
|Type||Presidential (December)||Gubernatorial (June)||None||National Assembly (April)||None||Gubernatorial (June)
|National Assembly||None||All seats||None|
|Provinces, cities and municipalities||None||All positions||None||All positions|
|None||National Assembly (July)||None||Gubernatorial (July)||Presidential (February)|
|President||February 25||None||February 25|
|National Assembly||None||July 1||None|
|Provinces, cities and municipalities||July 3||None||July 3||None|
2016 legislative election
|Parties||Local seats||±||Block seats||±||Constituency votes||%||PR block votes||%||Total seats||±|
|Minjoo Party of Korea (더불어민주당) (MPK) 1||110||4||13||8||8,881,369||37.0%||6,069,744||25.5%||123||4|
|Saenuri Party (새누리당) (SP) 2||105||25||17||10||9,200,690||38.3%||7,960,272||33.5%||122||35|
|People's Party (국민의당) (PP)||25||(new)||13||(new)||3,565,451||14.9%||6,355,572||26.7%||38||(new)|
|Justice Party (정의당) (JP) 3||2||5||4||2||395,357||1.6%||1,719,891||7.2%||6||7|
|Christian Liberal Party (기독자유당) (CLP)||0||(new)||0||(new)||1,376||0.0%||626,853||2.6%||0||(new)|
|Minjoo Party (민주당) (MP) 4||0||(new)||0||(new)||17,034||0.1%||209,872||0.9%||0||(new)|
Seat changes are compared to previous election, not the outgoing Assembly
1 Comparison based on 2012 Democratic United Party result
2 Comparison includes members elected in 2012 for the Liberty Forward Party
3 Comparison based on 2012 Unified Progressive Party result
4 Non-parliamentary grouping: not to be confused with the larger Minjoo Party of Korea, more usually referred to as the Minjoo Party
2014 local election
2012 presidential election
|Park Geun-hye||Saenuri Party||15,773,128||51.55|
|Moon Jae-in||Democratic United Party||14,692,632||48.02|
|Source: National Election Commission|
Summary of past elections
|President and Vice President elected indirectly by the National Assembly|
|1||1948||In the vice-presidential election, Yi Si-yeong (NARRKI) won over Kim Koo by 57.4% to 33.0%.|
|President and Vice President elected by popular vote|
|The election took place during the Korean War. In the vice-presidential election, independent Ham Tae-young won the election with 41.3%, defeating Liberal candidate Lee Beom-seok (25.5%) and Democratic Nationalist Chough Pyung-ok (8.1%).|
|In the vice-presidential election, Democratic Party candidate Chang Myon defeated Lee Ki-poong (Liberal) by 46.4% to 44.0%.|
|Rhee re-elected unopposed due to the death of his Democratic Party opponent Chough Pyung-ok. In the vice-presidential election, Lee Ki-poong (Liberal) won with 79.2% over Chang Myon (Democratic) with 17.5%. The results of both elections were annulled as fraudulent after the April Revolution.|
|President elected indirectly by both houses of the National Assembly; Vice Presidency abolished|
|The only presidential election of the Second Republic.|
|President elected by popular vote|
|5||1963||First election after the May 16 coup.|
|President elected by the National Council for Reunification|
|8||1972||First election after the October Yushin. Park re-elected unopposed.|
|9||1978||Park re-elected unopposed.|
|First election after Park Chung-hee's assassination. Acting President Choi elected as President unopposed.|
|First election after the coup d'état of December Twelfth. Chun elected unopposed.|
|President elected indirectly|
|The only presidential election of the Fifth Republic.|
|President elected by first-past-the-post popular vote with single-term limit|
|13||1987||First free and fair direct presidential election in South Korean history.|
Winning party: · Conservative Liberal
|#||Year||First party||Status||Seat composition||Popular vote||Parties (in order of seats)|
|14||1992||Democratic Liberal Party||Minority (149/299)|
|15||1996||New Korea Party||Minority (139/299)|
|16||2000||Grand National Party||Minority (133/273)|
|17||2004||Uri Party||Majority (152/299)|
|18||2008||Grand National Party||Majority (153/299)|
|19||2012||Saenuri Party||Majority (152/300)|
|20||2016||Minjoo Party of Korea||Minority (123/300)|
- Representation System(Elected Person), the NEC, Retrieved on April 10, 2008
- "People's Party opens the way to a real three party system". The Hankyoreh. 15 April 2016. Retrieved 15 April 2016.
- "Minority People's Party steals show: Ahn's Party holds balance of power as three party system dawns". The Korea Herald. 13 April 2016. Retrieved 15 April 2016.
- "4.13 총선" (in Korean). Naver News. 13 April 2016. Retrieved 13 April 2016.
- "개표진행상황" (in Korean). Republic of Korea National Election Commission. 14 April 2016. Retrieved 14 April 2016.
- "20대 총선 잠정투표율 58.0%…19대보다 3.8%p↑" (in Korean). Yonhap News. 13 April 2016. Retrieved 13 April 2016.
- Lee (1984), p. 378.
- Kil, Byung-Ok (2001). Security Policy Dynamics: Effects of Contextual Determinants to South Korea. Ashgate. p. 58.
South Korea's political forms had been authoritarian during the Cold War and the first free and fair presidential election was held in 1987.
- History of South Korea
- Constitution of the Republic of Korea
- Electoral calendar
- Electoral system
- List of Korea-related topics
- Nahm, A.C. (1996). Korea: A history of the Korean people (rev. ed.). Seoul: Hollym. ISBN 1-56591-070-2.
- Lee, Il-cheong (이일청) (1993). 인명국사대사전 (Inmyeong guksa daesajeon, Unabridged biographical dictionary of Korean history. Seoul: Goryeo Munhaksa.
- Lee, Ki-baik (1984). A new history of Korea (rev ed.). Seoul: Ilchokak. ISBN 89-337-0204-0.
- Overview of candidates, parties and outcomes of South Korean elections since 1952 (with minor flaws like 이시영 missing in the 1952 page and wrong year of Park's resignation in the 1960 page)
- Comment on the October 26, 2005 by-election results